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Design: Content, Copyright & Creative Commons

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Design: Content, Copyright & Creative Commons as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo. It's stimulus material, posted to improve communication with current students. It's not interesting for the academia.

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Design: Content, Copyright & Creative Commons

  1. 1. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Design:Content,Copyright &CreativeCommons © Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018
  2. 2. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today 01.Tuesday,Oct2 Some 25Years ofeTourism page2Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 02.Thursday,Oct4 Networks &SocialNetworks. WebPresence 04. Thursday, Oct11 Mobile,Smartphones, Wi-Fi,andApps 03.Tuesday, Oct9 Destinations, theIndustry, andPeer-To-Peer 06.Thursday, Oct18 WebReputation: Likes,Engagement &Sentiment 05.Tuesday, Oct16 Analytics,Insights, Cookies,andthe Disappearing Privacy 07. Tuesday, Oct23 Design:Content, Copyright &CreativeCommons
  3. 3. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are We Talking About Today? 1. Content 2. Content. Managers and Users 3. Information Needs 4. Emotions and Appeal 5. Copyright 6. Creative Commons 7. Monopolies Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page3 ©
  4. 4. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Content Is What You Show Of Your Destination Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 ImagecredittoFraser Clements. Courtesy of Tourism New Zealand page4
  5. 5. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Content Managing tourismcontent mayberegarded assomethingeasy:justreada guidebookaboutadestination, re-writeoreditthetext,andpublish... Wrong.Themanagers ofadestinationshouldthinkofanumberofadditional questionsasfarascontentisconcerned. Among thesequestionsare  themanagers’ owntasks,onashort termaswellasonamediumterm  theirstakeholders’needs,whichmayvaryintime  theirusers’needs,whichvaryintimeandaccording tomarketsegments  theseasons. Whichcontent shouldbepublished,tosatisfythesedifferent needs? Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page5
  6. 6. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Content & Managers Ourlecturesaretakingusclosetothepointofevaluatingquality. Sowemightaskourselveshowcanweevaluatethe qualityofthecontentofa destination’s webpresence. Forinstance,couldthedestination’s managersbehappyaboutthe content they’republishing? Butthemanagers’ satisfaction dependsonthetaskstheyhave… Whichtasksdotheyhave?Canwe findsourcesabouttheirtasks? Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page6 Imagecredit: HughRiley
  7. 7. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Content & Users Anotherquestionaboutqualityofcontentshouldaskaboutusers’satisfaction. Thisquestioncouldcertainlybe answeredbyinterviewingusers, andanalyzing intimehowtourists behaveinthedestination. Butifwelacktheseopportunities, whatwecandoinpracticeto evaluatethequalityofcontent? Well,wecanatleastpretendtobe touristsourselves... Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page7
  8. 8. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Information Needs Otherquestionsdealwithspecificcontent topics.Admittedly,answershere candependonpersonaljudgments.Yet,areasonablebalancecanbekept. Thesequestionsconcern: 1. Informationitself.Istextcontent clearandsufficient? 2. Media.Ismultimediacontent clearandsufficient? 3. Links.Doesthewebsiteprovide usefulexternallinks? Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page8 Imagecredit: TheOhioStateUniversity Pressbooks
  9. 9. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Emotions and Appeal Anapproachtocontent basedondescriptionsofattractionsmay,however,not beenough. Thispointhasbecomeparticularlyclearafter PineandGilmorehavepublished theirstudiesontheroleofexperienceand emotionincustomers’satisfaction. Asaconsequence,statingthequalityofadestinationwebsite’scontent must alsoinvolveconsidering thecommunicationofeventslikeconcerts, exhibitions,fairsandthelike– whichattracttouristsemotionally –and thewayinwhichattractionsarecommunicated:isit“warm”or“cold”? Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page9
  10. 10. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Events “Warm”or“cold”that theircommunication maybe,theavailability ofinformationon forecoming eventsis certainlycrucial. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page10
  11. 11. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Pictures Asformediacontent, afundamentalroleis playedbypictures.Aretheyrelevant?Do theyemotion?Dotheyinform? Asearlyasin1977inher“OnPhotography” SusanSontag pointedoutthat “Photographyhasbecomeoneofthe principaldevicesforexperiencing something,forgivingan appearance ofparticipation.” Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page11
  12. 12. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mass Pictures Thenumberofpicturesproducedhasincreased exponentiallysincesmartphoneshaveincorporated a reasonablygood camera. Technologieshavemadetakingpicturesvery simple. Problemslikeshuttingspeed,exposureordepthof fieldarenowsolvedautomaticallyorexponentially simplified. SinceFlick’rwaslaunchedin2004,sharingpictures hasbecomeeverybody’scustom. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page12
  13. 13. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Moving Images Moving imageshavealsobecomeextremlypopular,butproducingmoving imagesismuchmorecomplicatedthamproducingpictures. Sharing videos–tipicallyonYouTube,a communitycreated in2005andacquiredby Googlein2006–isobviouslyeasy,butthe qualitylevelsociallyrequiredtodayismuch higherthanforpictures. Let’sconsider atypicalsoftwareinterfaceto produceavideo... Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page13
  14. 14. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Working With Moving Images Youdonotonlyhavetotakea video. Youalsohavetoeditit,  providetitles,  veryfrequentlyalsosubtitles,  anda soundtrack. (ExamplesfromAdobePremiere) Theseoperationsarenotall alwaysneeded. Nearlyalways... Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page14
  15. 15. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Downloadable Material Anothercontent optionconcerns digital“gifts”. Downloadablematerialisinfacta usefulplustoattracttheusers’ attention,andprovideher/himwith information–whichcanbe interactiveandevengamified. Downloadingisitselfabitofa game... Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page15
  16. 16. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Copyright Thesubsequentquestioninourlist–strictlyconnected with content –isalegalone. “Doesthewebsitedeclaretheinvolvedcopyrights?” Asyoumayknow,copyrightconcernstheintellectualproperty ofaproduct(asong,apoem,apieceofsoftware,anewtypeof washbasin...)thatsomeonehascreated. Inaword–ifyou’vewrittenabestseller,youwouldn’tbe happyifsomeonereprintsit,andearnmoneyfromthecopies sold... Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page16 ©
  17. 17. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Copyright & Open Source Accordingtointernational laws,youcannottakeapicture fromsomeoneelse’swebsite,and publishitonyourwebsite. Why?Becausethatpictureisnotyours,whileyourwebsiteis! (BTW,picturesinthesepresentations, whicharenotthe propertyofyourlecturer,carryadeclarationoftheirsource.) Interestingly enough,ithasbeensuggestedthatthe property ofapenyouboughtdiffersfromthepropertyofapoemyou wrote.Apoemissignificantinasmuchasitisshared. (BTW,thismaybeseenasthebasisofthe opensourcemodel.) © Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page17
  18. 18. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Creative Commons InasharedworldliketheWeb,copyrighthasalwaysbeenaproblem. Asortof“righttocopy”hasalwaysbeenperceivedasassuredontheWeb – thinkofWikipedia,fromwhichyoucancopywhateveryouwant. Themostseriousattempttocontributeasolutiontothisproblemhasbeenrun byCreativeCommons. TheinfrastructureprovidedbyCreativeCommonsconsistsofasetofcopyright licensesandtoolsthatcreateabalanceinsidethetraditional“AllRights Reserved”settingthatcopyrightlawcreates. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page18
  19. 19. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Creative Commons Licenses Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page19
  20. 20. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Creative Commons In Short Inshort,ifyouadoptCreativeCommons,youcandecidewhether  youallowafreereproductionofyourproduct(picture,video, text)bysomeoneelse,providedthattheoriginalcreatoris mentioned youallowafreereproductionasabove,butdonotallowyour producttobetransformed,edited,adaptedetc. youallowafreereproductionasabove,andalso allowyour productbetransformed,edited,adaptedetc. youallowafreereproductionasabove,butdonotallowitto beresoldanyway Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page20
  21. 21. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Monopolies Moregenerallyspeaking–beyondthecontent question–wemightobserve thattheWeb,despiteitsopen-sourceoriginsand apersistentopen-source approach,iscurrentlyrunbydefactomonopolieslike  Googleforsearchenginesandwebmaps  Facebook(Instagram andWhatsAppincluded)forsocialnetworking  Appleforstylishmobility,graphicart,andmusic  Microsoftforoperatingsystems ...thoughthisisaharshsimplification,asthecasesofiOSand Androidshow. Think,ontheotherhand,ofhowimportantareforallofussomede-facto- monopolyopen-sourceinitiativeslikeWikipedia. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page21
  22. 22. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Bottlenecks Forprofessionalslikeus,itisparticularlyimportanttoacknowledgethatthe Webisnotacompletelyfreeworld,andalwayskeepintouchwithwhatwillbe goingon.Bottleneckshavebeen–andarestill–alwayspossible. Thinkforinstanceof other sortsofmonopoliesliketelecomsandtheirfares,orof theeffectiveavailabilityofwi-fihotspots,orof government censorshipinnondemocraticcountries. Webservers–asyoucertainlyknow–canbemanagedinordertostopsome websitesfrombeingreachable... and,ontheotherhand, socialsharingisalegalproblem,too. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page22
  23. 23. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Sharing ThemostcommonactionweperformontheWebeverydayis sharing,thatis puttingourUGC(orUser-GeneratedContent) insomeoneelse’sdatabase. WhenwepostonFacebook,weputourowncreation insomeofMark Zuckerberg’sdatabases,andpresentittohim. WhenwepostonGoogle+weputourowncreation insomeofLarryPage’s orSergey Brin’sdatabases,andpresentittothem. WhenwecommentonTripAdvisor,weputourowncreationinsomeofthe LibertyMediaCorporation’s databases,and presentittothem. WhenwepostonYouTubeweputourowncreation insomeofLarryPage’s orSergey Brin’sdatabases,andpresentittothem. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page23
  24. 24. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “You’re The Product” EvgenijMorozov,awriterand researcher fromBelaruswhostudies politicalandsocialimplicationsof technology, reportedlysaidasearly asin2012that “Ifyouarenotpayingfor it, you’renotthecustomer; you’retheproductbeingsold” page24Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 Source: MediaLaws
  25. 25. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Our Presents Weaccepttomakethese presents–andacceptto giveourcopyrightsaway –becausesharingis certainlyusefulandeasy. Nonetheless, wehaveto bewellawareofwhatwe do. Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 page25
  26. 26. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today’s Key Points page26Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 ImagecredittoFraser Clements. Courtesy of Tourism New Zealand Content Should 1. Meet The Users’ Needs 2. Meet The Stakeholders’ Needs 3. Meet The Managers’ Needs 4. Change According To Time 5. Be Communicated Warmly 6. Declare Who Made What 7. Face Monopolies
  27. 27. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thanks For Your Attention page27Design:Content,Copyright.Lecture07,October23,2018 Picturefrom the2013Course

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