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Networks & Social Networks. Web Presence

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Networks & Social Networks. Web Presence as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo. It's stimulus material, posted to improve communication with current students. It's not interesting for the academia.

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Networks & Social Networks. Web Presence

  1. 1. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Networks&SocialNetworks. WebPresence Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 imagecredittoNetLogo
  2. 2. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today 01.Tuesday,Oct2 Some 25Years ofeTourism 02.Thursday,Oct4 Networks &SocialNetworks. WebPresence 04. Thursday, Oct11 Mobile,Smartphones, Wi-Fi,andApps 03.Tuesday, Oct9 Destinations, theIndustry, andPeer-To-Peer 06.Thursday, Oct18 WebReputation: Likes,Engagement &Sentiment 05.Tuesday, Oct16 Analytics,Insights, Cookies,andthe Disappearing Privacy 07. Tuesday, Oct23 Design:Content, Copyright &CreativeCommons page2Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018
  3. 3. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are We Talking About Today? Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page3 1. Graphs & Networks 2. The Internet & The Web 3. Search Engines 4. The Web 2.0 5. Communities & UGC 6. Social Networks 7. Web Presence imagecreditstoMind42,IconFinder
  4. 4. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Your Main Printed Book Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page4 Linkedisabookfirstpublishedin2002byAlbert-LászlóBarabási,anAmerican physicistofHungarianoriginsbornin1967,andbestknownforhisresearchin thefieldofnetworks. Asfarastheselecturesandyourassessmentareconcerned, Linkedisthe mainprintedbookyouhavetoread,understand,andbeabletotellabout. ApartfromtheinitialpagesofMetadata,alltherestisdownloadable files– likethisyou’rereading now–andlinkstobevisited. ButIpromise:whenIsayyouhaveto“read,understand,study,andbeableto tellabout”thisbook,Imeanit.
  5. 5. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Your Main Printed Author Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page5 BarabásiA.-L.,Linked.HowEverythingIsConnectedtoEverythingElseand WhatItMeansforBusiness,Science,andEverydayLife,Perseus,Cambridge, Massachussetts2002(chapters1-12) Solet’sbeginwithreadingpages1 through8ofLinked–loud. But...Waitaminute! Pages1through8ofLinkedcontain 2,523words,and15,302digits... Ifwereadthem,itwilltakemore than16minutes.Toomuch! imagecredittohxdata.chisa.edu.cn
  6. 6. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “Linked”–Excerptsfrompages1through8 Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page6 Let’sreadsomeexcerptsonly.Yourlecturerhasabridgedpages1through8. (Well...thiscuttinghasleftalogicalgap,infact.Butyouwillcertainlynot noticeit,andgetthemeaning justthesame.) Throughthefollowingthreepagesofthispresentation,wecanreadloud excerptsfrompages1through8,totalling 802words,and3,126digits. Ourreadingshouldtakelessthan4minutes. (Incaseyouneedtolistentothefullmonty, orsimplyknowmoreabout Linked beforeholdingthebookinyourhands, findanMp3fileat http://kiwimilano.it/dct/links_2018-2019.asp#Networks.)
  7. 7. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Yahoo!... page7Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 FEBRUARY7,2000,SHOULDHAVEBEENabigdayforYahoo.Insteadofthefewmillion customersthatdailyflocktotheInternetsearchengine,billionstriedtoenterthesite. Suchexplodingpopularityshouldhaveturnedthecompanyintothemostvaluableasset oftheneweconomy. Therewasaproblem,however.Theyallarrivedattheexactsametimeandnotoneof themaskedforastockquoteorapecanpierecipe.Rather,theyallsent,inscripted computerlanguage,themessage“Yes,Iheardyou!” ThenextdaytheroyalsoftheWeb,Amazon.com,eBay,CNN.com, ETrade,andExcite,fell underthesamespell:Theytoowereobligedtoservebillionsofghostsmakingthesame fruitlessinquirythathadhandicappedYahoo.Trueconsumers,withshinycreditcards readyforpurchases,wereforcedtowaitonthesidelines.imagecredittohxdata.chisa.edu.cn
  8. 8. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 … Yahoo! (continued) page8Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Earlynewsreportsconstruedtheshutdownoftheleadinge-commercesitestobethe workofagroupofsophisticatedhackers. Surprisingly,thehigh-profileoperationoftheFederalBureauofInvestigationdidnotlead tothemuch-anticipatedcyberterroristorganization.Instead,theFBIarrivedatthe suburbanhomeofaCanadianteenager. HidingbehindthepseudonymMafiaBoy,thisfifteen-year-oldsuccessfully haltedthe operationsofbillion-dollarcompanieswithaccess tothebestcomputersecurityexperts intheworld.
  9. 9. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 … And Paul… page9Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 TheearlyChristianswerenothingmorethanarenegadeJewishsect.Thereisno historicalevidencethattheirspiritualleader,JesusofNazareth,everintendedtohave an impactbeyondJudaism.HisideasweredifficultandcontroversialenoughforJews,and reachingthegentilesseemedparticularlyhopeless.Despitetheodds,closeto twobillion peoplecallthemselvesChristiantoday. Howdidthathappen?HowdidtheunorthodoxbeliefsofasmallanddisdainedJewish sectcometoformthebasisoftheWesternworld’sdominantreligion? ManycreditthetriumphofChristianitytothemessageofferedbythehistoricalfigurewe knowtodayasJesusofNazareth.
  10. 10. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 ... Paul (continued). page10Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Today,marketingexpertswoulddescribehismessageas“sticky”—itresonatedandwas passeddownbygenerationswhileotherreligiousmovementsfizzledanddied.Butcredit forthesuccess ofChristianityinfactgoestoanorthodoxandpiousJewwhonevermet Jesus. WhilehisHebrewnamewasSaul,heisbetterknowntousbyhisRomanname,Paul. Paul’slifemissionwastocurbChristianity.Heusedscourging,ban,andexcommunication toupholdthetraditionsandtoforcethedeviantstoadheretoJewishlaw. Nevertheless,accordingtohistoricalaccounts,thisfiercepersecutorofChristians underwentasuddenconversionintheyear34andbecamethefiercestsupporterofthe newfaith,makingitpossibleforasmallJewishsecttobecomethedominantreligionin theWesternworldforthenext2,000years.
  11. 11. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thinking In Terms Of Networks page11Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 TherearehugedifferencesbetweenMafiaBoyandPaul:MafiaBoy’swasanactof destruction.Paul,despitehisinitialintentions,becameabridgebuilderbetweenearly Christiancommunities. Butthetwohavesomethingimportantincommon:Bothweremastersofthenetwork. PaulandMafiaBoysucceeded because weareallconnected.Ourbiologicalexistence, socialworld,economy,andreligioustraditionstellacompellingstoryof interrelatedness.AsJorgeLuisBorgesputit,“everythingtoucheseverything.” Thisbookhasasimpleaim:togetyoutothinknetworks.Itisabouthownetworks emerge,whattheylooklike,andhowtheyevolve.ItshowsyouaWeb-basedviewof nature,society,andbusiness,anewframeworkforunderstandingissuesrangingfrom democracyontheWebtothevulnerabilityoftheInternetandthespreadofviruses.
  12. 12. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Euler in Königsberg Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page12 Asfaraswenow,thefirstmanwhoeverhadaWeb-basedviewofsomething wasaSwissmathematician,LeonhardEuler(1707-1783),whowanted tosolvea mindpuzzle. ThetownofKönigsbergiscrossed byariver,the Pregel,havinganislandconnectedbyseven bridges. Königsbergerswondered: “Canonewalkacross thesevenbridgesandnevercrossthesameone twice?”
  13. 13. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Euler’s, His Graph, and His Proof Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page13 Eulersolvedtheproblembythinkingofislandsandwalksoverbridgesin mathematicalterms, What wasEuler’sproof? ToquoteBarabási,“Nodeswithanoddnumberof linksmustbeeither thestartingortheendpoint ofthejourney. Acontinuouspaththatgoes throughallbridgescanhaveonlyonestarting and oneend point.Thus,suchapathcannotexistona graphthathasmorethantwonodes withanodd numberoflinks.” andlines,makingupa graph.aspoints
  14. 14. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 From Graphs To Networks Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page14 Buttheproofassuchisnot relevant here.We’renotsupposedtostudy mathematicsorbemathematicians. Whatmattersisthatinthe18Csomeone begantohaveaweb-basedviewoftheworld. Duringthecenturies,wehavecometocallEuler’s pointsasnodes,hislinesaslinks,andhisgraphs asnetworks. Today,wecallalinkaconnectionbetweentwo webpages. Well,Euler’sKönigsbergiswhereitallbegan.
  15. 15. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Internet Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Asyouknow,webpagestravelbythemillionsalong nodesoftheInternet – whichisobviouslyanetwork. In1964,PaulBaranadvisedonthearchitectureofthe Internet,whichwassoontocome,underliningthat •acentralizedoneistoovulnerable; •adecentralizedonemightbebetter; •buttheonlyrealsolutionwouldbeofferedby adistributednetwork. Todaywebpagesalwaysarrive,somehow,because theymaytravelthroughtheInternet followinganyofmanypossiblepaths. page15
  16. 16. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Scale-Free Networks, and Hubs Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Stilltalkingaboutdifferentsortsofnetworks,Barabási hasprovedthatmostnetworksare notlikehighway networkswhichconnect majorcitiesoneanother, each cityhavingaboutthesamenumberofroadsor links. Nodesofsuch“highway”networksconnectrather regularly,onascale,according toaBellCurve. Mostnetworks,instead,behavelikeairlinesusinga fewhubairports.Somenodesare hubs,havingmany morelinksthantheother nodes. page16 Mostnetworks connect according toaPowerLaw.Mostnetworks are scale-free.
  17. 17. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Bell Curve and Power Law Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page17 Numberofnodesintheaxisofordinates, numberoflinksintheaxisof abscissae. This HappensThis Does Not Happen
  18. 18. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Web & Search Engines Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 DoestheWorld-WideWebbehavelikemostnetworks?Yes,itdoes.Afew nodes(orwebsites)havemanymorelinksthanalltheothers.Theyare hubs. Obviously,sincesearchengineslikeGoogleorBinglinktoalotofother websites,theyaremuch“stronger”websitesthantheothers.Theyarehubs. And whichwebsitesdosearchenginesdisplayfirst,whenyousearch according toyourkeywords?Searchenginesdisplayfirstthewebsiteswith ahighernumberoflinks,accordingtothechosenkeywords.Theydisplay firstthemostlinkedsites. Conclusion?Themorewelink,thebetterourwebsiteranksonsearchengines. page18
  19. 19. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Please, Do Not Become Islands… Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Afewhubswithalarge numberoflinksmakesthe CentralCoreoftheWeb. Conversely,mostwebsites areeitherINorOUT Continents. TheytendtobecomeTendrils –ifstillindexedbysearch engines–andcanultimately turnintoIslands. page19
  20. 20. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Web Oligopolies – Like Google Or Bing Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 SincetheWebbehaveslikemostnetworks,itisnotsurprisingthatsome websitesbelongtoaoligopolyofhubs,andbecomeincrementallystronger. EachtimeyousearchforsomethinginGoogleorBing,youacceptand confirm thatGoogleandBingarestrong.Youenhance theirstatusashubs. Butthere’smore.Thinkaboutthis,thesocialway... page20
  21. 21. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Social Oligopolies – Like Facebook Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 EachtimeyoupostsomethingonFacebook,you contributetomakeFacebookstronger. And,movingtotourism,eachtimeatourist commentsonTripAdvisor,she/hecontributesto makeTripAdvisorstronger. Why?Becauseeverytimesomeonepostson FacebookorTripavisorapieceofUserGenerated Content,she/heconfirmsthattheyare hubs,often addsnewlinkstothem,andmakesthemstronger. page21
  22. 22. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Ranking, SEO Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Theevaluationthatsearchenginesprovideofawebpage,alsocalledthe webpage’s“position”,ismeasuredintermsofranking. Althoughranking isreferredtoasinglewebpage,itiswidelyassumedthata wholewebsite’srankingisthatwebsite’shomepageranking. ToquoteWikipedia,“agoodrankinginthesearchenginesprovidesasteady supplyofinterestedvisitors/customers,whileapooronesinksanyideainto oblivion,nomatterhowgoodorrelevant”. ThereisawholeindustrycalledSEO,SearchEngineOptimizing,dedicatedto obtaingood webrankings. ThemostsimpleunitofmeasureforrankingisGoogle’sPageRank. page22
  23. 23. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 PageRank Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 ToquoteWikipediaonceagain, “PageRankisalinkanalysisalgorithm –namedafterLarryPageandusedby theGoogleInternetsearchengine – thatassignsanumericalweighting toeachelementofahyperlinked setof documents,suchastheWorldWide Web,withthepurposeofmeasuringits relativeimportancewithintheset.” page23 imagecreditto NetLogo
  24. 24. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 PageRank: Industry and Academia Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 ThePageRankalgorithmmaybeappliedtoanycollectionofentitieswith reciprocalquotationsandreferences. Thenumericalweightthatitassignsto anygivenelementEisreferredtoasthePageRank ofEand denotedbyPR(E). Thename“PageRank”isatrademarkofGoogle,andthePageRankprocesshas beenpatented(U.S.Patent6,285,999). However,thepatentisassignedto StanfordUniversityand nottoGoogle. Googlehasexclusivelicenserights onthepatentfromStanfordUniversity. Theuniversityreceived1.8millionsharesofGoogleinexchangeforuseofthe patent;thesharesweresoldin2005for$336millions. page24
  25. 25. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Ranking Tools Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 HowdowecometoknowthePageRankofaspecificwebpage,or –somehow– ofaspecificwebsite? Somededicated toolsareavailableontheWeb,toretrieveinformationonhow andhowmuchwebpagesandwebsitesarevisited. Moreover, sometoolbarsdoexist,that provideaneasyandrelatively comprehensiveaccesstothissortofrankingdata. Forinstance,yourlecturerroutinelyreliesonSimilarWebasaFirefoxAdd-On. page25
  26. 26. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 SimilarWeb page26Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018
  27. 27. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 PrChecker Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 However,ifwesimplywantto knowthePageRankofaspecific webpage,themostdiffused relevant toolisprchecker. https://www.prchecker.info/ SEOrankingtoolslikeprchecker orSimilarWebhavebeenused fordecades,aftertheWorld- WideWebwasinvented. page27
  28. 28. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Tim Berners-Lee Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Asweknow,theWorldWideWebisan internet-basedhypermediainitiativefor globalinformation sharing. Itwasinvented byTimBerners-Lee,a graduatefromOxford,whileatCERN,the EuropeanParticlePhysicsLaboratory,in1989. Berners-Leewrotethefirstwebclientand serverin1990. HisspecificationsofURIs,HTTPand HTML wererefinedasWebtechnologyspread. page28 Itsrules,orrecommendations,arerun bytheW3C,http://www.w3.org/ IftheWebexists,it’sbecause ofEurope.
  29. 29. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Web 1.o and Web 2.0 Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 TheoriginalWebambience – nowcommonlyreferredtoas “Web1.0”–hasgradually turnedintoamorecomplex world,whereinteraction, multimediaanddatabases havemadetheirappearence. Thisshifthasbeeninformally called“Web2.0”aftera2005 definitionbyTimO’Reilly. page29
  30. 30. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Dynamic Websites Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Perhapsthemostradicalshiftbetweenthe“Web1.0”andthe“Web2.0”has beenrootedinmassivedependanceupondatabases. Theoriginalwebsitesweresimplytext(words,pictures,diagramsetc.) written inhtmllanguageonceandforall.Theywerestatic. Mostwebsitestoday are dynamic,instead.Eachwebpage’scontentisnot thereonceandforall.Rather,itscontent isgeneratedonthefly fromthe content ofadatabase. Thewebpages’layoutisprovidedbyatemplate,whileeachwebpage’scontent isgenerated fromthecontentofrecordsstoredinadatabase. page30
  31. 31. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Templates & Dynamic Content Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 page31 imagecreditto Freemocks
  32. 32. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are Databases? Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 “Databasesareorganizedcollectionsofdata.Thedataaretypicallyorganized tomodelrelevantaspectsofreality(forexample,theavailabilityofroomsin hotels),inawaythatsupportsprocessesrequiringthisinformation(for example,findingahotelwithvacancies).” page32 Bytheway,thisisagainWikipedia…
  33. 33. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Data In A Table of A Database Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Inthisexample,every recordrelatestoanhotel inatablelistingPOIs (orPointsofInterest). Eachrecordhasfields containingdatalikethe hotel’sname, itsgeographicalposition, thedistrictwhereeach hotelislocated,etc. (Thisexampletablehas manymorefieldsthan thepicturesmayshow…) page33
  34. 34. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Structures Of Data In A Table Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Tableshave theirstructures, where descriptions ofthefields arespecified. Fieldscanhave different formats: numbers, memos,Yes/No, dates, etc. page34 text,
  35. 35. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Metadata Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Adatabasestructure isagoodexampleof metadata,thatis, well...dataabout data. Another example maybethepictures’ properties,likein SonyPlayMemories. page35
  36. 36. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Pictures’ Metadata page36Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018
  37. 37. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Relationships Among Tables Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Inatypicaldatabase, tables have reciprocalrelationships. Theexampleshowsthatinthis database thetablewhichlists PointsofInterest(likehotels) isassociatedwithadifferent tablewhichlistsDistricts. Intheexample,eachfieldinthe tableofPOIsisassociated(it mustbeso)withafieldinthe tableofDistricts. EveryPOIrecordisassociated withasingleDistrictrecord. page37
  38. 38. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Queries Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Youneverhappentoconsiderallthecontentofyourdatabaseonthesametime. Youinvariablyaskyourdatabasetoshow whichrecords(orwhichdatafrom whichrecords) correspondtoyourquestion.Thisquestioniscalledquery. Forinstance,youcanaskyourdatabasetoshowyouwhicheventsareexpected tobeavailabletodayinaplacecalled“Qwerty”. Todoso,yourunaquerywhichextractsfromyourdatabaseonlytheevents that  arelistedinthetablewhichlistsevents  havebegunonadatebeforetoday,and willendonadateaftertoday  areassociated witharecordinthe tableofplaces  hastheword“Qwerty”asthecontentofthe“Name”fieldinthetableofplaces. page38
  39. 39. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Data, Back Offices And Dynamic Websites Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Ifyouuploadadatabaseonawebserver,youcanbuildabackofficeallowing youtomanagethedatabaseonline. Abackofficeisatoolallowingyou,well...torunanofficefromitsback! page39 Soyoumanageyourwebsite’scontent, too.
  40. 40. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 UGC, Data, and Communities Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Ifyouwonder howUser-GeneratedContent(UGC)isstored,managedand retrievedinwebcommunities,theansweristhroughdatabases.  Communitiesasyoucertainlyknow,areplatformswhereusersareinvited toshareUGC(i.e.posts,likecomments,pictures,videosetc.)abouta specificfield orinasetofspecificdigitalformats. Bytheway,here’saformaldefinitionofUGC.  “Anyformofcontentsuchasblogs,wikis,discussionforums,posts,chats, tweets,podcasts,digitalimages,video,audiofiles,advertisements and other formsofmediathatwascreatedbyusersofanonline system.” page40
  41. 41. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Flickr Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Flickr(pronounced“flicker”)isanimagehostingandvideo hostingwebsiteandwebservicessuitethatwascreated byLudicorpin2004andacquiredbyYahooin2005.It currentlybelongstoSmugMug. Inadditiontobeingapopularwebsiteforuserstoshare andembedpersonalphotographs,andeffectivelyanonline community,theserviceiswidelyusedbyphoto researchersandbybloggerstohostimagesthatthey embedinblogsandsocialmedia. page41
  42. 42. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Instagram Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Instagramisamobile,desktop,andInternet-basedphoto- sharingapplicationandservicethat allowsuserstoshare picturesandvideoseitherpubliclyorprivately. ItwascreatedbyKevinSystromand MikeKrieger,and launched inOctober 2010asafreemobileapp exclusivelyfortheiOSoperatingsystem. Aversion forAndroiddeviceswasreleasedtwoyearslater. InstagramwasacquiredbyFacebookinApril2012for approximatelyUS$1billionincashandstock. AsofSeptember2017,Instagramisreportedtohave 800 millionusers. page42
  43. 43. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 YouTube Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 YouTubeisanAmericanvideo-sharingwebsitecreatedby formerPayPalemployeesinFebruary2005.InNovember 2006,itwasboughtbyGoogleforUS$1.65billion. AsofAugust2018,YouTubeisreckoned tobethesecond- mostpopularsiteinthe world. Thesiteallowsuserstoupload,view,rate,share,addto favorites,reportandcommentonvideos,anditmakesuse ofWebM,H.264/MPEG-4AVC,andAdobeFlashVideo technologytodisplayawidevarietyofuser-generatedand corporatemediavideos. page43
  44. 44. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 TripAdvisor, Once Again Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 TripAdvisor,headquarteredinNeedham, Massachusetts, claimstobethelargesttravelsiteintheworld,with315 millionreviewers(activeandinactive)andover500 millionreviewsofhotels,restaurants,attractionsand other travel-relatedbusinesses. TheTripAdvisorMedia Groupoperates25travelbrands. TripAdvisorwaspurchasedbyIAC/InterActiveCorpin2004.IACspunoffits travelgroupofbusinesses under theExpedia,Inc.name inAugust2005. InDecember2011,TripAdvisorwasspunoff fromExpediainapublicoffering. page44
  45. 45. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 LinkedIn Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 LinkedInisabusinessandemployment-oriented communitythat operatesviawebsites. Foundedin2002,itismainlyusedforprofessional networking.LinkedIn allowsmembers(bothworkersand employers)tocreateprofilesand“connections”toeach other inanonlinesocialnetworkwhichmayrepresent real-worldprofessionalrelationships. AsofApril2017,LinkedInhad 500millionmembersin200countries,outof whichmorethan 106millionmembers wereactive. MicrosoftacquiredLinkedInfor$26.2billiononDecember8,2016. page45
  46. 46. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Social Networks Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Now,leavingthecommunitiesandmovingontothe social networks,let’squoteWikipediaagain. “Asocialnetworking serviceisanonlineservice, platform, orsitethatfocusesonfacilitatingthebuildingofsocial networksorsocialrelationsamongpeoplewho,for example,shareinterests,activities,backgrounds,orreal- lifeconnections. Asocialnetworkserviceconsistsofarepresentation of eachuser(oftenaprofile),his/hersociallinks,anda varietyofadditional services.” page46
  47. 47. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Facebook Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 FacebookisanAmericanfor-profitcorporationand onlinesocialmediaandsocialnetworkingservice basedinMenloPark,California,UnitedStates. TheFacebookwebsitewaslaunchedonFebruary4, 2004,byMarkZuckerberg,alongwithfourfellow HarvardCollegestudents. Facebookisreportedtohave2.2billionmonthlyactive usersasofJanuary 2018. page47
  48. 48. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Twitter Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Twitterisanonlinesocialnetworking service basedinSan Francisco,California.Itenablesuserstosendandread short140-(or280-)character messagescalled“tweets”. Registereduserscanreadandposttweets,butthosewho areunregisteredcanonlyreadthem. Asof2016,Twitterhad around319millionmonthlyactiveusers. Onthedayof the2016U.S. presidentialelection,Twitterproved tobethelargestsourceof breakingnews,with40milliontweetssentby10pmthatday. page48
  49. 49. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Medium Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Mediumisanonlinepublishingplatformdevelopedby Twitterco-founderEvanWilliamsonAugust2012,and ownedbyAMediumCorporation. Theplatformisanexampleofsocialjournalism,havinga hybridcollectionofamateurandprofessionalpeopleand publications,orexclusiveblogsorpublishersonMedium andisregularlyregardedasabloghost. page49
  50. 50. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 SnapChat Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Snapchatisanimagemessagingandmultimediamobile applicationcreatedbyEvanSpiegel,BobbyMurphy,and ReggieBrownwhentheywerestudentsatStanford University. Snapchatevolvedintoamixofprivatemessaging andpubliccontent, includingbrandnetworks,publications,andliveevents suchassportsand music. Nevertheless, accordingtosurvey studiesconducted inMarch2016,the personalorientedmessagingwasstillbeingaccessed byusers morethan thepubliclyofferedcontentthatwasbeingpresented. AsofMay2017,Snapchathad 166 milliondailyactiveusers. page50
  51. 51. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Plus Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 GooglePlus(stylizedasGoogle+)isanInternet-based socialnetwork thatisownedandoperatedbyGoogle. Theservice,Google’sfourthforay intosocialnetworking, experiencedstronggrowthinitsinitialyears,although usagestatisticshavevaried,dependingonhowtheservice isdefined. ThreeGoogleexecutiveshaveoverseen theservice,which hasundergonesubstantialchangesleadingtoaredesign inNovember2015. page51
  52. 52. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Drive, Dropbox, And More Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 GoogleDriveisafilestorageandsynchronizationservice createdbyGoogle. Itallowsuserstostorefilesinthecloud,synchronize filesacrossdevices, and sharefiles.Itencompasses GoogleDocs,Sheets and Slides,an office suitethatpermitscollaborativeeditingofdocuments. DropboxisafilehostingserviceoperatedbyAmerican companyDropbox,Inc.,headquarteredinSanFrancisco, California,that offerscloudstorage,filesynchronization, personalcloud,andclientsoftware. page52
  53. 53. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Slack Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Slackisacloud-basedteamcollaborationtool co- foundedbyStewartButterfield,EricCostello,Cal Henderson, andSergueiMourachov. Slackbeganasaninternal toolusedbytheircompany, TinySpeck,inthedevelopmentofGlitch,anowdefunct onlinegame. Thenameisactuallyanacronym,whichmeans, “SearchableLogofAllConversationandKnowledge”. page53
  54. 54. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Web Presence Soyouseethere’stheWeb,butthereare notonlywebsites. Whenwehave–aswe’llcertainlyhave –toconsider whattheWebtellsand commentsaboutsomething, wecannotconsideronlyitsofficialwebsite. Wemustthink intermsofitswebpresenceasawhole. Thewebpresenceof,say,a destinationincludes 1. theofficialwebsiterunbythedestination 2. theaccountsofficiallyrun bythedestination onTripAdvisor,Facebook,etc. 3. whatotherpeoplepublishaboutthedestinationonthecommunitiesandthe socialnetworks. Aswewillsee, webreputation alsodealswiththisthirdformofwebpresence. page54Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018
  55. 55. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 In Control Thewebpresenceof,say,adestinationincludes 1. theofficialwebsiterunbythedestination 2. thepagessemi-officiallyrunbythedestinationonTripAdvisor,Facebook,etc. 3. whatotherpeoplewriteaboutthedestinationonthecommunitiesandthe socialnetworks. page55Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 imagecredittoIconFinder
  56. 56. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Partial Control Thewebpresenceof,say,adestinationincludes 1. theofficialwebsiterunbythedestination 2. thepagessemi-officiallyrunbythedestinationonTripAdvisor,Facebook,etc. 3. whatotherpeoplewriteaboutthedestinationonthecommunitiesandthe socialnetworks. page56Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 imagecredittoIconFinder
  57. 57. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 No Control Thewebpresenceof,say,adestinationincludes 1. theofficialwebsiterunbythedestination 2. thepagessemi-officiallyrunbythedestinationonTripAdvisor,Facebook,etc. 3. whatotherpeoplewrite aboutthedestinationonthecommunitiesandthe socialnetworks. page57Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 imagecredittoIconFinder
  58. 58. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Web Presence Map Amapofthelinks among theofficial andsemi-official componentsofa webpresencecan bedrawn. Thismapoftheofficial and semi-officialweb presenceofNormandy wasproduced byyour colleagueslastyear. page58Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 imagecredittoIconFinder
  59. 59. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Beyond Our Control! Communitiesandsocialsarebeyondourcontrol.Wecan’taccesstheirservers. Wecancompletelycontrolourwebsite. WecanpartiallycontrolourTripAdvisoraccounts,andourFacebookpages. WeCAN’TcontrolwhatotherpeoplewriteonTripAdvisor,Facebook,orTwitter orInstagramaboutus. Butifwewanttoimprove–oratleastdefend –ourreputation,wemustknow whatotherpeoplewriteonthecommunitiesandthesocial networksaboutus. Butwhatisreputationabout?Andhowcanweknowwhatother peoplewrite aboutus?WewilldiscussthisonThursday, October18. page59Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 imagecredittoIconFinder
  60. 60. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today’s Key Points page60Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 1. Thinking In Terms of Networks May Be Helpful 2. Most Networks Are Scale-Free, and Have Hubs 3. The More We Link, The More We’Re Present 4. Web Ranking Is Measurable, and Can Be Optimized 5. Metadata Are Data About Data, and May Be Helpful 6. Databases Collect and Process Data 7. Our Web Presence Goes Beyond Our Websites & Our Socials imagecredittohxdata.chisa.edu.cn
  61. 61. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thanks For Your Attention page61Networks,WebPresence.Lecture02,October4,2018 Picturefrom the2017Workshop

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