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Web Presence. A 7Loci Evaluation Model

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Web Presence. A 7Loci Evaluation Model as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo. It's stimulus material, posted to improve communication with current students. It's not interesting for the academia.

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Web Presence. A 7Loci Evaluation Model

  1. 1. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 WebPresence.A7Loci EvaluationModel which is available as a reference at the course’s webpages, and can be used – and/or improved – to begin practising quality evaluations of destinations’ web presence. A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  2. 2. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today 08.Tuesday,Oct30 Design:Usability, Gamification, Augmented&Virtual Reality page2 09.Tuesday,Nov13 Quality,Standards, Models&Meta-Models. The7Loci 11.Thursday,Nov22 WebPresence QualityReporting 12.Tuesday,Nov27 Big-Bang Disruptions andTourism 13.Tuesday,Dec 4 Yourreports’ presentation: 1stgroup 14. Thursday,Dec6 Yourreports’ presentation: 2ndgroup 15.Tuesday,Dec11 Yourreports’ presentation: 3rdgroup 10.Tuesday,Nov20 WebPresence. A7Loci Evaluation Model A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  3. 3. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are We Talking About Today? 1. A Model from the 7Loci Meta-Model 2. Questions about Identity 3. Questions about Content 4. Questions about Services 5. Questions about Individuation 6. Questions about Management 7. Questions about Usability 3A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  4. 4. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Model From the 7Loci Meta-Model Thequestionnairewe’representinghere –whichmaybeaccessedonlineat https://kiwimilano.it/dct/,andusedasareference –isaqualityevaluation modelderived fromthe 7Locimeta-model. Aswesaw,themaintheoreticalbasesthe7Locimeta-modelarethedefinition ofqualityprovidedbytheISO,and thesevenloci fromtheclassicalrhetoric. Thisquestionnairehasbeendesigned,discussedandimprovedintimein order toconsider themainactors –andtherelevantneeds –involvedinDMOs’ (DestinationManagement Organizations’) websitesand webpresence. 4A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  5. 5. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Black Questions vs. Red Questions Thequestionsprintedinblackcorrespondtotheoriginalonesproposedinour coursetextMich,Franch,Gaio,“EvaluatingandDesigningWebSiteQuality”, wherethe7Locimeta-modelwasintroduced underitsinitialname2QCV3Q. Models,however,evolveintime,andyou’llfindmorequestionshere,printed inred.Theyhavebeenaddedafterdiscussionalongtheyears, tocovernew functionsortechnicalitieswhichhavegraduallyemergedintheWeb. Itmaybeusefultodiscusswhythesenewquestionshavebeenaddedtothe originalones.Andyoudefinitelymayadd morerelevantquestionstoyour qualityevaluations,whenprovidingqualityevaluationsyourselves. 5A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  6. 6. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Questions About Identity 6A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Sincemostofthequestionsareselfexplaining,notesinthispresentationdo notconsiderthemonebyone.Thesenotessimplyunderline somesidesofthe questionswhichmaynotbeimmediatelyclear.
  7. 7. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Identity. Web vs. Social 7A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Whenconsidering identity,theofficialwebpresenceofadestinationshould beconfronted withitssocialpresence.Aretheyconsistent?
  8. 8. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Identity. A Map 8A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Wesawthatamap oflinksamongthe officialandsemi- officialcomponents ofawebpresence shouldbedrawn. Thismapoftheofficial and semi-officialweb presenceofNormandy wasproduced byyour colleagueslastyear. imagecredittoIconFinder
  9. 9. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Identity. The Rest Of The World 9A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 We’vealsoseenthatthewebreputationofanyentity –adestination,inour instance –includeswhatispublishedontheWeboutsideitscontrol. Thismeansthat anentityisinfactpresentontheWeb underthespeciesof whatanyone(oranymachine)publishesaboutitanywhereontheWeb. We’vealsoseenthatthereare tools–starting fromGoogleAlert–whichhelp tracingwhatispublishedaboutanentityoutsidetheentity’scontrol. Therefore,anyqualityevaluationofadestination’sidentityshouldmakeuseof thesetools,anddosointime.
  10. 10. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Geographical Identity 10A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Asfarasidentityisconcerned, any destinationshouldmakeclearat oncewhereitcanbefound. Forinstance,doyouknowwhere PuertoMadrynislocated? Well…thetouristhomepageof PuertoMadrynshowsnorelevant geographicalinformation.
  11. 11. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Questions About Content A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 11
  12. 12. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Links To Needed Content A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Adestinationofficialwebsiteisrequestedtomakeavailableallsortsof informationthatusersmayrequesttoaccess. Somepiecesofinformation,however,mustnotnecessarilybepartofthe websiteitself. Thinkofdetailedinformationon events,forinstance. Ifthedestinationofficialwebsiteprovidesdirectandworkinglinkstothe webpagesofscheduledevents,thissolutionisperfectforusers. Theonlyproblemiswhether suchlinksareprovided,andwork. page12
  13. 13. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Questions About Services 13A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  14. 14. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Services As Links page14A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Aswesaw,adestinationofficialwebsiteisrequestedtomakeavailable all sortsofinformationthatusersmayrequesttoaccess. Somepiecesofinformationaboutservices,however,mustnotnecessarilybe partofthewebsiteitself.Updatingthemdaybyday,orevenhourbyhour, wouldbeabsolutelyunmanageablebytheDMOstaff… Thinkoftimetablesoflocaltransport,forinstance. Ifthedestination officialwebsiteprovidesadirectandworkinglinktothe localtransport timetable,thissolutionisperfectforusers. Theonlyproblemiswhether suchlinkisprovided,andworks.
  15. 15. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 E-Commerce Functions E-commercefunctions,too,mustnotnecessarilybepartofthewebsiteitself. Weconsidered inapreviouslecturethepossiblesolutionsthatadestination mayadoptinmanagingitse-commerceaboutaccommodation. 1. Doingnothing. 2. Linkingtothehotels’websites. 3. Buildingitsownplatform. 4. DealingwithanOTAorametasearchengine. Solutions2,3and4mayallbeconsidered satisfactory,afterall,albeitin different waysandwithdifferentlevelsofefficiency. page15A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  16. 16. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Questions About Individuation 16A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  17. 17. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Positioning And Keywords Whenverifyingpositioning–typicallyonGoogleandBingsearchengines – digitingthenameoftherelevantdestination maynot beenough. Ifyouwanttoverify howmuch,forinstance,Bratislavaasatouristdestination isvisibleontheWeb,youshouldnotsimplysearchbydigiting “Bratislava”ona searchengine. You,instead,shouldalsocheckwhetherBratislavaappearsinthefirst resultingpagesofasearchenginebydigiting “eastEuropecitytourism”, “Slovakiatravel”,or“Slovakiacitytourism.” Ifitdoes,thismeansthatwebmanagersactefficientlyintermsofcompetition. page17A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  18. 18. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Ranking Asubstantialfactorishowmucha websiteisactuallyvisitedandlinked. To retrieveinformationonhowmuch websitesarevisited,we’veseenduring apreviouslecturethatsomededicated tools,likePageRankandSimilarWeb, areavailableontheWeb. page18A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 imagecreditto NetLogo
  19. 19. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 B2C Communication Basics Thefirstthingtodowhenverifyingwhether theofficialwebsiteofa destinationprovidescommunicationwithitsusers islookingwhether e-mail addressesarepublished,andaresensibleaslinks. Thesecondthing todoiswritinge-mailstothedestination, seewhetherthey reply,andiftheirrepliesareuseful. However,mostB2Ccommunicationisbasedonsocialnetworking,today. Therefore,users’engagement insocialnetworking isafundamental factoras farasthequalityofwebpresenceisconcerned. page19A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  20. 20. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Engagement In Social Networking Asfarassocialnetworking engagementisconcerned, verifying  who(managersvs.users)mainlypostsinthedestination’s socialpages  inwhichlanguage(nationalvs.global)mostpostsarepublished  towhatextentofficialpostsarecommentedbyusers  howmanypostsorcommentsareindipendently placedbyusers,and  howmanylikesandfollowersdothedestination’s socialpagesgather areallcrucialthingstodo. page20A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  21. 21. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destination Management Systems Wehaveseenthat,digitallyspeaking,theidealsituationinwhichadestination canplaceitselfisbeingabletorelyonaDestinationManagementSystem(DMS). DMSallowcommunicationamongactors throughaplatform,whereactorscan cooperate,andresultsofwhicharemadeavailabletousersascomponentsof thedestination’s webpresence.Ifthishappens, B2BandB2Csomehowmeet. VerifyingtheexistenceofanyDMSfunctionssimplybyvisitingtheofficialB2C websiteofadestinationisseldompossible. Morefrequently,destinationshave separateB2BandB2Cwebsites. Thisis,forinstance,thecaseof visitbritain.orgvs.visitbritain.com. page21A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  22. 22. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Questions About Management 22A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  23. 23. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Content Update Vs. Technology Update Itisimportanttomakeacleardistinctionbetweencontentupdateand technologicalupdate. Youcancomeacrosswebsiteswhicharetechnologicallyspeaking old-style, butwhereusers’needsarefulfilledasfarascontent isconcerned. Ontheotherhand,youcanhavetechnologically updatedwebsites,thecontent ofwhichdoesnotsatisfytheusers’needs. Asamatteroffact,thetechnologystaffinchargeofadestination web presenceveryoftenworksseparatelyfromthestaffinchargeofmanaging customerrelationships. page23A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  24. 24. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Links Compliance Verification Tools,whichareavailableonline,canbeusedtoverifylinkscompliance. Linkcheckerisoneofthem. page24A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Linkchecker mustbe downloadedandinstalled. Another similartool, brokenlinkcheck.com,can beaccessedonline, instead,andistherefore maybeeasiertouse.
  25. 25. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Questions About Usability 25A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  26. 26. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Usability Basics Basicnavigationusabilityissues,likemenuandbreadcrumbs,havebeen introduced duringapreviouslecture. Asdestinations’ websiteshavetofulfillmultipleusers’needs–bothbefore andduringvisits–andusers,whenconsultingthewebsite,mayhappento searchforverydifferent sortsofinformation,a fulltextresearch functionanda sitemapareparticularlyuseful. (Undersomerespects,however,agood menucanadmittedlyworkasasite map.) page26A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  27. 27. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Download Time & Mobile Friendliness Tools,whichareavailableon line,shouldbeusedtoverify bothdownloadtime andmobile friendliness. Asfordownload time,itshould becheckedthrough https://tools.pingdom.com/ fromalltheserversavailableat pingdom,and ondifferentdays. page27A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  28. 28. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Under Which Locus? Finally,itisimportanttounderlinethatlociandquestionsshouldnot beused asalistofcheckboxes. Rather,lociandquestionsshouldbeusedasaguideline,inordertobesureto consider –astheISOdefinitionofqualityrecommends –allthecharacteristics oftheanalyzed entity. Asamatteroffact,somequalityproblemsmaybeconsideredunderdifferentloci. Forinstance,theproblemoflinksamongtheofficialandsemi-official componentsofawebpresencecertainlyfallsunder identityproblems,butit alsofallsforsureunderits individuationproblems. page28A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018
  29. 29. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thanks For Your Attention page29A7LociEvaluationModel.Lecture10,November20,2018 Picturefrom the2014Workshop

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