Stockholm Environment InstituteJohan RockströmExecutive DirectorBridging science and policy
SEI bridges scienceand policy• Independent, international research institute• Established by the Swedish Government 1989• Headquarters in Stockholm• Supports decision making in the field ofsustainable development
SEI research themes• Reducing Climate Risk• Managing Environmental Systems• Transforming Governance• Rethinking Development
Towards a Coherent Swedish Response toInternational Agricultural Development under the mandate of the Policyfor Global Development (PGD)
agriculture mattersSIANISwedish InternationalAgricultural Network InitiativeHands-on Training in Ex-Act,A Climate Change Tool for Agriculture and ForestryDecember 7-8th, 2011
www.siani.se email@example.com. An independent, multi-stakeholder platform forgovernment, civil society, private sector, researchand education sectors2. A network aiming to connect Swedish actors tointernational policy processes related to agricultureas driver of change in economic growth andpoverty alleviation, food security, climate changeand sustainable development.agriculture mattersWhat is SIANI?
firstname.lastname@example.org mattersHow does it work?Financed by SidaHosted by Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)Guided by an Advisory Group independent of both Sidaand SEI (13 members; 3 academia, 2 private sector, 4 government and 4 NGO/Civil Society)Coordinated by a Secretariat (2.5 tjänster + interns)Responsive to member input and initiative
email@example.com mattersWhat does SIANI do?Organises and facilitates seminars and workshopsFacilitates expert groups and issue based clustersSynthesizes the understanding of specific issues in theform of policy briefs and concept notes Implements strategic initiatives at request ofgovernment institutionsFacilitates dialogues, including member to membercontact on the website database
www.siani.se firstname.lastname@example.org mattersAgriculture, Forestry and Climate Change
Global forces underlying food insecurity• Poverty amidst abundance(effective demand for food)• Increased pressure on naturalresources (planetary boundaries)• Climate Change (extreme weatherevents and global warming)• Population pressure (more & older)
Events in Sustainable Development300 BC: AristotleRecognizes a tragedy ofcommons-type problemand the need toconserve resources1700s: a reaction againstmercantilism fuels activitywithin sustainabledevelopment discourse1800s:concernssurroundingpopulationgrowth begin tomount1972: UN StockholmConference on theHuman Environment1987: Publication of theBrundtland Report by theWorld Commission onEnvironment & Development1992: UNConference onEnvironment &Development andAgenda 212000: Adoptionof MillenniumDevelopmentGoals2001: KyotoProtocolnegotiationsand signing2002: EarthSummit inJohannesburg
1. Integrate Food Security and SustainableAgriculture into Global and National Policies• Requires trend reversal (1700-2011)• Energy issues dominate global environmentalconferences and policies• REDD—where is agriculture?Emissions from forests are largely caused by agricultureSo REDD+ is largely to be achieved in the agriculture sectorWhich means that climate-smart agriculture should be included inREDD+ strategies and finance
2. Significantly raise the level of global investmentin sustainable agriculture and food systems in thenext decade
Why Invest in Agriculture?• Food Security• Poverty Alleviation• Employment Creation• Carbon Sequestration• Develop infrastructure &ease urban congestionThese are discussed in detailin the IFAD Rural Poverty Report2011Total average contribution to povertyreduction from growth of agricultural, remittanceand non-farm incomes in selected countries
Investment in the agricultural sector:government spending and donor aid decliningShare of total government spending on agricultureYear Africa Asia Latin America Total (WeightedAverage)1980 6.4% 14.8% 8% 11.3%1990 5.2% 12.2% 2% 7.9%2002 4.5% 8.6% 2.5% 6.7%Source: DFID/ World Bank 2007Donor Aid to developing countries: Share of agriculture1980 20%1990 15%2006 4%Source: IFPRI, April 200918
Aid to agriculture is still relatively lowbut may be reversingTrends in aid to agricultureCommitments 1973-2008, five-year moving averages and annual figures,constant 2007 pricesSource: OECD-DAC (2010)19
3. Sustainably intensify agricultural production whilereducing greenhouse gas emissions and other negativeenvironmental impacts of agriculture• Include smallholders in the new food markets, which requires,among other instruments, greater access to land and skills for thenew agriculture.• Improve productivity in subsistence agriculture and provide socialassistance, together with payments for environmental services tocreate incentives for conservation.• Follow a territorial approach to promote the rural nonfarm economyand enhance skills to give access to the jobs and investmentopportunities offered by growth of the rural nonfarm economy.(recommendations found in IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2011)
Will Conventional Agriculture beSustainable and be able to feed theplanet?• Water use• Fertilizer problems (peak oiland runoff/eutrophication)• Energy quotients• Competition with non-food cropsCurrently, on a global basis, 69% of all water withdrawn for human use on an annual basis issoaked up by agriculture (mostly in the form of irrigation); industry accounts for 23% anddomestic use (household, drinking water, sanitation) accounts for about 8%. These globalaverages vary a great deal between regions. In Africa, for instance, agriculture consumes88% of all water withdrawn for human use, while domestic use accounts for 7% and industryfor 5%. In Europe, most water is used in industry (54%), while agriculture and domestic usetake 33% and 13% respectively. (UN Figures, 2003)
Is Organic Agriculture a solution?• Given market and policy constraints, certified organicagriculture needs to be paid a premium to be competitive• One alternative is to change these constraints so thatprice systems reflect such considerations as carbonfootprint, ecosystem services, etc.• Traditional agriculture is often ‖poverty organic‖, but notcertified and suffers from low productivity and low levelsof investment, both in financial and managerial terms• Still, traditional agriculture produces 70% of the foodconsumed
4. Develop specific programmes and policies to assistpopulations and sectors that are most vulnerable to climatechange and food insecurity
Climate Change and Food Security• Climate induced food shortages: The next greatcause of conflict?• To the extent that climate change causesmigration, this is always a source of conflict• Climate change can undermine livelihoods andexacerbate food insecurity by increasing risk
Who’s causing the conflict?• If GHG emissions areseen to be majordrivers of climatechange, then,somewhat simplified,the industrializedworld is creatingconflicts in thedeveloping world (this isthe perspective of the AfricanUnion)
5. Reshape food access and consumption patterns toensure basic nutritional needs are met and to fosterhealthy and sustainable eating patterns worldwide• Calories areavailable• Some/most caloriesare fromcarbohydrates• People are (or arenot) being nourished• They do NOT tell uswho is accessingfood, how and why?• How expensive isfood in relation tototal income?• How much food isbeing wasted?
Already existing calorie deficits are compoundedby water stress and climate-related falls inproductivity
The effect of consumer demand and foodpreferences• Food preferences are learnedand can prove difficult tounlearn, even in the face ofinformation• Optimizing nutrition is notalways affordable• Eating is not scientificallyfueling the human body, it is anemotional activity above all• Boycotts only function withitems that can easily beforegone or substituted
Urban Agriculture?• Urban ‖agriculture‖ will never produce foodin enough volume to be economicallysignificant for most crops• Development of agricultural methods forlimited land resource is important inpoverty reduction• In spite of its complementary role to ruralagriculture, urban agriculture can play avital role in sensitivizing normal people tothe complexity of biological production andthe quality possible in fresh produce
6. Reduce loss and waste in food systems, targetinginfrastructure, farming practices, processing,distribution and household habitsPerhaps the most important area for several reasons:• No major breakthroughs in technologyrequired, more a question of management andorganization• No more production resources (land & water)required• Individual and local action is possible andsignificant
Food Waste and Consumers:50 Percent of Food is Wasted Causing Water,Food and Hunger Crisis (www.siwi.org)To meet the challenge of feeding growingpopulations and the global hungry, massivereductions in the amount of food wastedafter production are needed.The Stockholm International Water Institute(SIWI), the Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations (FAO)and the International Water ManagementInstitute (IWMI) released on Thursday,August 21, a policy brief ―Saving Water:From Field to Fork – Curbing Losses andWastage in the Food Chain,‖ that calls ongovernments to reduce by half, by 2025, theamount of food that is wasted after it isgrown and outlines attainable steps for thisbe achieved.
Room for Improvement!Food production &Consumption unit arethe two areas withmost room forimprovement!