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Dutch
Multicultural
Society
(Netherlands)
(Western European Democracies
in the 20th Century)
Presentation on
Contents:
• Brief Introduction: The Netherlands
• A Fact
• Spread non-Western immigrants in the
Netherlands
• Diversity
• The New Diversity: Non-Western ethnic
minorities in the Netherlands
• Netherlands Refugee Statistics 1960-2022
• Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands
• How many residents have a foreign country
of origin?
• Population of Non-Dutch Origin
• Largest groups of foreign immigrants to the
Netherlands in 2022, by nationality
• Largest groups of foreign immigrants to the
Netherlands In 2022, by nationality
• Multiculturalism And Dutch Policies
• Handling Migration
• “allochtoon”
• Frits Bolkestein
• Growing Imphasis on Islam
• Multicultural Mayor : Ahmed Aboutaleb
• Rijsttafel : A Dish to Bridge Dutch and
Indonesian Identities
• Indian Community : Success Story In the
Netherlands
• Some Books
• Sources
Brief Introduction: The Netherlands
• Don’t call the Netherlands ‘Holland’
The Netherlands consists of 12 provinces, only two of which actually make up
Holland.
• The Netherlands has the highest population density in Europe (522 per square
kilometre)
• The Netherlands is the lowest-lying country in Europe
• There are more bicycles in the Netherlands than people
• One-fifth of the population in the Netherlands is foreign-born
• The Netherlands has the highest English proficiency in the world
• The Netherlands has one official language
• The Dutch government plans to ban new gas and diesel cars by 2030
• It was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community
(predecessor to the European Union) and the NATO
• During WW1, the Netherlands remained neutral; in WW2, the Netherlands
endured a five-year occupation by Germany
"GodmadetheEarth,buttheDutchmadeHolland."
Today more than 1,491 miles (2,400 kilometers) of
dikes shield the low, flat land—almosthalf of which
lies below sea level—fromthe North Sea.
Fact:
Without the existing dikes 65 percent of the
country would be flooded daily.
Spread of non-
Western immigrants
in the Netherlands
Little less than half of all
immigrants in the Netherlands
(1.4 million people) have a
Western background.
These so-called Western
immigrants originally come from
other European countries (except
Turkey), the United States,
Indonesia, Japan and Australia.
A major difference, however, was that these migrants’ residence was seen as
temporary migrants were encouraged to retain their cultural identity. The official
justification was that this would help them reintegrate upon their return to their
countries of origin.
The authorities also facilitated migrants in setting up their own associations and
consultative bodies. This approach of creating separate facilities based on
community identities was not new to the Dutch.
In the 1950s, it was mainly through a number of well- chosen social policy measures for the
so-called “repatriates” from Indonesia were encouraged to assimilate into Dutch society, with
which most already had a certain familiarity.
Later, in the 1960s and 1970s, social policy again played a crucial role in the reception and
guidance of newly arriving immigrants, low skilled “guest workers” from Southern Europe,
Turkey, and Morocco, Surinam or the former Netherlands Antilles.
In today’s Dutch society, not only has the number of people with a migration background increased,
but the migrants hail from much more diverse backgrounds. People belonging to the ‘classical’
communities of immigrants are now in a minority, with the majority of migrants having come from a
wide range of other countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Syria, Germany, India and China.
The New Diversity: Non-Western ethnic minorities in the Netherlands
Pillarization
The pillarised structure of
Dutch society assumed its
most developed
form between the late
1910s and the mid 1960s.
During this period most
people lived most of their
lives within one of the
following three (or four)
pillars:
• Roman Catholic
• orthodox
• Calvinist
• Or secular
Forecast: Share of people in the Netherlands
with a migration background, 1996 – 2060
Diversity
By‘diversity’,wemeanethnically diversebackgrounds.
Netherlands Refugee Statistics 1960-2022
Netherlands
refugee statistics
for 2022
was 218,457.00,
a 119.37%
increase from
2021.
Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands
How many residents have a foreign country of origin?
Largest
groups of
foreign
immigrants
to the
Netherlands
in 2022, by
nationality
Multiculturalism
and Dutch
Policies
Multiculturalism was launched to protect and promote
the distinctive identities and ways of life of minorities.
Dutch policies have been dynamic and fluid over the
past four decades.
The policy assumes that minorities wish to preserve their
identities and ways of life; believe that their well-being is
tied to preserving them; are concerned that they are
threatened; and are right in believing them to be
threatened.
Handling Migration
Gain A Better Understanding Of The Various Migrant
Communities
Equipping Organizations
Fair Treatment For All Migrants
Introducing All Dutch Citizens To Dutch Society
Getting To Know People’s Faces
Improving Migrants’ Socio-economic Position
“allochtoon”
Frequently to mean
people with a non-western
background.
(Alien)
They are viewed as dark,
foreign, intrusive, working
class, and deviant.
Frits
Bolkestein
Was the leader
of the conservative Liberal
Party People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy
(VVD)
Triggered a first
public debate about
immigration.
Growing Imphasis on Islam
Theo van Gogh was murdered in 2004 by a Dutch-born Muslim fundamentalist
of Moroccan background who felt the film director had insulted Islam.
This murder provoked strong reactions among large segments of the native
population, who tended to be blind to the fact that the vast majority of
Muslims in the Netherlands also strongly disagreed with the killing.
Since then, immigration and integration have risen to
the top of the political agenda.
Attitudes towards these issues have become much
tougher, not only in politics, but also in society at large.
Multicultural Mayor : Ahmed Aboutaleb
Just days before the United States elected Barack Obama as its first
non-white president in November 2008, a similar milestone was
reached in the Netherlands.
The Dutch city of Rotterdam is known to be one of Europe’s most
dynamic, diverse and multicultural cities.
Did you know?!
For the first time in history, a Dutch Moroccan became mayor – not
just of a small village, but of the second largest city in the country:
Rotterdam.
What is often overlooked, is that newcomers may
also influence local cuisine.
Rijsttafel : A Dish to Bridge Dutch and Indonesian Identities
It is a symbol of intangible cultural heritage,
demonstrating its long-standing popularity and
honouring the importance of Indonesian cuisine to
modern Dutch culture.
This is how Americans – and the world – got their
pizzas, how chicken tikka masala became a standard
dish in the United Kingdom, and why the French
have taken on couscous.
The Dutch have their own version of this culinary
creolization: Indonesian rijsttafel or “rice table”.
R
I
C
E
T
A
B
L
E
It is the largest Indian origin diaspora in mainland
Europe (after the United Kingdom) with more than
200,000 members of Hindustani-Surinami community
and more than 60,000 Indian professionals and
students.
The Hindustanis are the descendants of British-Indian
indentured laborers who migrated to the Dutch colony
of Surinam between 1873 and 1916, and who moved
on to the Netherlands in particular during the 1970s
and 1980s.
The Netherlands is home to some 200 Indian
companies, half of which are based in the capital,
creating employment opportunities for skilled Indian
migrants, three quarters of whom work in IT and
information services.
Indian Community : Success Story In the Netherlands
Sources
• https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/dutch-multicultural-society-fact-and-figures-0_en
• https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/geography/countries/article/netherlands
• https://www.expatica.com/nl/moving/about/netherlands-facts-108857/
• https://www.ucl.ac.uk/dutchstudies/an/SP_LINKS_UCL_POPUP/SPs_english/multicultureel_gev_ENG/pages/allochtonen.html
• WRR Publications:
https://english.wrr.nl/publications/publications/2018/07/11/summary-the-new-diversity-v38
• https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/visualisations/dashboard-population/population-dynamics/immigration
• https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/dossier/asylum-migration-and-integration/how-many-residents-have-a-foreign-country-of-origin-
• https://www.macrotrends.net/countries/NLD/netherlands/refugee-statistics#:~:text=Netherlands%20refugee%20statistics%20for%202022,a%201.57%25%20increase%20from%202019.
• https://ind.nl/en/about-us/statistics-and-publications/asylum-trends
• FORUM Dutch Institute for Multicultural Society:
https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/dutch-multicultural-society-fact-and-figures-0_en
• https://www.dutchnews.nl/2016/03/dutch-government-re-examines-use-of-the-terms-allochtoon-and-autochtoon/
• https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/netherlands-government-re-examines-use-term-allochtoon-alien_en
• https://www.statista.com/statistics/525804/netherlands-largest-groups-of-immigrants-by-nationality/
• https://folklife.si.edu/magazine/rijsttafel-dutch-indonesian-identities
• https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/news/high-influx-of-ukrainian-refugees-putting-dutch-capacities-under-pressure/
• https://mayorsofeurope.eu/mayor/rotterdam/
• https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1814342
• https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/23485
• https://www.dutchnews.nl/2019/09/highly-skilled-happy-and-at-home-indian-expats-share-their-experiences/
• https://www.indiaspora.org/blog/the-netherlands-home-to-the-second-largest-indian-diaspora-in-europe#:~:text=With%20a%20population%20of%2017.5,includes%20approximately%20200%2C000%20Indo%2DSurinamese.
• https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1006973011455
• https://acs-metropolis.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/canadiandiversity-vol4-no1-2005-176qr.pdf#page=34
• https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.01.009
• https://doi.org/10.2307/3002044
Thank You.
Questions?

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Dutch Multicultural Society - Netherlands 2024

  • 2. Contents: • Brief Introduction: The Netherlands • A Fact • Spread non-Western immigrants in the Netherlands • Diversity • The New Diversity: Non-Western ethnic minorities in the Netherlands • Netherlands Refugee Statistics 1960-2022 • Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands • How many residents have a foreign country of origin? • Population of Non-Dutch Origin • Largest groups of foreign immigrants to the Netherlands in 2022, by nationality • Largest groups of foreign immigrants to the Netherlands In 2022, by nationality • Multiculturalism And Dutch Policies • Handling Migration • “allochtoon” • Frits Bolkestein • Growing Imphasis on Islam • Multicultural Mayor : Ahmed Aboutaleb • Rijsttafel : A Dish to Bridge Dutch and Indonesian Identities • Indian Community : Success Story In the Netherlands • Some Books • Sources
  • 3. Brief Introduction: The Netherlands • Don’t call the Netherlands ‘Holland’ The Netherlands consists of 12 provinces, only two of which actually make up Holland. • The Netherlands has the highest population density in Europe (522 per square kilometre) • The Netherlands is the lowest-lying country in Europe • There are more bicycles in the Netherlands than people • One-fifth of the population in the Netherlands is foreign-born • The Netherlands has the highest English proficiency in the world • The Netherlands has one official language • The Dutch government plans to ban new gas and diesel cars by 2030 • It was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union) and the NATO • During WW1, the Netherlands remained neutral; in WW2, the Netherlands endured a five-year occupation by Germany
  • 4. "GodmadetheEarth,buttheDutchmadeHolland." Today more than 1,491 miles (2,400 kilometers) of dikes shield the low, flat land—almosthalf of which lies below sea level—fromthe North Sea. Fact: Without the existing dikes 65 percent of the country would be flooded daily.
  • 5. Spread of non- Western immigrants in the Netherlands Little less than half of all immigrants in the Netherlands (1.4 million people) have a Western background. These so-called Western immigrants originally come from other European countries (except Turkey), the United States, Indonesia, Japan and Australia.
  • 6. A major difference, however, was that these migrants’ residence was seen as temporary migrants were encouraged to retain their cultural identity. The official justification was that this would help them reintegrate upon their return to their countries of origin. The authorities also facilitated migrants in setting up their own associations and consultative bodies. This approach of creating separate facilities based on community identities was not new to the Dutch. In the 1950s, it was mainly through a number of well- chosen social policy measures for the so-called “repatriates” from Indonesia were encouraged to assimilate into Dutch society, with which most already had a certain familiarity. Later, in the 1960s and 1970s, social policy again played a crucial role in the reception and guidance of newly arriving immigrants, low skilled “guest workers” from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Morocco, Surinam or the former Netherlands Antilles. In today’s Dutch society, not only has the number of people with a migration background increased, but the migrants hail from much more diverse backgrounds. People belonging to the ‘classical’ communities of immigrants are now in a minority, with the majority of migrants having come from a wide range of other countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Syria, Germany, India and China. The New Diversity: Non-Western ethnic minorities in the Netherlands
  • 7. Pillarization The pillarised structure of Dutch society assumed its most developed form between the late 1910s and the mid 1960s. During this period most people lived most of their lives within one of the following three (or four) pillars: • Roman Catholic • orthodox • Calvinist • Or secular
  • 8. Forecast: Share of people in the Netherlands with a migration background, 1996 – 2060
  • 10. Netherlands Refugee Statistics 1960-2022 Netherlands refugee statistics for 2022 was 218,457.00, a 119.37% increase from 2021.
  • 11. Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands
  • 12. How many residents have a foreign country of origin?
  • 13.
  • 15. Multiculturalism and Dutch Policies Multiculturalism was launched to protect and promote the distinctive identities and ways of life of minorities. Dutch policies have been dynamic and fluid over the past four decades. The policy assumes that minorities wish to preserve their identities and ways of life; believe that their well-being is tied to preserving them; are concerned that they are threatened; and are right in believing them to be threatened.
  • 16. Handling Migration Gain A Better Understanding Of The Various Migrant Communities Equipping Organizations Fair Treatment For All Migrants Introducing All Dutch Citizens To Dutch Society Getting To Know People’s Faces Improving Migrants’ Socio-economic Position
  • 17. “allochtoon” Frequently to mean people with a non-western background. (Alien) They are viewed as dark, foreign, intrusive, working class, and deviant.
  • 18. Frits Bolkestein Was the leader of the conservative Liberal Party People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) Triggered a first public debate about immigration.
  • 19. Growing Imphasis on Islam Theo van Gogh was murdered in 2004 by a Dutch-born Muslim fundamentalist of Moroccan background who felt the film director had insulted Islam. This murder provoked strong reactions among large segments of the native population, who tended to be blind to the fact that the vast majority of Muslims in the Netherlands also strongly disagreed with the killing. Since then, immigration and integration have risen to the top of the political agenda. Attitudes towards these issues have become much tougher, not only in politics, but also in society at large.
  • 20. Multicultural Mayor : Ahmed Aboutaleb Just days before the United States elected Barack Obama as its first non-white president in November 2008, a similar milestone was reached in the Netherlands. The Dutch city of Rotterdam is known to be one of Europe’s most dynamic, diverse and multicultural cities. Did you know?! For the first time in history, a Dutch Moroccan became mayor – not just of a small village, but of the second largest city in the country: Rotterdam.
  • 21. What is often overlooked, is that newcomers may also influence local cuisine. Rijsttafel : A Dish to Bridge Dutch and Indonesian Identities It is a symbol of intangible cultural heritage, demonstrating its long-standing popularity and honouring the importance of Indonesian cuisine to modern Dutch culture. This is how Americans – and the world – got their pizzas, how chicken tikka masala became a standard dish in the United Kingdom, and why the French have taken on couscous. The Dutch have their own version of this culinary creolization: Indonesian rijsttafel or “rice table”. R I C E T A B L E
  • 22. It is the largest Indian origin diaspora in mainland Europe (after the United Kingdom) with more than 200,000 members of Hindustani-Surinami community and more than 60,000 Indian professionals and students. The Hindustanis are the descendants of British-Indian indentured laborers who migrated to the Dutch colony of Surinam between 1873 and 1916, and who moved on to the Netherlands in particular during the 1970s and 1980s. The Netherlands is home to some 200 Indian companies, half of which are based in the capital, creating employment opportunities for skilled Indian migrants, three quarters of whom work in IT and information services. Indian Community : Success Story In the Netherlands
  • 23.
  • 24. Sources • https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/dutch-multicultural-society-fact-and-figures-0_en • https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/geography/countries/article/netherlands • https://www.expatica.com/nl/moving/about/netherlands-facts-108857/ • https://www.ucl.ac.uk/dutchstudies/an/SP_LINKS_UCL_POPUP/SPs_english/multicultureel_gev_ENG/pages/allochtonen.html • WRR Publications: https://english.wrr.nl/publications/publications/2018/07/11/summary-the-new-diversity-v38 • https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/visualisations/dashboard-population/population-dynamics/immigration • https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/dossier/asylum-migration-and-integration/how-many-residents-have-a-foreign-country-of-origin- • https://www.macrotrends.net/countries/NLD/netherlands/refugee-statistics#:~:text=Netherlands%20refugee%20statistics%20for%202022,a%201.57%25%20increase%20from%202019. • https://ind.nl/en/about-us/statistics-and-publications/asylum-trends • FORUM Dutch Institute for Multicultural Society: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/dutch-multicultural-society-fact-and-figures-0_en • https://www.dutchnews.nl/2016/03/dutch-government-re-examines-use-of-the-terms-allochtoon-and-autochtoon/ • https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/netherlands-government-re-examines-use-term-allochtoon-alien_en • https://www.statista.com/statistics/525804/netherlands-largest-groups-of-immigrants-by-nationality/ • https://folklife.si.edu/magazine/rijsttafel-dutch-indonesian-identities • https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/news/high-influx-of-ukrainian-refugees-putting-dutch-capacities-under-pressure/ • https://mayorsofeurope.eu/mayor/rotterdam/ • https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1814342 • https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/23485 • https://www.dutchnews.nl/2019/09/highly-skilled-happy-and-at-home-indian-expats-share-their-experiences/ • https://www.indiaspora.org/blog/the-netherlands-home-to-the-second-largest-indian-diaspora-in-europe#:~:text=With%20a%20population%20of%2017.5,includes%20approximately%20200%2C000%20Indo%2DSurinamese. • https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1006973011455 • https://acs-metropolis.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/canadiandiversity-vol4-no1-2005-176qr.pdf#page=34 • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.01.009 • https://doi.org/10.2307/3002044