Bringing Climate Smart Agriculture to Scale: Some successes and their success factors


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Presentation by Robert Zougmore, CCAFS Regional Program Leader, West Africa, at the at the CCAFS Workshop on Institutions and Policies to Scale out Climate Smart Agriculture held between 2-5 December 2013, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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Bringing Climate Smart Agriculture to Scale: Some successes and their success factors

  1. 1. Institutions and policies for scaling-out climate smart agriculture, Hotel Hilton, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2-3 December 2013 Bringing climate-smart agriculture to scale: Examples and factors of success Robert Zougmoré, RPL-CCAFS West Africa Sonja Vermeulen, Head of Research, CCAFS 2013 1
  2. 2. Food security GHG CO2-eq tonne per capita 25 20 15 10 5 0 US Adaptation Malawi Environmental footprint What is “climate-smart agriculture”? 2
  3. 3. Guidance on CSA principles and practices FAO (2010). CSA is ‘agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes GHGs (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals.’ 3
  4. 4. Farm and community: climate-smart practices, institutions National and regional: enabling policies, extension, support, research, finance Climate-smart agriculture happens at multiple levels Global: climate models, international agreements, finance 4
  5. 5. Examples of Successful CSA 2013 5
  6. 6. Bringing back the Sahel’s ‘underground forest’ o 1980’s loss of trees led to severe soil infertility, crop failure, famine. o Land restored through farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR). o FMNR encourages farmers to regrow indigenous trees.
  7. 7. Success at scale o 5 million ha of land restored, over 200 million trees re-established. o FMNR spreading across southern Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal.
  8. 8. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  additional half a million tonnes of grain per year.  improved food security of 2.5 million people.  yields of millet from 150 kg/ha to 500 kg/ha. o Adaptation :  improved structure and fertility of the soil.  water more accessible. o Mitigation:  sequestration of carbon in soil, tree roots and wood .
  9. 9. Herbicide-tolerant crops contribute to climate change resilience and mitigation o Herbicide-tolerant (HT) and pest-resistant crops reduce need for ploughing, fuel consumption, and pesticides. o Improves soil quality.
  10. 10. Success at scale o Reduced fuel consumption. o Reduced use of pesticides. o Higher yields, lower costs, greater returns for farmers. o HT canola – grown under reduced tillage in Canada. Reducing fuel use by 31,000 tonnes per year, and sequestering 1 million tonnes of carbon in soil.
  11. 11. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  higher yields. o Adaptation:  increasing resilience of farming systems.  reducing vulnerability to wind and water erosion. o Mitigation:  reduced fuel and pesticide usage.  build up of organic matter in soil leading to carbon being sequestered.
  12. 12. Weather-based insurance helps farmers evade the poverty trap o Smallholder farmers trapped in poverty – no resources to invest in inputs to generate surplus. o 2003 Weather-Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) – uses a weather index, pay-outs triggered automatically.
  13. 13. Success at scale o 12 million farmers insured. o More small-scale farmers taking out insurance. o Reduces the risks farmers take in investing in inputs.
  14. 14. Benefits for food production, adaptation, mitigation o Food production: – allows farmers to access fertilizer and better seed. – raising productivity of cropland. o Adaptation: – allows farmers to take risks with new farming methods. o Mitigation: – reduces pressure to bring more land under cultivation.
  15. 15. Paying for ecosystem services is good for the environment and people o By 2009, 38% of China’s total land area considered badly eroded. o 2 billion tonnes of silt entering the Yangtze and Yellow rivers each year. o ‘Grain for Green’ programme designed to reduce erosion in river catchments and alleviate poverty. o Farmers paid to set aside land and plant trees.
  16. 16. Success at scale o 2.5 million households participated. o Converted 2 million ha of cropped hillside to forest or grassland. o Sequestered over 700,000 tonnes of carbon. o Soil erosion reduced by 26%.
  17. 17. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  farmers able to increase yields on remaining fields. o Adaptation:  adapting cropped hillside to forest – reducing erosion. o Mitigation:  carbon production and soil erosion decreased.
  18. 18. Water harvesting boosts yields in the Sahel o Sahel – Droughts common and farming difficult with sparse rainfall. o Changes in land management – stone bunds and zai pits.
  19. 19. Success at scale o Contour bunds established on 200,000 to 300,000 ha. o Yields double those on unimproved land. o Tree cover and diversity increased. o Groundwater levels rising.
  20. 20. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  predicted that the improved land will produce enough to feed 500,000 to 750,000 people.  increased diversity of food, health benefits. o Adaptation:  contour bunds able to cope with changing weather. o Mitigation:  land management prevents further worsening of soil quality.
  21. 21. Safety net programmes boost food security and climate change resilience o Increasing frequency of drought depleting asset base of smallholder farmers. o 2005 Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP). o Household Asset Building Program (HABP).
  22. 22. Success at scale o Both programmes reduce the ‘hunger gap’. o Child nutrition and food security increased. o Increase in livestock holdings. o Those enrolled in both programmes produced 147 kg more grain.
  23. 23. Benefits for food production, adaptation, mitigation o Food production:  improved the immediate food security of households. o Adaptation:  strengthened resilience to droughts and floods.  increased ability to adapt to longer-term climate change. o Mitigation:  adopted agricultural practices likely to increase carbon sequestration.
  24. 24. Reducing Danish agriculture’s contribution to climate change o Denmark agricultural sector contributes 17% of emissions. o 2009 Agreement on Green Growth. o Measures to promote organic farming, reestablish wetlands, reduce pesticides. o Efficiency in resource and energy use.
  25. 25. Success at scale o 1990 – 2009 emissions declined by 28%. o 31% reduction in nitrous oxide emissions – improved use of manure, 40% reduction in use of inorganic fertilizer. o Emissions could be cut by a further 50-70%.
  26. 26. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  emissions cut without reducing food production. o Adaptation:  adapting agricultural practices to become more energy efficient. o Mitigation:  target to use half of all manure produced to create biogas by 2020.  will reduce methane production from manure and reduce dependence on fossil fuel.
  27. 27. Persuading Brazil’s farmers to adopt low-carbon agriculture o Agriculture second largest source of greenhouse gases. o 2010 Low-Carbon Agriculture (ABC) Plan – aims to promote sustainable agriculture while increasing efficiency. o Provides low-interest loans for sustainable agricultural practices.
  28. 28. Success at scale o Ambitious goals. o 2011 – 2000 projects approved, total value US$ 251 million. o Uptake constrained by a number of factors.
  29. 29. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  restoration of pastures could increase beef yields six fold. o Adaptation:  promotes sustainable agricultural systems. o Mitigation:  reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  increase carbon sequestration.  prevent further expansion into the Amazon region.
  30. 30. Kenyan farmers sell carbon credits to BioCarbon Fund o 2010 – Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project (KACP). o Helping farmers adopt sustainable agricultural land management. o World Bank’s ‘Adoption of Sustainable Land Management’ methodology. o Bottom-up approach to monitoring.
  31. 31. Success at scale o 15,000 farmers and 800 farmer groups have adopted sustainable practices, applied to 12,000 ha of degraded land. o Target – to enrol 60,000 farmers on 45,000 ha by 2016. o Would result in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by over 60,000 tonnes.
  32. 32. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  Improved land management.  Increasing crop yields. o Adaptation:  reducing vulnerability of farmers to climate change. o Mitigation:  restoring degraded land.
  33. 33. ‘Plan Maroc Vert’ gets climate change makeover o 2008 ‘Plan Maroc Vert’. o 2011 ‘Integrating Climate Change in the Implementation of the Plan Maroc Vert’ project. o Measures proposed could reduce emissions by 63.5 million tonnes over 20 years.
  34. 34. Success at scale o Increased production – citrus production 20% increase, cereal 52%, dates 45%, red meat 45%. o Could further reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  35. 35. Benefits for food production, adaptation and mitigation o Food production:  increased agricultural yields. o Adaptation:  financing climate change adaption measures. o Mitigation:  could reduce emissions through sequestration of carbon in soil.
  36. 36. LESSONS LEARNT Five key lessons for future interventions and global negotiations: 1. Trade-offs between CSA aligned initiatives and current food security and development priorities can be avoided, at least in the near-term and over limited spatial scale 2. Cost-effective and comparable indices for measuring GHG fluxes and adaptive impacts realized through CSA 3. Strong government support is crucial for large-scale success, both from a policy perspective as well as in elaborating scaling up frameworks that most effectively utilize the comparative advantages of the local partners involved 4. Upfront costs are usually substantial in such large initiatives, but can be met from multiple sources 5. An iterative learning approach in large-scale initiatives with investment in capacity strengthening of the partners involved is critical
  37. 37. CONCLUSIONS • Case studies demonstrate the potential of agriculture to adapt to a changing climate. • Cases meet the three-part goal. • Challenge to promote widespread adoption of climate-smart agricultural interventions around the world.
  38. 38. To download this publication visit 2013 38