Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Some 25 Years of eTourism as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo

149 views

Published on

Some 25 years of eTourism as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo. It's stimulus material, posted to improve communication with current students. It's not interesting for the academia.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Some 25 Years of eTourism as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo

  1. 1. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Some25YearsofeTourism imagecredittoCapedCoaching Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  2. 2. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are We Talking About Today? Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page2 1. IT & Digital 2. IT & Tourism 3. More Needs 4. Experience 5. The Industry And DMOs 6. Social, Mobile & Big Data 7. Our Calendar This Year imagecredit toTravelers.com
  3. 3. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Preconditions to These Lectures Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page3 Theselectures’syllabus,aspublishedonthewebsiteoftheUniversityof Bergamo,requiresthatyoufulfillsomepreconditions.Heretheyare. Englishproficiency;systematic useofe-mail,webnavigation,social networking,and mobilecommunication;willingnesstokeepintouchona professionallevelthroughsocialnetworksand/ore-learningplatforms. Recognizingthetechnicalnatureofwebnavigation:basicunderstanding of operatingsystems,communicationprotocolsamongcomputers,andthehtml. Therefore,theselecturesare takingyourawarenessofoperatingsystems, communicationprotocolsamongcomputers,andthe html,asgranted.
  4. 4. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 IT & Digital Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page4 Theselecturesareentitled ITforTourismServices. ITstandsforInformationTechnology,whichistheuseofcomputerstostore, retrieve,transmit,andmanipulatedata,orinformation.ITisconsideredtobea subsetofInformationandCommunicationTechnologies(ICT). Alldatathatacomputerprocessesmustbeencodeddigitally. Thewordsabovearequoted fromtheEnglish–i.e.global–editionofWikipedia. Though Wikipediacannot beconsidered anacademicsource,yourlecturer stronglybelievesitsglobaleditioncanbequotedinanacademicenvironment asreasonably astheEncyclopediaBritannica oranyotherfact-checkedsource, theauthors ofwhicharepublished.
  5. 5. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Is Digital? DigitalderivesfromtheLatinwordDigitus,meaningfinger. Inshort,digitaliswhatcanberepresentedwithnumbers,whichcanbe countedwithfingers. Digitalisopposedtoanalogue(analog,intheUSA)whichisrelatedtowhatis notcountable:whatcannotbeconsideredwithinadiscretesetofelements. page5Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  6. 6. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Real Wave, and a Digital Wave page6 TheMP3lossycompressionworksby reducing(orapproximating)theaccuracy ofcertain partsofacontinuoussoundthat areconsidered tobebeyondtheauditory resolutionabilityofmostpeople. Thismethodisreferred toasperceptual coding.Itusespsychoacousticmodelsto discardorreduceprecisionofcomponents lessaudibletohumanhearing. Source: Wikipedia Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  7. 7. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Cello vs. an iPod Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page7 imagecreditto30cc
  8. 8. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mechanical vs. Digital Watches Amechanicalwatchisanalogueinasmuchastheposition ofeachofitsthreehands(hours,minutesand seconds) canrepresent anyoftheinfinitepointsformingthecircle ofthewatchitself–pointsthatcannotbenumbered. page8 Inadigitalwatch, instead, onlythe figureswhichmakeup hours,minutesand seconds areusually represented–onlythe 86,400moments(24 hoursx60minutesx60 seconds)makingup theseconds ofaday. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  9. 9. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Painting, Photographs, and Pixels Anoiloncanvas painting,orawatercolour,oratraditional photograph(aphotographbasedonachemicalfilm)consistsof aninfinitenumberofpointsinaninfiniterangeofcolours. Apaintingorachemicalphotographcanbedigitized(scanned, forinstance)andtranslatedintoa digitalphotowhereits surfaceisrepresented asdividedintoadiscretenumberof “points”(usuallysmallsquarescalledpixels). Eachpixelreproducesonlyonecolour inanavailablerangeof 16,777,216(acombinationof256shadesofred,256ofgreenand 256ofblue–according tothewidelyused RGBcolourmodel). page9Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  10. 10. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Another Way to Digitalize Images Note,however,thatthere’s anotherapproachtodigital images. Beyond pixel“squares”, digitalgraphiccanbe designedandmanaged throughvectors. Portionsofspacearedefined byBéziercurves. page10 imagecreditstothewindowsclub,nepero.net Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  11. 11. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Waves and Bits Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 Many technologiesrelyondigitaltoreproduceawave(asoundoralightwave) thatwasoriginallyanalogue. page11 Amodem,asthosecurrentlyusedforADSLconnections, convertsananaloguesoundsignalthatcanbesentthrough telephonewiresintoadigitalsignal,ofthesortrequested bycomputersorotherelectronicdevicesworkingbybits (1/0). (Bytheway,ADSLstandsfor AsymmetricDigitalSubscriberLine)
  12. 12. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Bits vs. Bytes Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 Abit(abinarydigit)isthebasicunitofinformationincomputing; itistheamountofinformationstoredbyadigitaldeviceorother physicalsystemthatexistsinoneof twopossibledistinctstates. These maybethe twostablestatesof aflip-flop,twopositionsofanelectrical switch,twodistinctvoltage orcurrentlevelsallowedbyacircuit,twodistinctlevels oflightintensity,twodirectionsofmagnetization orpolarization,etc. Thebyte,instead,isaunitofdigitalinformationincomputingand telecommunications,thatmostcommonlyconsistsof eightbits. Historically,abytewasthenumberofbitsused toencode asinglecharacteroftext inacomputerandforthisreason itisthebasicaddressable elementinmany computerarchitectures. page12 1/0 Yes/No True/False Thisiscalleda BooleanDataType.
  13. 13. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 ASCII Characters Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page13 Everytimea computerdeals withacharachter, itdealsinfact withaBoolean stringofeight1/0.
  14. 14. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital Is a Revolution, of Course Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page14 Sociallyrelevant consequencesofbeingdigital include InformationandCommunicationTechnologies(ADSL,broadband,Wi-Fi...) Informationsharing (theInternet,the Web,mobilephones...) E-mailandSocialNetworkingposts(sentandreceivedthroughtheInternet) Sharingofmusicandvideos (Mp3,iTunes...) Digitalhaschanged ourlives.Nonetheless, digitalisinnerlypoorerthan analogueinasmuchasitconveys asimplifiedmessage. (This,bytheway,mayimplythatdigitalcommunicationisinvariablypoorer thanpersonalcommunication. Let’snotforgetit,whencommunicatingthroughtheInternet.)
  15. 15. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Communicating In Person Thebestwaytocommunicateismeetingsomeoneinperson. It’stherealthing –uncountableand,ifyouwant,analogue. Whenyoucallher/himthroughavideophone(or VoIP,like Skype),youmissatleastthephysicalcontextaroundher/him. Whenyoucallher/himonthephone,youmissthephysical context,andyoudon’tseeher/him. Whenyousendher/himane-mailmessage,youmissthe physicalcontext,youdon’tseeher/him,andyoudon’tknow whenandwhereshe/hewillread. page15Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  16. 16. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital Communication Whenyousendher/himatextmessage,youmissthe physicalcontext,youdon’tseeher/him,youdon’tknow whenandwhereshe/hewillread,andyoumustkeepitshort. Whenpostsomething ontheWeb,youmissthephysical context,youdon’tseeyouraudience,youdon’t knowwhen andwhereyouraudiencewillread,youmustkeepitshort, andyoudon’tknow–orwillknowlittleof–youraudience. page16 Let’snotforgetallthis,whencommunicatingthroughtheInternet! Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  17. 17. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital Is “poor”, Yet Very Powerful Weshouldnot,however,forgetthegreat powerofdigital. “Poor”communicationandrelationships – Facebook“friends”arenotnecessarilyfriends –areparalleledbyanenormousquantitative increaseincommunication,relationships, andsocialinfluence.  Fakenews,forinstance,areverypowerful. Wetalkless,butcantalkto manymorepeople.And candomanymorethings. imagecredittoMashable Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page17
  18. 18. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “Being digital” as a 1995 Book “Iamoptimisticbynature.However,everytechnologyorgiftofscience hasadarkside.Beingdigitalisnoexception. Thenextdecade[1995-2005] willseecasesofintellectual-property abuseandinvasionofour privacy.Wewillexperiencedigital vandalism,softwarepiracy,anddatathievery. Worstofall,wewillwitnessthelossofmanyjobs.[…] Itishere.Itisnow.Itisalmostgeneticinitsnature,inthateach generationwillbecomemore digitalthantheprecedingone. Thecontrolbitsofthatdigitalfutureare more thanever beforeinthehandsofthe young.Nothingcouldmake mehappier.” —NicholasNegroponte,MassachusettsInstituteofTechnology(MIT) Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page18
  19. 19. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Coding Howdoesdigitalwork?It’snot simplyamatterofreducingthings intobitsandbytes. It’salsoamatterofmakingmachines tooperate.Thisisdonebycoding. Coded instructionsgivento machinesinorder tomakethem processoperationsarecalled algorythms. Let’squoteWikipediaagain. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page19 imagecredittoRowanSimpson
  20. 20. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Algorythms According to Wikipedia “Inmathematicsandcomputerscience,analgorithmisanunambiguous specificationofhowtosolveaclassofproblems. Algorithmscanperformcalculation,dataprocessingandautomatedreasoning tasks.Asaneffectivemethod,analgorithmcanbeexpressedwithin afinite amountofspaceandtimeandinawell-definedformallanguageforcalculating afunction. Starting fromaninitialstateandinitialinput(perhapsempty),theinstructions describeacomputationthat, whenexecuted,proceedsthrough afinitenumber ofwell-definedsuccessivestates,eventuallyproducing‘output’and terminating atafinalendingstate.” page20Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  21. 21. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Can Digital Machinery Learn? Machinescanbeinstructednotsimplytoproduceoutputs. Theycanalsobeinstructedtomimichumanintelligence, processingpiecesof informationinawayreplicatedfromhumanintelligencebutmuchfaster. Thisisgenerically calledtheArtificialIntelligence(AI). Forexample,whenFacebookprovidesyouwithadvertisementbasedonwhat youlookedatbeforehand, orGoogledeliversanswerstoyoursearches which arebasedonthepagesyoupreviouslyvisited,theseareinstancesofAI. FacebookandGooglehavelearntfromyourpreviousbehaviourontheNet. Theiralgorythmshavebeencodedtomakeyouseefirst –oronly–content thatisclosertoallthatFacebookorGooglehaverecordedyoudidbefore. page21Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018
  22. 22. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Machines Learn imagecredittoGeneticLiteracyProject Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page22
  23. 23. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital, Market Capitalization, Power Asearlyasin August2016the threebiggest companiesinthe worldbelongedto theInformation Technology sector. Source: TheEconomist Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page23
  24. 24. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital, Share Prices, Power Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page24 Aboutanyear later,inOctober 2017,similar conclusionscould bedrawninterms ofshareprices andtheirrise. Source: FinancialTimes
  25. 25. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Warning, Just In Case Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page25 Onepointshouldbeunderlined,justincase. Bynowayyourlecturermeansthat numbersare poor–orevendangerous. Onthecontrary, numbersareafundamental component ofscience,whichisessentialfor anypossibleabilitytounderstandreality. Onlyconsider thatanyattempttocoderealityin Booleantermsisnotthesamethingasreality. E.g.fakenewshavenothingtodowithscience, exactlyliketheyhavenothingtodowithreality. ApixeledGalileo,byChineseartistAiWeiwei
  26. 26. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 IT & Tourism ThedigitalrevolutionandtheInformationTechnologies (IT)havehadastrongimpact ontourism. Traditionaltouroperators,likeTUIorCarlson,andtravel retailersnolongerdominate thetouristmarket. Somecallthisprocessdisintermediation. Thismeansthat today TravelProviders–likeAirFrance, DeutscheBahn,orAccor–canselltheirtouristservices andproductsdirectlytofinalcustomers,andnolonger need traditionalagentsliketouroperators,travel retailersorticketoffices. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page26
  27. 27. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thisistrue,butit’snotonlyamatterofdisintermediation... Actually,OnlineTravelAgents(OTAs,orOLTAs)like Booking.com,Expedia,TripAdvisorandAirbnbdonotsimply “disintermediate”. Theynowrunadifferentsortofintermediationbetween TravelProducersandfinalcustomers. BigOTAslikeBooking.com,Expedia,TripAdvisorandAirbnb –thoughspringingfromdiversestories,and adopting diversemodels–havenowallsucceededin takingthe placeoftraditional touroperatorsand travelretailers. Online Travel Agents Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page27
  28. 28. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Travel Providers vs. Travel Agents Adistinctionshouldalwaysbemade betweentravelprovidersandtravelagents.  Travelprovidersprovidetravelproducts.  TravelproviderscansellthroughtheWeb theproductstheyproduce. o Travelagentsdonotprovide travel products. o Travelagentscanonlysellthroughthe Websomeoneelse’stravelproducts. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page28
  29. 29. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Ok, But The Places? Thiscourse,however,does notdealwiththetouristindustryonly. Itmainlydealswithtourists,touristplaces,andthe peoplewhoinhabittourist page29Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 imagecredittoinfinityimmigration.com,BC,Canada places:thelocals. Afundamentalroleintourism isperformedbythewayin whichlocalsorganizetourism. Localorganizations which organize tourismarecalled DestinationManagement Organizations(DMOs).
  30. 30. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digitaltechnologieshavepavedthewaytointeresting andappealingnewwaysofsellingtouristservices, productsandplacesdirectlytofinalcustomers. Oneofthefirsthasbeentheso-calledLastMinute, whichofferlatetraveldeals. Appealing Technologies AnotherisDynamicPackaging–oftenconnected withRecommendationSystems–whichallows customerstobuildtheirowntravelitinerariesby consultingrecommendations fromprevious touristsand assemblingservicesaccordingly. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page30 imagecredittoDepositphotos imagecredittobug-software.com
  31. 31. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital Has Invaded Tourism Thisinnovationprocessisfastandstillongoing, andwereallydon’tknow whichnewtechnologies willaffectthetourismworldinthefuture. Recentinstanceshave beenUberandAirbnb, twoDisruptorswhichnow drivethemarket,but beganoperationsonly sevenoreightyearsago. Tourismhascometobeconsidered aleadinginnovationfield,whichan aggressiveindustryplatformlikeSkifthasprioritized.SomeSkiftslidesfollow. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page31
  32. 32. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Skifthistory 1 Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page32
  33. 33. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Skifthistory 2 Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page33
  34. 34. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Skifthistory 3 Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page34
  35. 35. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 More Needs Ontheotherhand,digitalhasallowedtouriststo decidemoreconsciouslywheretogo knowmoreaboutplaces tobevisited askmoreneedstobefulfilledbytouristoperators. Technologicalevolutions,infact,havebeenrelevantnotonly totouristoperators. Quitetheopposite:theattitudeoftravelers’behaviourhas changedconsiderably,too. Today,touristsneed arangeofinformation before,duringand aftertheirtravelexperience–andtheysharethisinformation! imagecredittoTravelers.com Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page35
  36. 36. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Before, During & After Todaytripsarenotonlyplannedbeforedeparture,butalso constantly modified,transformed and remodeledduring theexperience,dueto stimuliarisingfromthetripitselfaswellasthanksto recommendationsofothertourists whohadsimilar experiencesinthesamedestination,while datagathered duringthetrip,likephotosandcomments posted,helpremembering andrethinking afterwards. Touristdestinationscannowcooperateinaco-creationoftouristexperience. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page36
  37. 37. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Experience Afactortobeconsidered istheexperientialnatureofthe tourismproduct–asresearch byPine&Gilmorehave begununderliningsince1999. Whentouriststravel,aswellaswhentheygetbackfrom atrip,theytendto sharetheirexperiencewithfamilyand friends,aspartakersduringtheholiday. Thisiswhycommunicationpracticessuchaswordof mouthandrecommendationshavebeensuccessfulin tourismcommunicationevenbeforetheInternet arrived. ThekeywordforthisprocessisUserGeneratedContent(UGC). Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page37
  38. 38. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 TripAdvisor ThefirstwebsitetotakeoffthankstotheeWordofMouth (eWOM)–andactuallytheveryfirstplatformtogather UserGeneratedContentonamassscale–wasTripAdvisor. Althoughithasbeenturnedintosomethingverycloseto anOnlineTravelAgent inrecent years,TripAdvisorwas borninFebruary2000asatouristcommunity. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page38 Asitsfounders said,“Westartedasasitewherewewerefocused moreonthose officialwordsfrom guidebooks ornewspapers ormagazines. Wealsohad abuttonintheverybeginning thatsaid,‘Visitors,addyourownreview’,and prettysoon the numberofaverage consumer reviewsfarsurpassed thenumberof‘professional reviews’.”
  39. 39. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Industry and DMOs AswesawfromtheSkifthistory, ITandtourismhavelongbeenparalleland rapidlygrowingphenomena. page39  Thetourismindustry beganusingITtoimprove transportation, intermediationandhospitalityshortly afterWW2.ThoseweretheyearswhenComputer ReservationsSystems(CRS)–laterGlobalDistribution Systems(GDS),likeSabreandAmadeus –wereborn.  ThentheInterneterafullystarted(1991-2002),andboththeindustryand DestinationManagementOrganizations(DMOs)begandevelopingwebsites,in ordertocommunicatesmoothly withtheirpotentialcustomers. Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 imagecredittohotelseye
  40. 40. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Customer Care & Support Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018  In1991-2002DMOsinvolvedlocalactors–or,rather, triedtoinvolvelocalactors... –bycentralizingand distributingtouristinformationandservicesfromvarious partnersintheirowndestinations’territories.  However,duringthefollowingdecadesoftheInternet era(2002-today)thechangehasbeenmoreradical. OperatorsandDMOshaveshiftedfromcreating technologicalartifacts,likewebsites,tocustomercareand increased supporttothetourists’decision-makingprocess. page40 Asalreadyobserved,destinationscannowtry co-creatingthetouristexperience.
  41. 41. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Social Media Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 Wecansaythatfourrecentdevelopmentsrelatedto theriseoftheInformationandCommunication Technologieshavecontributedandarestill contributingtotheshift. page41 1.Theso-calledWeb2.0andsocialnetworking platforms– likeFacebook,Twitter,Instagram,orGoogle+,aswellas communitieslikeFlickr,YouTube,orTripAdvisoritself–have turnedtheattentionoftouristoperatorsanddestinations (or, actually,someofthem...)to abetterinteractionwithtourists.
  42. 42. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mobile, GPS, and Broadband Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 2.Morerecently,mobiledevices(smartphonesandtablets) haveemergedandconsolidated onaglobalscale,making highcomputingpowerand constantconnectivityavailable toawideraudience.Obviously,userstakeadvantage of theseopportunitiesduringtheirtravelexperience,too. 3.Moreover, smartphonesnow“know”wheretheirowners arelocated,thankstotheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS). 4.Inaddition,thefirstyearsinthesecurrentdecadesofthe Internet erahavewitnessedtheexpansionofhigh-speed connections, orbroadband. page42
  43. 43. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Social as the Default State Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 Thesocial networking trend wasidentified(and denounced)byAndrewKeenasearlyasin2012. Inhisbook#digitalvertigo hewrotethat “ThesocialhasbecomethedefaultsettingoftheInternet.” Now,socialnetworking hascombinedwiththediffusion ofsmartphones andthespreadingof broadband communication–increasinglyreleasedthrough Wi-Fi connectivity–tothepointthatthebasicsituationtobe consideredbyDMOsandtourismmanagersismobilesocial. page43
  44. 44. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Networks & Big Data Socialnetworking platforms,smartphones, geopositioning andwi-ficombinetogenerate hugesetsofdata. Theyare whatwe’vebecomeaccustomedtorefertoasBigData. Bigorsmallthat theycanbe,these“bigdata”arenot homogeneous,andhavedifferentowners. Yettheycan–theoretically, atleast–begathered, analyzed, processedbyAI,andused. BigDatacanbeusedbytourismmanagers–likeyou,too, maybeinthefuture–tounderstand howusersbehave,try co-creatingtheirexperience,andinfluencethemtobuy. Source: Google Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page44
  45. 45. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today’s Key Points page45Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 1. Digital Is Poorer Than Reality 2. Digital Is Very Powerful 3. Digital Has Invaded Tourism 4. Tourists’ Needs Have Increased 5. Social Is The Default State 6. Mobile Is The Basic Situation 7. ‘‘Big Data’’ Can/Must Be Used imagecreditto30cc
  46. 46. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Our Program This Year Ok.Thisisenough,forourfirstmeeting. Now,let’sconsiderhowandwhenwewilldealwithallthisbeforeChristmas.  NetworksandSocialNetworks:WebPresence  MobilecommunicationandGeopositioning  DataAnalysisand WebReputation  Design:ContentandUsability  Qualityandqualityevaluation  Big-BangDisruptions  YOU October November December>Yourdeliveryofqualityevaluations Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page46
  47. 47. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Now a Calendar In Detail 01.Today Some 25Years ofeTourism 02.Thursday,Oct4 Networks &SocialNetworks. WebPresence 04. Thursday, Oct11 Mobile,Smartphones, Wi-Fi,andApps 03.Tuesday, Oct9 Destinations, theIndustry, andPeer-To-Peer 06.Thursday, Oct18 WebReputation: Likes,Engagement &Sentiment 05.Tuesday, Oct16 Analytics,Insights, Cookies,andthe Disappearing Privacy 07. Tuesday, Oct23 Design:Content, Copyright &CreativeCommons Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page47
  48. 48. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Approaching the Assessment 08.Tuesday,Oct30 Design:Usability, Gamification, Augmented&Virtual Reality 09.Thursday,Nov1st Quality,Standards, Models&Meta-Models. The7Loci 11.Tuesday,Nov 20 WebPresence QualityReporting 12.Thursday,Nov22 Big-Bang Disruptions andTourism 13.Tuesday,Dec 4 Yourreports’ presentation: 1stgroup 14. Tuesday,Dec11 Yourreports’ presentation: 2ndgroup 15.Thursday,Dec13 Yourreports’ presentation: 3rdgroup 10.Tuesday,Nov13 WebPresence. A7Loci Evaluation Model Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 page48
  49. 49. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thanks For Your Attention page49Some25YearsofeTourism.Lecture01,October2,2018 Picturefrom the2017-2018Course

×