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Changing Roles in Agile
Understand how roles & responsibilities in
traditional organization and management
change in Agile...
Agenda
• Agile Roles
• Major Cultural Shifts in transitioning to Agile
– Emergent Requirements ( and UX)
– Emergent design...
Agile Roles in an Organization
Agile Roles
Scrum
Team Member
(dev & test)
Scrum
Master (SM)
Product
Owner
PO)
Customers(s)
3 main roles:
•Product Owner (...
Shift #1: Emergent Requirements
• What is it?
– From waterfall-like “Big Requirements Up Front” (BRUF) to
“emergent requir...
Product Owner (PO)
Role:
• Owns the vision and definition of the product.
• Represents the VoC (voice of the customer).
• ...
Proxy-PO
Role:
• Assists the PO with story writing, even though PO owns prioritizing
and validating stories along with acc...
PO / Proxy-PO Responsibilities
• Observable behaviors:
*Scrum Activities include Sprint Planning, Daily Standup meeting,
S...
User Experience Lead
Role:
• Owns the vision and definition of the product UX (user experience).
• Represents the voice of...
UE Lead Responsibilities
Observable behaviors:
User Experience Lead Behaviors Portfolio
Planning
Sprint 0 Formal
Commit
Sc...
Internal Coach/Mentor
Role:
• Provide coaching to Scrum Team by observing, consulting and
providing feedback for improveme...
Internal Coach/Mentor Responsibilities
• Observable behaviors:
Agile Coach Behaviors* Sprint 0 Scrum
Activities
Scrum
of
S...
Shift #2: Emergent Design (testing)
• What is it?
– Design will emerge as functionality is being
delivered incrementally
•...
Architect
Role:
• A technical expert who works with the Scrum Team and
Product Owner to ensure technical alignment and suc...
Architect Responsibilities-
• Observable behaviors:
*Architects may also be Scrum Team Members or Proxy-Product Owners.
Ar...
Scrum Team Member -
Role:
• A dedicated cross-functional team member that may be in a QA,
DOC, DEV, or UE job function foc...
Scrum Team Member Responsibilities-
• Observable behaviors:
*Swarming is working in small cross-functional
groups to rapid...
Shift #3: Tracking & Oversight
• What is it ?
– Tracking work pending vs. % complete
• Major impacted Areas
– Program Mana...
Scrum Master
Role:
• A servant leadership role that is responsible for enforcing agile values and
practices at team level
...
SM Responsibilities
• Observable behaviors:
*Scrum Activities include Sprint Planning, Daily Standup meeting,
Sprint Retro...
Agile Program Manger
Role:
• A member of the Program Management Office (PMO) who works with product
owner, scrum masters a...
Agile Program Manager
Responsibilities
• Observable behaviors:
*Program Managers indirectly support the Portfolio Planning...
Agile Functional Manager
Role:
• Support Scrum Team members to learn, grow and perform, while
maintaining departmental res...
Agile Functional Manager:
CAVEATS/ Don’ts
Interesting Readings:
• Pete Deemer’s
Manager 2.0:
The Role of the Manager in Sc...
Agile Functional Manager
Responsibilities
• Observable behaviors:
* Agile Functional Managers may have other roles that ad...
Changing Role of Manager in Agile/Scrum
Core Responsibilities Transition
Stage
Additional Responsibilities
 Creates an en...
Sample Agile RACI matrix*
* This is only an example. Modify based on your org structure and needs!
Summary: Cultural Shifts in Agile
• Emergent Requirements ( and UX)
• Emergent design (and testing)
• Tracking & Oversight
Summary: Role of Agile Manager in Scrum
Core Responsibilities Transition
Stage
Additional Responsibilities
 Creates an en...
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Agile Roles & responsibilities

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Agile Roles & responsibilities

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Agile Roles & responsibilities

  1. 1. Changing Roles in Agile Understand how roles & responsibilities in traditional organization and management change in Agile/Scrum process framework Ravi Tadwalkar Agile Coach, WD; Co-founder, “Cisco Internal Coaches Network”; Event Organizer, AgileCamp.org & SVALN This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  2. 2. Agenda • Agile Roles • Major Cultural Shifts in transitioning to Agile – Emergent Requirements ( and UX) – Emergent design (and testing) – Tracking & Oversight • Sample Agile RACI matrix • Summary
  3. 3. Agile Roles in an Organization
  4. 4. Agile Roles Scrum Team Member (dev & test) Scrum Master (SM) Product Owner PO) Customers(s) 3 main roles: •Product Owner (PO) •Scrum Master (SM) •Scrum team member Other pertinent roles: •Proxy-PO, •User Experience Lead, •Architect, •Internal Coach/Mentor, •Agile Program Manger, •Functional Manager, and •Agile Product/Portfolio Manager
  5. 5. Shift #1: Emergent Requirements • What is it? – From waterfall-like “Big Requirements Up Front” (BRUF) to “emergent requirements” to drive just enough architecture. • Major Impacted Areas – Marketing: Product /Portfolio Management – Usability • Possible Agile Roles – Product Owner (PO) – Proxy-PO – User Experience Lead – Internal Coach/Mentor
  6. 6. Product Owner (PO) Role: • Owns the vision and definition of the product. • Represents the VoC (voice of the customer). • Ensures that the scrum team(s) work on “right things” from the business perspective. Recommendation: • One can break this role down differently based on BU or location • The subject matter expert (SME) - the one who knows *what* to build the most- becomes the PO. We recommend that you have your marketing guy to help you on evolving product backlog, with the help of other SMEs • Traditional Product Manager works with the PO Caveats: • PO needs to avoid waterfall-like BRUF (Big Requirements Up Front) syndrome and get used to doing “emergent requirements” to drive just enough architecture. • PO may not scale to cover all scrum teams. – If PO is not always available to the team for clarification and for acceptance, then the alternative is to have someone take on the Proxy-PO role. – Sometimes Dev Managers / Technical Leaders can take Proxy-PO role in conjunction with PO.
  7. 7. Proxy-PO Role: • Assists the PO with story writing, even though PO owns prioritizing and validating stories along with acceptance criteria. Recommendation: • Proxy-PO is ideally co-resident with distributed scrum team. • Proxy-PO is needed due to location & band-width issues of PO, • Typically, Director of Product Marketing assigns proxy-PO. Caveats: • Watch out for tacit information lost in translation between PO & the Proxy. • Not having Proxy-PO may cause back-ending during iteration.
  8. 8. PO / Proxy-PO Responsibilities • Observable behaviors: *Scrum Activities include Sprint Planning, Daily Standup meeting, Sprint Retrospective meeting and Sprint Review/Demo meeting. Product Owner Behaviors Portfolio Planning Sprint 0 Formal Commit Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Engages The Customer      Communicates Product Vision      Prioritizes and Grooms Backlog   Participates On Teams      Verbally Clarifies User Stories     Accepts User Stories  Facilitates Demos   Reports Release Status   
  9. 9. User Experience Lead Role: • Owns the vision and definition of the product UX (user experience). • Represents the voice of the end user. • Ensures the scrum team works on “right things” from a usability perspective. Recommendation: • Often this role is filled by - preferably local - Interaction Designer. • Sometimes Visual Designer, Product Manager, or Engineer can serve as Proxy-UE Lead. Caveat(s): • Watch out for scenarios where Interaction Designers may not scale to cover all scrum teams. Reason could be waterfall-like BRUF/BDUF symptom of creating “perfect” UX. Try to make them work with PO in evolutionary mode, for incremental delivery.
  10. 10. UE Lead Responsibilities Observable behaviors: User Experience Lead Behaviors Portfolio Planning Sprint 0 Formal Commit Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Defines User Experience Concept    Plans UE-related Deliverables      Creates Wireframes, Visual Comps, and Visual Assets As Part Of Preparing User Stories To Be Ready For Implementation.     Supports Scrum Team To Deal With Issues And To Answer UI-related Questions     Partners With PO To Review/Accept UI-related User Stories    Plans And Runs Usability Studies      Supports Product Owner In Customer Engagement Activities     
  11. 11. Internal Coach/Mentor Role: • Provide coaching to Scrum Team by observing, consulting and providing feedback for improvement. Recommendation: • Typically coaching is performed by very experienced Scrum Masters/ POs who have been trained by other agile coaches in the internal coaching network. Caveat(s): • There are well known coaching “traps”- failure modes- via any of these self-explanatory labels: spy, seagull, opinionator, admin, hub, butterfly, theoretician and nag. • These failure modes are results of ego or partial attention.
  12. 12. Internal Coach/Mentor Responsibilities • Observable behaviors: Agile Coach Behaviors* Sprint 0 Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Formal Commit Portfolio Planning Evangelizes Agile      Effectively Trains Others In Agile Principles and Practices      Provides Subject Matter Expertise On Best Practices      Applies Product and Organizational Knowledge      Enforces Agile Principles      Holds Team Accountable      Communicates Effectively      *Internal Agile Coaches can be: - Team-level Agile Coaches, where they will be specialized in coaching Scrum Teams, or - Program-level Agile Coaches, where they will be focused on Portfolio Planning, stage- gates such as formal Commit, Scrum of Scrums, and Sprint 0.
  13. 13. Shift #2: Emergent Design (testing) • What is it? – Design will emerge as functionality is being delivered incrementally • Major Impacted Areas – Architecture – Development – Test • Possible Agile Roles – Architect – Scrum Team Member (Dev & Test) – Internal Coach/Mentor (Team Level player-coach)
  14. 14. Architect Role: • A technical expert who works with the Scrum Team and Product Owner to ensure technical alignment and success of the product. Recommendation • The traditional architect/ Technical Lead role usually maps to the architect in agile. Caveat(s): • Architect needs to avoid waterfall-ish BDUF (Big Design Up Front) syndrome to get used to doing “emergent design” for just enough architecture. • Architects should be present in daily stand ups to understand blockers and post-meeting get into a solutioning mode
  15. 15. Architect Responsibilities- • Observable behaviors: *Architects may also be Scrum Team Members or Proxy-Product Owners. Architect Behaviors* Portfolio Planning Formal Commit Sprint 0 Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Provides Mentoring      Support Product Owner, eg. So That Stories Are Implementable     Drives Refactoring     Provides Clear Architectural Direction      Supports Mid- and Long Range Roadmapping    Provides Subject Matter Expertise      Ensures Strong, Most Appropriate, Development Methods Are Followed     Insures Implementation Supports Testability, Scalability, Performance, Security, etc.    
  16. 16. Scrum Team Member - Role: • A dedicated cross-functional team member that may be in a QA, DOC, DEV, or UE job function focused on completing user stories. Recommendation: • Engineers in existing team (QA, DOC, DEV, or UE) structure usually map to Scrum team member role. Caveat(s): • For some BUs, cross-functional team formation may not happen, so there are some combinations possible e.g. “marketing + DEV”, where DEV does testing. • Some scrum team members are shared across teams, e.g. DBA.
  17. 17. Scrum Team Member Responsibilities- • Observable behaviors: *Swarming is working in small cross-functional groups to rapidly complete high priority tasks. Scrum Team Member Behaviors Portfolio Planning Sprint 0 Formal Commit Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Cross-trains/Mentors Team Members   Estimates Tasks Accurately   Takes On New Unfamiliar Tasks   Decomposes User Stories Into Tasks  Swarms* With Other Scrum Team Members   Provides Timely Status To The Team    Participates Actively In The Team     Makes And Meets Commitments   
  18. 18. Shift #3: Tracking & Oversight • What is it ? – Tracking work pending vs. % complete • Major impacted Areas – Program Management – Handling Impediments – Management by Objectives • Possible Agile Roles – SM – Agile Program Manger – Functional Manager – Internal Coach/Mentor (Team Level)
  19. 19. Scrum Master Role: • A servant leadership role that is responsible for enforcing agile values and practices at team level • SM ensures that scrum team is fully functional, productive and focused on the goal. Recommendations • Anyone - properly trained - can potentially fill this role. • For SM role, you may want to find a person who knows *how* to “Get Things Done” with excellent facilitation skills, someone who can get the best out of team to work on what PO specifies. This is very much like an architect/lead that the team looks up to for design decisions/facilitation. Caveat(s): • Keep in mind that a Functional Manager in this role may struggle with the shift to servant leadership. • SM does not assign tasks and needs to move away from “command & control” • SM sets up the team for failure if s/he does not track burn down charts and/or CFDs
  20. 20. SM Responsibilities • Observable behaviors: *Scrum Activities include Sprint Planning, Daily Standup meeting, Sprint Retrospective meeting and Sprint Review/Demo meeting. Scrum Master Behaviors Portfoli o Plannin g Sprint 0 Formal Commit Scrum Activities * Scrum of Scrum s Trains Team Members   Removes Impediments   Runs and Facilitates Scrum Meetings  Protects Teams From Distractions  Enforces Agile Principles     Holds Team Accountable     Provides Status     Works With Product Owner To Assure Readiness To Sprint    
  21. 21. Agile Program Manger Role: • A member of the Program Management Office (PMO) who works with product owner, scrum masters and others (as identified by the organization) to ensure that: – the program executes according to the overall program plan, – the program stays within the committed boundaries (resources, schedule, content, quality) and goals as defined in the commit process Recommendations: • Agile Office is different from a traditional PMO and is required for organizational transformation and sustenance. Here is experience report from Agile 2011 event. • Agile Program Manager leads the creation of Agile Office. Caveat(s): • It can be challenging to update project plans (Gantt charts) based on team’s burndown data. • It’s reasonable to try to attain match between scrum team’s release plan and PMO level program/project plan. Trying to match program plan with sprint plans at the detailed level will not be productive.
  22. 22. Agile Program Manager Responsibilities • Observable behaviors: *Program Managers indirectly support the Portfolio Planning process, by providing relevant historical, statistical, and capacity tactical data. Agile Program Manager Behaviors Portfolio Planning * Sprint 0 Formal Commit Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Drives The Commit Preparation Activities    Facilitates The Scrum Of Scrums  Facilitates Escalation and Removal Of Impediments     Monitors Program Progress     Monitors Compliance With Corporate and ISO Requirements     Facilitates Agile Commit (aka “hybrid scrum” stage gate)  Facilitates Creation Of The Program Plan   Facilitates Communication With Dependent Groups     Manages External Dependencies    
  23. 23. Agile Functional Manager Role: • Support Scrum Team members to learn, grow and perform, while maintaining departmental responsibility and accountability for achieving business results. Recommendation: • Usually Dev & Test Managers fit in this role. Technical directors may also be good fit. Caveat(s): • Watch out for the drift back to old command-and-control behaviors by manager assigning tasks to team rather than team choosing it. • Avoid confusing people management with project management – the former is done by the functional manager- and NOT latter.
  24. 24. Agile Functional Manager: CAVEATS/ Don’ts Interesting Readings: • Pete Deemer’s Manager 2.0: The Role of the Manager in Scrum • Jurgen Appelo’s Management 3.0 workouts • Now You See It: A Peer Feedback System for Scrum Teams Behaviors that conflict with Agile/Scrum: • Decide what work needs to be done • Make commitments to management on behalf of the team • About how much can team do by a certain date • Assign the work to Team members • Do weekly status update report for management • Keep track of what everyone on the team is doing • Make sure the Team gets their work done
  25. 25. Agile Functional Manager Responsibilities • Observable behaviors: * Agile Functional Managers may have other roles that add additional behaviors that need to be taken into account during calibration. Agile Functional Manager Behaviors* Portfolio Planning Sprint 0 Formal Commit Scrum Activities Scrum of Scrums Provides Mentoring, “T-shaped” Skills Development, & Career Guidance     Removes Impediments     Protects Teams From Distractions    Recruits and Hires New Team Members     Evaluates Performance Of Team Members- using 360 feedback and/or calibration, etc…     Recognizes and Rewards Teams and Individuals     Provides Subject Matter Expertise      Holds Teams and Individuals Accountable For Their Own Commitments     Creates An Environment Of Trust    
  26. 26. Changing Role of Manager in Agile/Scrum Core Responsibilities Transition Stage Additional Responsibilities  Creates an environment of trust  Removes Impediments  Protects Teams From Distractions  Retains people management responsibilities  Recognizes and Rewards agile behavior in teams and individuals  Holds teams and individuals accountable for their own commitments Agile Newbie • Have & set reasonable expectations about transition, i.e. team may stumble in initial phase. • Budget time, resources for team needs e.g. Agile training, infrastructure. Agile Practitioner • Introduce Slack to improve effectiveness over efficiency • May participate in or sponsor Agile transition planning and execution Agile Innovator • Support innovation by mentoring & coaching • Foster organizational improvement • Manage Agile Portfolio (w/ Release Planning) • Incorporate lean principles in management • Become member of corporate agile-lean community of practice
  27. 27. Sample Agile RACI matrix* * This is only an example. Modify based on your org structure and needs!
  28. 28. Summary: Cultural Shifts in Agile • Emergent Requirements ( and UX) • Emergent design (and testing) • Tracking & Oversight
  29. 29. Summary: Role of Agile Manager in Scrum Core Responsibilities Transition Stage Additional Responsibilities  Creates an environment of trust  Removes Impediments  Protects Teams From Distractions  Retains people management responsibilities  Recognizes and Rewards agile behavior in teams and individuals  Holds teams and individuals accountable for their own commitments Agile Newbie • Have & set reasonable expectations about transition, i.e. team may stumble in initial phase. • Budget time, resources for team needs e.g. Agile training, infrastructure. Agile Practitioner • Introduce Slack to improve effectiveness over efficiency • May participate in or sponsor Agile transition planning and execution Agile Innovator • Support innovation • Fosteri organizational improvement • Agile Portfolio Management • Incorporate lean principles in management • Effective coaches of Agile & lean principles • Become member of corporate agile-lean community of practice CAVEATS/ Don’ts: Behaviors that conflict with Agile/Scrum: • Decide what work needs to be done • Making commitments to upper management for the team • About how much Team can do by a certain date • Assign the work to Team members • Watch out for the drift back to old command-and-control behaviors by manager assigning tasks to team rather than team choosing it. • Do weekly status update report for management • Keep track of what everyone on the Team is doing • Make sure the Team gets their work done Interesting Readings: • Pete Deemer’s Manager 2.0: The Role of the Manager in Scrum • Jurgen Appelo’s Management 3.0 workouts • Now You See It: A Peer Feedback System for Scrum Teams

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