Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Analytics, Insights, Cookies, and the Disappearing Privacy

130 views

Published on

Analytics, Insights, Cookies, and the Disappearing Privacy. An educational presentation for the IT for Tourism Services course at the University of Bergamo, Italy

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Analytics, Insights, Cookies, and the Disappearing Privacy

  1. 1. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Analytics, Insights, Cookies, and the Disappearing Privacy Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017
  2. 2. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 What Are We Talking About Today? slide 2Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 1. Logfiles 2. Analytics 3. Google Analytics 4. Insights 5. Cookies 6. Privacy 7. Security
  3. 3. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Logfiles slide 3Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Every time a personal computer or a smartphone connects with a server –- and a browser visualizes a web page -– details of the connection are registered. In short, these details register  which machines connect  which webpages are visited  how long each visit to each page lasts. These details are logged, and can be read.
  4. 4. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Web Analytics Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 According to Wikipedia, web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. Web analytics is not just a tool for measuring website traffic but can be used as a tool for business research and market research. Web analytics applications can also help companies measure the results of traditional advertising campaigns. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views. It helps gauge traffic and popularity trends which is useful for market research. slide 4
  5. 5. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Analytics through Logfile Analysis Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Web analytics technologies are very frequently based on logfile analysis. What does this mean? We saw that web servers record some of their transactions in a logfile. These logfiles can be read by a program to provide data. Two units of measure were introduced in the 1990s to gauge the amount of human activity on web servers. These units were  page views and  visits, or sessions. slide 5
  6. 6. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Metrics: Page Views and Visits Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Let’s consider how the very first units of measure in web analytics technologies were defined in the 1990s. A page view was defined as a request made to the web server for a webpage. A visit was defined as a sequence of requests from a uniquely identified client that expires after a certain amount of inactivity, usually 30 minutes. slide 6
  7. 7. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Metrics: Bounce Rate and Unique Visitors Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Today’s analytics technologies, however, consider more metrics than simply the page views and the visits units of measure. Here we list some of them.  Bounce rate. The percentage of visits where the visitor enters and exits at the same webpage without visiting any other pages on the website.  Unique visitors. The uniquely identified client generating requests on the web server (log analysis) or viewing pages (page tagging) within a defined time period (i.e. day, week or month). A unique visitor counts once within the timescale. A visitor can make multiple visits. slide 7
  8. 8. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Metrics: Session Duration, Time On Page Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017  Session duration. Average amount of time that visitors spend on the site each time they visit. Session duration can be complicated by the fact that analytics programs cannot measure the length of the final page view -- unless they record a page close event, such as onUnload().  Page view duration / time on page. Average amount of time that visitors spend on each page of the site. slide 8
  9. 9. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Metrics: Active Time, Page Depth, etc. Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017  Active time / engagement time. Average amount of time that visitors spend actually interacting with content on a web page, based on mouse moves, clicks, hovers and scrolls. Unlike session duration and page view duration / time on page, this metric can accurately measure the length of engagement in the final page view.  Page depth / page views per session. Page depth is the average number of page views a visitor consumes before ending their session. This metric is calculated by dividing total number of page views by total number of sessions and is also called page views per session or pv/session. slide 9
  10. 10. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Google Analytics Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Google Analytics is one among many tools collecting data on visits to websites. Still, it is widely recognized as a most reliable and leading source of information. Google Analytics is a free service offered by Google that generates detailed statistics about the visitors to a website. The product is aimed at marketers as opposed to webmasters and technologists from which the industry of web analytics originally grew. It is the most widely used website statistics service, currently in use on around 57% of the 10,000 most popular websites. slide 10
  11. 11. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Analytics through Page Tagging Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Google Analytics is activated by the website’s manager by adding a javascript tracking code to the html source of every page the traffic of which is to be recorded. Then., Google Analytics is a web analytics technology based on page tagging. slide 11
  12. 12. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 A Google Analytics Dashboard Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Google Analytics slide 12
  13. 13. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Another Google Analytics Dashboard Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Google Analytics slide 13
  14. 14. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Metrics: Ranking & Ranking Tools Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 You might remember, by now, what we observed a couple of weeks ago, when we talked about networks, search engines, and ranking... Ranking in terms of networks –- basically, the number of links to and from a webpage –- is measured and made visible by web analytics technologies, based either on logfiles or on page tagging. slide 14
  15. 15. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Insights Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 All this refers to every webpage. But social networks’ webpages are logged and can be analyzed, too. The most diffused social networking platform, i.e. Facebook, calls its web analysis tool as Facebook Insights. slide 15
  16. 16. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Metrics and Cookies Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Unique visitors’ identification is made to the visitor’s computer, not the person –- usually via cookie. A cookie is used for an origin website to send state information to a user’s browser and for the browser to return the state information to the origin site. The state information can be used for authentication, identification of a user session, user’s preferences, shopping cart contents, or anything else that can be accomplished through storing text data on the user’s computer. slide 16
  17. 17. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Cookies and Tracking Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Cookies are not software: just alphanumeric strings. They cannot be programmed, cannot carry viruses, and cannot install malware on the host computer. However, they can be used by spyware to track user’s browsing activities —- a major privacy concern that prompted law makers to take action. Cookies can also be stolen by hackers to gain access to a victim’s web account. Now, let’s see where cookies are stored (and can be deleted…), for instance in a Mozilla Firefox browser. slide 17
  18. 18. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Cookies: Where Are They? Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 slide 18
  19. 19. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Cookies Consent Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Websites which use cookies are requested to tell visitors that they do so, provide details on the cookie policy they adopt, and explicitly ask visitors to accept cookies. This is to avoid that some sphere of privacy is renounced inadvertently. slide 19
  20. 20. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Privacy Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Substantial questions about e-commerce functions concern transaction security and privacy. Let’s start from privacy. Privacy is a concept of Anglo-Saxon origin linked to the idea of human rights, which concerns the right of everyone to live their lives free from prying eyes. (Privacy does not have limitations shared –- much less standardized –- and in the eyes of different people, or different cultures, can mean different things.) slide 20
  21. 21. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Disappearing Privacy Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 It is argued that privacy is now disappearing. For example, telecoms collect data on where (in which cell) any caller’s and recipient’s cellphones are located –- even when phones have no call in progress –-, and data on when, where, how long, and between whom each and every call takes place are recorded. This is among the consequences of the “digital revolution”. It’s therefore not surprising that when a website uses cookies, it is requested to warn visitors through a visible alert, and allow them to refuse cookies. slide 21
  22. 22. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Privacy Renounced Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 Apart from the case of cookies, visitors may allow to have their privacy voluntarily violated when they judge that this is worthwhile. For instance, when a person wants to buy something on line (a book, a flight, an hotel room…), she/he voluntarily agrees to reveal her/his name and financial details (credit card, bank account, PayPal identity…, passwords included) because she/he reckons that such a risk may be taken, after all. Pay attention, please. Writing an e-mail address in a form, e.g. to receive a newsletter, does not violate any privacy per se, inasmuch as an e-mail address doesn’t carry any personal details on the person who uses it. slide 22
  23. 23. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Security. Legal Responsibilities Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 From a customers’ point of view, privacy means that  if someone collects data on you, she/he must inform you that she/he keeps those data, who’s legally in charge, and what data have been collected;  you must be assured that any data collected about you is certainly and radically erased, if you ask so (with the obvious exceptions of data collected by public services, like city councils or hospitals, and public business data, like invoices);  webpages containing critical data (such as a bank accounts ID, sensible data, or any serious passwords) should be encrypted. slide 23
  24. 24. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Security. Cryptography Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 The concept behind encryption is quite simple –- make the data unlegible for everyone else except those specified. This is done using cryptography –- the study of sending “messages” in a secret form so that only those authorized to receive the “message” be able to read it. The easy part of encryption is applying a mathematical function to the plaintext and converting it to an encrypted cipher. The harder part is to ensure that the people who are supposed to decipher this message can do so with ease, yet only those authorised are able to decipher it. slide 24
  25. 25. IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018IT for Tourism Services, UniBg 2017-2018 Security Analytics, Cookies, Privacy. Lecture 08, October 26, 2017 To be accurate, what financial institutions and commercial firms must guarantee to their customers while encrypting their message is not simply their privacy. It is rather called transactions’ security. Encrypted webpages use a different transmission protocol. They use https instead of http. slide 25

×