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Some 25 Years of eTourism. 2017-2018 edition

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Some 25 Years of eTourism. An educational presentation for the IT for Tourism Services course at the University of Bergamo, Italy

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Some 25 Years of eTourism. 2017-2018 edition

  1. 1. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Some 25 Years of eTourism
  2. 2. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 What Are We Talking About Today? slide 2Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 1. What Is Digital? 2. IT & Tourism 3. More Needs 4. Experience 5. The Industry & DMOs 6. Social, Mobile & Big Data 7. Our Calendar This Year
  3. 3. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 What Is Digital? slide 3Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Digital derives from the Latin word Digitus, meaning finger. In short, digital is what can be represented with numbers, which can be counted with fingers. Digital is opposed to analogue, which is related to what is not countable: what cannot be considered within a discrete set of elements.
  4. 4. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 A real wave, and a digital wave slide 4Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 The MP3 lossy compression works by reducing (or approximating) the accuracy of certain parts of a continuous sound that are considered to be beyond the auditory resolution ability of most people. This method is referred to as perceptual coding. It uses psychoacoustic models to discard or reduce precision of components less audible to human hearing. Source: Wikipedia
  5. 5. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Mechanical vs. Digital Watches slide 5Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 A mechanical watch is analogue inasmuch as the position of each of its three hands (hours, minutes and seconds) can represent any of the infinite points forming the circle of the watch itself –- points that cannot be numbered. In a digital watch, instead, only the figures which make up hours, minutes and seconds are usually represented –- only the 86,400 moments (24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds) making up the seconds of a day.
  6. 6. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Painting, Photographs, and Pixels slide 6Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 An oil on canvas painting, or a watercolour, or a traditional photograph (a photograph based on a chemical film) consists of an infinite number of points in an infinite range of colours. A painting or a chemical photograph can be digitized (scanned, for instance) and then translated into a digital photo when its surface is represented as divided into a discrete number of “points” (usually small squares or rectangles called pixels), each of which reproduces only one colour in an available range of 16,777,216 (a combination of 256 shades of red, 256 of green and 256 of blue –- according to the widely used RGB colour model).
  7. 7. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Waves and Bits slide 7Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Many technologies rely on digital to reproduce a wave (a sound or a light wave) that was originally analogue. A modem, as those currently used for ADSL connections, converts an analogue sound signal that can be sent through telephone wires into a digital signal, of the sort requested by computers or other electronic devices working by bits (1/0). (By the way, ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
  8. 8. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Bits vs. Bytes slide 8Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 A bit (a binary digit) is the basic unit of information in computing; it is the amount of information stored by a digital device or other physical system that exists in one of two possible distinct states. These may be the two stable states of a flip-flop, two positions of an electrical switch, two distinct voltage or current levels allowed by a circuit, two distinct levels of light intensity, two directions of magnetization or polarization, etc. The byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, a byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the basic addressable element in many computer architectures. 1/0 Yes/No True/False This is called a Boolean Data Type
  9. 9. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Digital Is A Revolution slide 9Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Socially relevant consequences of being digital include  Information and Communication Technologies (ADSL, broad band, wireless...)  Information sharing (the Internet, the Web, mobile phones...)  Email and Social Networking posts (sent and received through the Internet)  Music and Videos sharing (Mp3, iTunes...) Digital has changed our lives. Nonetheless, digital is innerly poorer than analogue inasmuch as it conveys a simplified message. (This, by the way, may imply that digital communication is invariably poorer than personal communication. Let’s not forget it, when communicating through the Internet.)
  10. 10. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Communicating In Person slide 10Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 The best way to communicate is meeting someone in person.  When you call her/him through a videophone (or Skype) you miss at least the physical context around her/him.  When you call her/him on the phone, you miss the physical context, and you don’t see her/him.  When you send her/him an e-mail message, you miss the physical context, you don’t see her/him, and you don’t know when and where she/he will read.
  11. 11. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Digital Communication slide 11Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017  When you send her/him a text message, you miss the physical context, you don’t see her/him, you don’t know when and where she/he will read, and you must keep it short.  When post something on the Web, you miss the physical context, you don’t see your audience, you don’t know when and where your audience will read, you must keep it short, and you don’t know –- or know little of –- your audience. Let’s not forget all this, when communicating through the Internet!
  12. 12. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 “Being digital” as a 1995 book slide 12Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 “I am optimistic by nature. However, every technology or gift of science has a dark side. Being digital is no exception. The next decade [1995-2005] will see cases of intellectual-property abuse and invasion of our privacy. We will experience digital vandalism, software piracy, and data thievery. Worst of all, we will witness the loss of many jobs. […] It is here. It is now. It is almost genetic in its nature, in that each generation will become more digital than the preceding one. The control bits of that digital future are more than ever before in the hands of the young. Nothing could make me happier.” — Nicholas Negroponte, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  13. 13. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Digital And Market Capitalisation slide 13Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Please note that the three biggest companies in the world in August 2016 belong to the Information Technology sector. Source: The Economist
  14. 14. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 The digital revolution and the Information Technologies (IT) have had a strong impact on tourism, too. Traditional tour operators, like TUI or Boscolo, and travel retailers no longer dominate the tourist market. Some call this process disintermediation. This means that today Travel Providers -- like Air France, Deutsche Bahn, or Accor -- can sell their tourist services and products directly to final customers, and no longer need traditional agents like tour operators, travel retailers or ticket offices. slide 14 IT & Tourism
  15. 15. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 This is true, but it’s not only a matter of disintermediation... Actually, Online Travel Agents (OTAs, or OLTAs) like Booking.com, Expedia, TripAdvisor and Airbnb do not simply “disintermediate”. They now run a different sort of intermediation between Travel Producers and final customers. Big OTAs like Booking.com, Expedia, TripAdvisor and Airbnb -- though springing from diverse stories, and adopting diverse models –- have now all succeeded in taking the place of traditional tour operators and travel retailers. slide 15 Online Travel Agents
  16. 16. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Digital technologies have paved the way to very interesting and appealing new ways of selling tourist services and products directly to final customers. One of the first has been the so-called Last Minute, which offer late travel deals. slide 16 New, Appealing Technologies Another is Dynamic Packaging -- often connected with Recommendation Systems -- which allow customers to build their own travel itineraries by consulting recommendations from previous tourists and assembling services accordingly.
  17. 17. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 This innovation process is fast and still ongoing, and we really don’t know which new technologies will affect the tourism world in the future. slide 17 Digital Has Invaded Tourism Recent instances have been Uber and Airbnb, two Big-Bang Disruptors which now drive the market, but began operations only six or seven years ago. Tourism has come to be considered a leading innovation field, which an aggressive industry platform like Skift has prioritized. Some Skift slides follow.
  18. 18. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 slide 18 Skifthistory 1 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017
  19. 19. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 slide 19 Skifthistory 2 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017
  20. 20. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 slide 20 Skifthistory 3 Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017
  21. 21. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 More Needs Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 On the other hand, digital has allowed tourists to  decide more consciously where to go  know more about places to be visited  ask more needs to be fulfilled by tourist operators. Technological evolutions, in fact, have been relevant not only to tourist operators. Quite the opposite: the attitude of travelers’ behaviour has changed considerably, too. Today, tourists need a range of information before, during and after their travel experience –- and share this information! slide 21 Source: Travelers.com
  22. 22. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Before, During & After Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Today trips are  not only planned before departure, but also  constantly modified, transformed and remodeled during the experience, due to  stimuli arising from the trip itself as well as thanks to recommendations of other tourists who had similar experiences in the same destination, while  data gathered during the trip, like photos and comments posted, help remembering and rethinking afterwards. slide 22  Tourist destinations can now cooperate in a co-creation of tourist experience.
  23. 23. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Experience Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 A factor to be considered is the experiential nature of the tourism product –- as research by Pine & Gilmore have begun noting since 1999. When tourists travel, as well as when they get back from a trip, they tend to share their experience with family and friends, as partakers during the holiday. This is why communication practices such as word of mouth and recommendations have been successful in tourism communication even before the Internet arrived. Now the keyword for this is User Generated Content (UGC). slide 23
  24. 24. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 TripAdvisor Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 The first website to take off thanks to the eWord of Mouth (eWOM) -- and actually the very first platform to gather User Generated Content on a mass scale -- was TripAdvisor. Although it has been turned into an Online Travel Agent in recent years, TripAdvisor was born in February 2000 as a tourist community. As its founders said, "We started as a site where we were focused more on those official words from guidebooks or newspapers or magazines. We also had a button in the very beginning that said, ‘Visitors, add your own review’, and pretty soon the number of average consumer reviews far surpassed the number of 'professional reviews'.” slide 24
  25. 25. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Industry vs. DMOs Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 As we saw from the Skifthistory, IT and tourism have long been parallel and rapidly growing phenomena. The tourism industry began using IT to improve the transportation, intermediary and hospitality sectors shortly after WW2. Those were the years when Computer Reservations Systems (CRS) -- later Global Distribution Systems (GDS), like Sabre and Amadeus -- were born. Then the Internet era fully started (1991-2002), and both the industry and Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) began developing websites, in order to communicate smoothly with their potential customers. slide 25
  26. 26. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Customer Care & Support Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 In 1991-2002 DMOs involved local actors -- or, rather, tried to involve local actors... -- by centralizing and distributing tourist information and services from various partners in their own destinations’ territories. However, during the second decade of the Internet era (2002-today) the change has been more radical. Operators and DMOs have shifted from creating technological artifacts, like websites, to customer care and increased support to the tourists’ decision-making process. slide 26 Today, as we mentioned, DMOs can take part in the co-creation of tourist experience.
  27. 27. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Social Media Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 We can say that four recent developments related to the rise of the Internet as a communication environment have contributed and are still contributing to the shift. 1. The so-called Web 2.0 and social networking platforms -- like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Google+, as well as communities like Flickr, YouTube, or TripAdvisor itself -- have turned the attention of tourist operators and destinations (or, actually, some of them...) to a better interaction with tourists. slide 27
  28. 28. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Mobile, GPS and Broadband Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 2. More recently, mobile devices (smartphones and tablets) have emerged and consolidated on a global scale, making high computing power and constant connectivity available to a wider audience. Obviously, users take advantage of these opportunities during their travel experience, too. 3. Moreover, smartphones now “know” where their owners are located, thanks to the Global Positioning System (GPS). 4. In addition, the first years in this second decade of the Internet era have witnessed the expansion of high-speed connections, or broadband. slide 28
  29. 29. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Networks & Big Data Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 Social networking platforms, telecoms, geopositioning and wi-fi combine to gather an enormous set of data. They are what we’ve become accustomed to refer to as Big Data. Big or small that they can be..., these data are not homogeneous, and have different owners. Yet they can –- theoretically, at least -- be gathered, analyzed, and used. This is enough, for our first meeting... Now, let’s consider how and when we will deal with all this before Christmas. slide 29 Source: Google
  30. 30. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Our October Calendar 01. Today 25 Years of eTourism 02. Thursday, Oct 5 Networks and Social Networks 04. Thursday, Oct 12 Mobile, Smartphones, Telecoms, Wi-Fi, and Apps 03. Tuesday, Oct 10 Destinations, the Industry, and Peer-To-Peer 06. Thursday, Oct 19 A 7Loci Quality Evaluation Model for the web presence of DMOs 05. Tuesday, Oct 17 Quality, and the 7Loci Meta-Model 07. Thursday, Oct 24 A 7Loci Quality Evaluation Report on the web presence of a DMO Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 slide 30
  31. 31. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Gradually approaching the assessment... 08. Tuesday, Oct 31 Analytics, Insights, Cookies, and the Disappearing Privacy 09. Tuesday, Nov 14 Web Reputation: Likes, Engagement & Sentiment 11. Tuesday, Nov 28 Design: Usability, Gamification, Augmented & Virtual Reality 12. Tuesday, Dec 5 Big-Bang Disruptions and Tourism 13. Tuesday, Dec 12 Your reports’ presentation: 1st group 14. Thursday, Dec 14 Your reports’ presentation: 2nd group 15. Tuesday, Dec 19 Your reports’ presentation: 3rd group Some 25 Years of eTourism. Lecture 01, October 3, 2017 slide 31 10. Tuesday, Nov 21 Design: Content, Copyright & Creative Commons

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