Implementing a Sustainable “Food and Fuel”System in Jatropha Plantation ManagementThomro Biofuels ExperienceByProf. Thomso...
CONTENT OF PRESENTATION1.The Thomro approach2.Observations3.Conclusions2
THE APPROACH3
Thomro Biofuels Jatropha Field4
Sequence of events in Jatrophabased biofuels industryWeedManagement-$Pollination-$Pest /DiseaseManagement-$FertilizerSuppl...
6Major sources of costsTo reduce costs, innovative Jatropha plantationmanagement methods are required.COST CENTRE SOURCES ...
7APPROACH BY THOMRO BIOFUELS TOIMPROVE PROFITABILITY
Weed Management8GoatsFoodandIncomeSee alsohttp://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20110513/105054.shtml
Feed for Goats & Chickens in Dry Season - Examples9BioethanolSoy BeansSweetSorghumMaizeGroundNutsMealie MealBiodiesel)Live...
Fencing livestock10Agave for fenceMore than 10,000 litres/Ha
PollinationSepticfliesHoneyBeesFood and Income11
Termite/Insects ManagementChickens, guinea fowl, etc, are natural predators and will eat a large number of insects availab...
Management of Other Diseases/PestsChickens, along with otherpoultry such as guinea fowl, arenatural predators and will eat...
Fertilizer Supply1.0 tonne of dry seed of Jatropha per ha removes14.3–34.3 kg of N, 0.7–7.0 kg of P, and 14.3–31.6 kg of K...
Fertilizer SupplyDroppings frompoultry andlivestockTephrosia VogeliiJatrophaleaves15
TreatmentsTotal Biomass(t/ha)*Nutrients (kg/ha)N P K Ca MgT. vogelii 9.5 154 5.7 100 75 17T. diversifolia 11.8 191 8.1 271...
Examples of Crops Grown Using ManureFrom Chickens, Goats and Jatropha Cake17
Mushrooms in Jatropha plantationNatural Foods18
Six-year old (March 2011) Jatrophaobservation plants in Lusaka, Zambia.Corresponding yield isabout 10 Kg/plant(Seeds in th...
20
21SOURCE OF INCOME FROM AHECTARE OF JATROPHAPRIME FUNCTIONCAPITALAMOUNTTOTAL YIELD /YEARHARVESTED /YEARCOST(US$/UNIT)REVEN...
The Thomro plantation managementis therefore a win-win approachWeedManagement+$Pollination+$Pest /DiseaseManagement+$Ferti...
OBSERVATIONS23
24We can see that in trying to address Jatrophamanagement issues to make its products competitive,we consequently end up w...
CONCLUSIONS25
 The above win-win example shows that biofuels andagricultural industries can be developed to be supportive ofeach other....
The Biofuels Journey has Begun!!27Thank you for your attentionPlay your part to promote it to reduce povertyand increase f...
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Implementing a Sustainable “ Food and Fuel ” System in Jatropha Plantation Management

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Presented as part of the seminar: South at the Steering Wheel - Improving sustainability in land investment for bioenergy in sub-Saharan Africa

29th May 2012, 08:00 - 17:30

Naturvårdsverket (Swedish EPA), Stockholm, Sweden

Speaker: Professor Thomson Sinkala, Thomro farms (Zambia) and Univ. of Zambia

In his development of Jatropha based bioenergy, Professor Thomson Sinkala mentions the following issues as best solved in a system, where the different parts contribute to a commercial and sustainable whole in an integrated fashion rather than posing as individual risks for the investor:

Pest and Weed management
Pollination Improvement
Plant Fertilizer
Field fencing
Livestock and poultry feed (for the dry season)

In a similar way to Per Strömberg, at the same seminar, Thomson Sinkala argues that managing each challenge in a creative and adaptive way could mean profit both environmentally as well as commercially.

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Implementing a Sustainable “ Food and Fuel ” System in Jatropha Plantation Management

  1. 1. Implementing a Sustainable “Food and Fuel”System in Jatropha Plantation ManagementThomro Biofuels ExperienceByProf. Thomson SinkalaManaging Director, Thomro Biofuelstsinkala@thomrobiofuels.com, www.thomrobiofuels.comPresented at the South at the Steering Wheel workshop onIMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY IN LAND INVESTMENTFOR BIOENERGY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAHeld at Naturvårdsverket (Swedish EPA), Stockholm, Sweden29 May 20121
  2. 2. CONTENT OF PRESENTATION1.The Thomro approach2.Observations3.Conclusions2
  3. 3. THE APPROACH3
  4. 4. Thomro Biofuels Jatropha Field4
  5. 5. Sequence of events in Jatrophabased biofuels industryWeedManagement-$Pollination-$Pest /DiseaseManagement-$FertilizerSupply-$Harvest&Process-$Product+$At present, production of Jatropha oil is expensive, thusmaking biodiesel more costly compared to fossil diesel. 5
  6. 6. 6Major sources of costsTo reduce costs, innovative Jatropha plantationmanagement methods are required.COST CENTRE SOURCES OF COSTSWeeding Chemicals, poor yields, loss of crop, labourPollination Poor yieldsPests/disease management Chemicals, loss of crop, poor yields, labourFertilization Fertilisers, poor yields, labourHarvesting Labour, loss of seeds
  7. 7. 7APPROACH BY THOMRO BIOFUELS TOIMPROVE PROFITABILITY
  8. 8. Weed Management8GoatsFoodandIncomeSee alsohttp://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20110513/105054.shtml
  9. 9. Feed for Goats & Chickens in Dry Season - Examples9BioethanolSoy BeansSweetSorghumMaizeGroundNutsMealie MealBiodiesel)Livestock/Poultry FeedBioethanolSoy BeansSweetSorghumMaizeGroundNutsMealie MealBiodieselCooking OilLivestock/Poultry FeedEtc
  10. 10. Fencing livestock10Agave for fenceMore than 10,000 litres/Ha
  11. 11. PollinationSepticfliesHoneyBeesFood and Income11
  12. 12. Termite/Insects ManagementChickens, guinea fowl, etc, are natural predators and will eat a large number of insects available.http://www.smallstock.info/info/health/tick-poultry.htmSaves costsandEnvironmentFoodandIncomeUse PoultryUse Tephrosia Vogelii 12TermitesGolden flea beetles
  13. 13. Management of Other Diseases/PestsChickens, along with otherpoultry such as guinea fowl, arenatural predators and will eat alarge number of insects.http://www.smallstock.info/info/health/tick-poultry.htmSaves costsandEnvironmentFoodandIncomePoultryTephrosia VogeliiTephrosia can be used with gardenvegetables, fruits and field crops, tocontrol termites, ants, beetles, aphids,red spider mites, cutworms, variousbugs and weevils, stalk borers, flies,etc.13
  14. 14. Fertilizer Supply1.0 tonne of dry seed of Jatropha per ha removes14.3–34.3 kg of N, 0.7–7.0 kg of P, and 14.3–31.6 kg of Khttp://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1219e/i1219e.pdfN% P% K% Ca% Mg% SOURCE4.4 – 6.5 2.1 – 3.0 0.9 – 1.7 0.6 – 0.7 1.3 – 1.4 Achten et al. (2008)3.0 – 4.5 0.65 – 1.2 0.8 – 1.4 Patolia et al. (2007)4.91 0.9 1.75 0.31 0.68 Wani et al. (2006)MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF JATROPHA SEED CAKE14
  15. 15. Fertilizer SupplyDroppings frompoultry andlivestockTephrosia VogeliiJatrophaleaves15
  16. 16. TreatmentsTotal Biomass(t/ha)*Nutrients (kg/ha)N P K Ca MgT. vogelii 9.5 154 5.7 100 75 17T. diversifolia 11.8 191 8.1 271 70 32Natural fallow 3.8 54 2.6 52 10 7Maize stover + cobs 3.1 34 2.1 37 8 8MANURE Chicken Dairy cow Horse Steer SheepN-P-K 1.1, 0.80, 0.50 0.25, 0.15, 0.25 0.70, 0.30, 0.60 0.70, 0.30, 0.40 0.70, 0.30, 0.90Approximate levels of common livestock/poultry manureswww.plantea.com/manure.htmNutrient accumulation during the six-month fallow period*Total biomass = above ground, litter and root biomass.Nutrient composition of Jatropha curcas leavesNutrient SourceNutrients (kg/ha)N P K Ca MgLeaves6.40 0.34 2.45 1.40 0.534.70 0.15 3.77 0.61 0.49www.pri.wur.nl/NR/rdonlyres/...47D5.../JatrophaWorld2008Claims.pdf16
  17. 17. Examples of Crops Grown Using ManureFrom Chickens, Goats and Jatropha Cake17
  18. 18. Mushrooms in Jatropha plantationNatural Foods18
  19. 19. Six-year old (March 2011) Jatrophaobservation plants in Lusaka, Zambia.Corresponding yield isabout 10 Kg/plant(Seeds in the above photo are PER PLANT).Seed Yield19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21SOURCE OF INCOME FROM AHECTARE OF JATROPHAPRIME FUNCTIONCAPITALAMOUNTTOTAL YIELD /YEARHARVESTED /YEARCOST(US$/UNIT)REVENUE /YEAR (US$)PLANTATION MANAGEMENTGOATS (live or meat) Weeding 20 goats 40 goats total 20 40 800Goat milkGoat hidesGoat manureCHICKENS (Live/dressed) Pests/Fertilisation 40 chickens 1600 chicklings 1200 chickens 5 6000EggsChicken manureBEES (Honey) PollinationBeeswax/candles/etc.SWEET SORGHUM (fodder)Livestock/Poultry feed indry season (DS)BioethanolElectricitySOY BEANS (Soy cake) Livestock/Poultry feed - DSEdible oil/biodieselMAIZE(Maize bran) Livestock/Poultry feed - DSMealie mealJATROPHA PRODUCTSBiodiesel Target product 2000BiogasSoapOrganic fertilizerTOTAL = 8800
  22. 22. The Thomro plantation managementis therefore a win-win approachWeedManagement+$Pollination+$Pest /DiseaseManagement+$FertilizerSupply+$Harvest&Process-$Product+$This makes Jatropha products significantly competitive22
  23. 23. OBSERVATIONS23
  24. 24. 24We can see that in trying to address Jatrophamanagement issues to make its products competitive,we consequently end up with outputs such as:• Bioethanol / biodiesel;• Food (Mealie meal, meat, milk, cooking oil, honey, etc);• More money earned from Jatropha management productsthan from Jatropha products themselves;• Money made way before starting to reap from Jatropha.Other than adding Jatropha to the familiar food crops, andprocessing of biofuels, the trade of keeping goats, chickensand bees is well known.
  25. 25. CONCLUSIONS25
  26. 26.  The above win-win example shows that biofuels andagricultural industries can be developed to be supportive ofeach other. For biofuels to expand, Governments need to put in placeconducive policies and strategies that promote local uptakes/ participation in biofuels industry. Drought resistant feedstocks/varieties should bepromoted/developed to minimize water demand and widenthe scope of participation in the biofuels industry. The global biofuels market is enormous, and projecteddemand will not be met for a long time to come.26
  27. 27. The Biofuels Journey has Begun!!27Thank you for your attentionPlay your part to promote it to reduce povertyand increase food security in Africa

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