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THE SENGUPTA
COMMITTEE
 The Prasar Bharti Act was framed in an era when DD and AIR, like other monopolies, were
at once market regulators and players.
 The Prasar Bharti Act (1990) was formed by the government as a result of Chanda committee
report in 1996.
 Prasar Bharti is India’s largest public broadcaster. It comprises of Doordarshan television
Network and All India Radio.
 Earlier there were media units of the Ministry Of Information and Broadcasting, now it is an
autonomous body set up by an act of Parliament.
 The parilament of India passed an act to grant this autonomy in 1990 but it was inacted on
September 15, 1997.
 The Prasar Bharti (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act 1990 extends to the whole of
India.
Brief Introduction to the Prasar Bharti Act
 The Nitesh Sengupta Committee (expert committee) was set up by
the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on 28th December,
1995 under the Chairmanship of Dr.N.K.Sengupta.
 It was set up to re-examine the Prasar Bharti Act 1990.
 Group consisted of:
 N.K.SENGUPTA (Chairman)
 M.R.NARAYANA (Member)
 VED LEKHA (Member)
Introduction
(Sengupta Committee):
 Measures to sustain, strengthen and amplify Prasar Bharati's role as a public broadcaster with
special reference to its relationship with the government.
 Measures to digitise the archives of Doordarshan and All India Radio, which include material
from the independence movement era, and develop enabling infrastructure in the form of data
digitalisation systems, data centres & networks.
 Suggesting how the new media can be used to deliver digital content, both in broadcast mode,
through DTH and in a demand-based mode-free on social media like You Tube, and on payment
through IPTV.
 Suggest a strategy for creating a network of domestic and overseas business partners for
ensuring wider reach to a worldwide audience including creating an exclusive overseas service of
Prasar Bharati.
The committee was supposed to
suggest :
 The Group had several meetings and also interacted with media experts,
representatives of various associations of the employees of Doordarshan and All India
Radio, senior executives of AIR and Doordarshan stationed in Delhi, Bombay,
Calcutta and Madras and eminent people representing different walks Of life such as
management, education, literature, culture, arts, music, dramatics and journalism.
 The Group also visited the headquarters of Coal India, Calcutta, Indian Airlines,
Delhi and Air India and General Insurance Company, Bombay to interact with the
senior management in these organisations to study their respective management
structures. The Group also received representations from different quarters.
 The Group had to complete its deliberations within a short time, barely 3 to 4
months, which too were interrupted by political developments and General Elections
of 1996.
What the group accomplished:
 The Chairman took advantage of his visit to London in June, 1996 and spent
some time with the Administrative Minister for BBC and other officials of the
Ministry.
 The group wanted to know how the United Kingdom were ensuring the
autonomous functioning of the BBC and what problems they were facing which
were caused by the explosion of satellite channels.
 The Group noted that there was a change in the present media scenario in the
world and in India since the Prasar Bharati Act was enacted in September,
1990. In a short span of five years, there was a significant change.
THE FINAL REVIEW BY THE COMMITTEE
(TOTAL 25)
 1. Prasar Bharati should be a Statutory Corporation (public enterprises brought
into existence by a Special Act of the Parliament) as envisaged in the Act and can
start operating immediately. The preamble to the Act may be suitably
amplified and the suggested modified version is reproduced hereunder:- "An
Act is to be provided for the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation of
India, to be known as Prasar Bharati for providing public service
broadcasting and fulfil the basic information, education and entertainment
needs of the people and to define its composition, functions and powers and
to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto."
 2. It is necessary to split Akashvani and Doordarshan into two completely
separate wings under the corporate umbrella of the Prasar Bharati
Corporation, with close coordination in areas clearly defined and delineated
by the Corporation. For all practical purposes they should operate as
separate entities. Steps should be taken to demarcate the hardware and the
assets between Akashvani and Doordarshan and, divide the personnel across
all disciplines.
 3. We recommend a full-time Chairman, instead of the part-time
Chairman as envisaged in the Act, in the interest of autonomy and in
view of the 'magnitude of the network of the two wings and expansion
of their operations in the years to come. We also feel that the functions
of the Chairman and of Chief Executive should be combined in one
functionary, i.e. the whole-time Chairman.
 4. We recommend six full-time and four part-time members of the
Board, in addition to a representative from the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting not below the level of a Joint Secretary.
The Managing Directors of Akashvani and Doordarshan will be
Members of the Prasar Bharati Board representing radio and
television respectively.
5. We are of the firm opinion that the provision for two elected representatives, of
the employees of the Corporation on the Board is filled with serious complications.
The acrimony (bitterness or ill feeling) and disharmony likely to be generated by this
process, owing to the plethora of associations representing conflicting interests
might jeopardise the smooth functioning of the Board.
However, we recommend introduction of a separate scheme of employees'
participation in management, both in Akashvani and Doordarshan, below the
Board level to look after the various issues related to staff and their welfare. In
addition to this, a trade union leader of standing not necessarily serving in
Akashvani or Doordarshan could be nominated to the Prasar Bharati Board as a
part-time member.
6. We recommend that the Chairman of the Prasar Bharati Board shall be
appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a Committee
consisting of the Chairman of the Council of States, who shall be the Chairman of
the Committee the Leader of the Opposition, in the Lok Sabha; and the Chairman
of the Press Council.
 7. We recommend that the term of office of the Chairman as well as of each whole-time
member should be five years from the date on which they enter office or until he or she
attains the age of 58 years, whichever is earlier. However, the first Chairman may be
allowed to complete the full term of five years irrespective of his or her age. And, for
part-time members the term of office should be of two years rather than six years as
contemplated in the Act.
 8. We recommend that the officers and other employees recruited specifically for
Akashvani and Doordarshan, whether they belong to organised service or not, should
not have the option against becoming an employee of the Corporation. As regards
those borne on cadres such as the Indian Information Service and Central Secretariat
Service, they may continue on deputation, if they are not prepared to be inducted into
the Corporation, at the discretion of the Corporation.
 9. The Group recommends that the Section 13(1) of the Act under which a
Parliamentary Committee is required to be constituted to 'oversee' the Corporation,
may dispensed with. In our opinion, the Standing Committee on Communication,
looking after the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and also the Consultative
Committee attached to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, can perform the
roles assigned to the said Parliamentary Committee.
 10. We recommend the setting up of an independent Radio and Television Authority of
India, as strongly enjoined by the Supreme Court, to license private channels, domestic
and foreign, to impose appropriate terms and conditions on these licensees in
accordance with the Broadcasting and Advertising Codes and also to receive and
adjudicate on complaints of violation of these Codes, received from the public or
representative bodies or consumers' forums. These 'complaints' functions of the
Authority will also cover the channels run by Prasar Bharati. This Authority will also
serve as the regulatory mechanism for private radio and television stations/ channels.
As such, the establishment of a Broadcasting Council under Section 14 is not considered
necessary.
• 11. We find the provision under Section 24 of the Act enabling the Central
Government to seek such information as the Government may consider
necessary, rather sweeping and nebulous and may impair the very concept of
autonomous functioning of Prasar Bharati. There is need to precisely define
the areas in respect of which the Corporation will furnish information to the
Central Government. Of course, the Central Government can legitimately
ask the Corporation to furnish all forecasts, estimates, information and
documents which the Government may require with regard to the financial
transactions and engagements of the Corporation.
• 12. We recommend six Deputy Managing Directors under the Managing
Director of Akashvani and Doordarshan respectively representing the six
disciplines of engineering, programmes, news, marketing and audience
research, finance, and personnel/ administration.
 13. There is urgent need to create a professional marketing set-up
in the Corporation, one each for both the wings, i.e. Akashvani and
Doordarshan. As a first step in this direction, the Commercial
Broadcasting Wing of these two organisations should be
strengthened and the personnel trained in the art of marketing
airtime.
 14. We recommend an authorised share capital of say Rs. 5,000
crores and paid-up capital of Rs. 2,000 crores for the Prasar Bharati.
 15. The hardware at the disposal of Akashvani and Doordarshan of
the estimated value of Rs. 55,000 crores can be transferred on a 99-
year lease to Prasar Bharati.
 16. While self-sufficiency should be the ultimate goal of Prasar Bharati, it will
have to initially depend on an annual grant-in-aid from the Government. As and
when the share of advertising and commercial revenue goes up, grant-in-aid will
gradually diminish.
 17. We recommend the revival of an annual BR Licence fee for TV sets - Rs. 500
on a colour TV and Rs. 200 on black & White sets. The fee could he collected
through commercial banks. Alternatively, if a one-time BRL fee to be levied at
the time of purchase of TV set is found acceptable, we recommend a fee of Rs.
1000 for colour TV and Rs. 500 for black & white.
 18. The Prasar Bharati should evolve more aggressive strategies for the sale of
programme material including archival material, facilities, services and
expertise available in abundance in Akashvani and Doordarshan to meet the
heavy capital investment required in the next decade to take advantage of
technological opportunities.
 19. We are convinced that without statutory protection, public service broadcasting
will be far too vulnerable, especially in a multi-channel scenario. Public service
broadcasting needs to be structurally embedded to Prasar Bharati so that it becomes a
source of enrichment and empowerment of the masses.
 20. The cost of running the public service broadcasting channels, as distinct from
purely entertainment-oriented channels, should be met from the Central
Government's funding paid to the Corporation by way of grant-in-aid, equity or loan.
As far as the external services and the Central Monitoring Service are concerned, the
Central Government would reimburse expenses incurred by the Corporation in this
regard as mentioned in Section 12
 21. Doordarshan and Akashvani should dedicate at least one channel to education,
including both literacy promotion and continuing education. Satellite channels
including the Open Universities and institutions of higher learning should also be
encouraged to do so. The spread of literacy among the people will make them capable
of forging their own destinies.
 22. We recommend that the Government should consider granting
licences to satellite channel operators, domestic or foreign, with
uplinking facilities from the Indian soil. The major spinoff of such
a policy will be generation of substantial revenue. and also
employment opportunities and regulatory control to ensure that
the private operators also fall in line with Prasar Bharati in terms
of adherence to the programming and advertising codes in vogue in
this country.
 23. We recommend that local terrestrial TV and radio stations
should be permitted. These stations will also help municipal bodies
and Panchayati Raj Institutions in providing local broadcasting
services to the community. For this purpose, the Indian Telegraph
Act, 1885 could be suitably amended.
 24. We have elsewhere recommended (Recommendation No. 10) creation of an
independent Radio and Television Authority of India to grant licences subject to
payment of requisite fee and adherence to the standard codes of broadcasting and
advertising of our country. All complaints relating to infringement of these codes
should be brought before the Authority to initiate punitive action where considered
necessary. The decision of the Authority shall be binding. The Authority will take a
firm and objective stance in support of healthy development and growth of radio and
television network in India while containing and controlling mushroom growth.
 25. The proposed Radio and Television Authority to be created by a new Act should
consist of a full-time President with a sound background of the electronic media and
ten members appointed by the President of India from amongst the public-academia,
consumer activists, social scientists/researchers, etc. This Authority, inter alia will
perform the 'complaints' function as envisaged for the Broadcasting Council in Section
15 of the Act which will not be necessary any longer.
THANK YOU.

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Sengupta committee 1995 & suggestions - PPT

  • 2.  The Prasar Bharti Act was framed in an era when DD and AIR, like other monopolies, were at once market regulators and players.  The Prasar Bharti Act (1990) was formed by the government as a result of Chanda committee report in 1996.  Prasar Bharti is India’s largest public broadcaster. It comprises of Doordarshan television Network and All India Radio.  Earlier there were media units of the Ministry Of Information and Broadcasting, now it is an autonomous body set up by an act of Parliament.  The parilament of India passed an act to grant this autonomy in 1990 but it was inacted on September 15, 1997.  The Prasar Bharti (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act 1990 extends to the whole of India. Brief Introduction to the Prasar Bharti Act
  • 3.  The Nitesh Sengupta Committee (expert committee) was set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on 28th December, 1995 under the Chairmanship of Dr.N.K.Sengupta.  It was set up to re-examine the Prasar Bharti Act 1990.  Group consisted of:  N.K.SENGUPTA (Chairman)  M.R.NARAYANA (Member)  VED LEKHA (Member) Introduction (Sengupta Committee):
  • 4.  Measures to sustain, strengthen and amplify Prasar Bharati's role as a public broadcaster with special reference to its relationship with the government.  Measures to digitise the archives of Doordarshan and All India Radio, which include material from the independence movement era, and develop enabling infrastructure in the form of data digitalisation systems, data centres & networks.  Suggesting how the new media can be used to deliver digital content, both in broadcast mode, through DTH and in a demand-based mode-free on social media like You Tube, and on payment through IPTV.  Suggest a strategy for creating a network of domestic and overseas business partners for ensuring wider reach to a worldwide audience including creating an exclusive overseas service of Prasar Bharati. The committee was supposed to suggest :
  • 5.  The Group had several meetings and also interacted with media experts, representatives of various associations of the employees of Doordarshan and All India Radio, senior executives of AIR and Doordarshan stationed in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and eminent people representing different walks Of life such as management, education, literature, culture, arts, music, dramatics and journalism.  The Group also visited the headquarters of Coal India, Calcutta, Indian Airlines, Delhi and Air India and General Insurance Company, Bombay to interact with the senior management in these organisations to study their respective management structures. The Group also received representations from different quarters.  The Group had to complete its deliberations within a short time, barely 3 to 4 months, which too were interrupted by political developments and General Elections of 1996. What the group accomplished:
  • 6.  The Chairman took advantage of his visit to London in June, 1996 and spent some time with the Administrative Minister for BBC and other officials of the Ministry.  The group wanted to know how the United Kingdom were ensuring the autonomous functioning of the BBC and what problems they were facing which were caused by the explosion of satellite channels.  The Group noted that there was a change in the present media scenario in the world and in India since the Prasar Bharati Act was enacted in September, 1990. In a short span of five years, there was a significant change.
  • 7. THE FINAL REVIEW BY THE COMMITTEE (TOTAL 25)
  • 8.  1. Prasar Bharati should be a Statutory Corporation (public enterprises brought into existence by a Special Act of the Parliament) as envisaged in the Act and can start operating immediately. The preamble to the Act may be suitably amplified and the suggested modified version is reproduced hereunder:- "An Act is to be provided for the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation of India, to be known as Prasar Bharati for providing public service broadcasting and fulfil the basic information, education and entertainment needs of the people and to define its composition, functions and powers and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto."  2. It is necessary to split Akashvani and Doordarshan into two completely separate wings under the corporate umbrella of the Prasar Bharati Corporation, with close coordination in areas clearly defined and delineated by the Corporation. For all practical purposes they should operate as separate entities. Steps should be taken to demarcate the hardware and the assets between Akashvani and Doordarshan and, divide the personnel across all disciplines.
  • 9.  3. We recommend a full-time Chairman, instead of the part-time Chairman as envisaged in the Act, in the interest of autonomy and in view of the 'magnitude of the network of the two wings and expansion of their operations in the years to come. We also feel that the functions of the Chairman and of Chief Executive should be combined in one functionary, i.e. the whole-time Chairman.  4. We recommend six full-time and four part-time members of the Board, in addition to a representative from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting not below the level of a Joint Secretary. The Managing Directors of Akashvani and Doordarshan will be Members of the Prasar Bharati Board representing radio and television respectively.
  • 10. 5. We are of the firm opinion that the provision for two elected representatives, of the employees of the Corporation on the Board is filled with serious complications. The acrimony (bitterness or ill feeling) and disharmony likely to be generated by this process, owing to the plethora of associations representing conflicting interests might jeopardise the smooth functioning of the Board. However, we recommend introduction of a separate scheme of employees' participation in management, both in Akashvani and Doordarshan, below the Board level to look after the various issues related to staff and their welfare. In addition to this, a trade union leader of standing not necessarily serving in Akashvani or Doordarshan could be nominated to the Prasar Bharati Board as a part-time member. 6. We recommend that the Chairman of the Prasar Bharati Board shall be appointed by the President of India on the recommendation of a Committee consisting of the Chairman of the Council of States, who shall be the Chairman of the Committee the Leader of the Opposition, in the Lok Sabha; and the Chairman of the Press Council.
  • 11.  7. We recommend that the term of office of the Chairman as well as of each whole-time member should be five years from the date on which they enter office or until he or she attains the age of 58 years, whichever is earlier. However, the first Chairman may be allowed to complete the full term of five years irrespective of his or her age. And, for part-time members the term of office should be of two years rather than six years as contemplated in the Act.  8. We recommend that the officers and other employees recruited specifically for Akashvani and Doordarshan, whether they belong to organised service or not, should not have the option against becoming an employee of the Corporation. As regards those borne on cadres such as the Indian Information Service and Central Secretariat Service, they may continue on deputation, if they are not prepared to be inducted into the Corporation, at the discretion of the Corporation.
  • 12.  9. The Group recommends that the Section 13(1) of the Act under which a Parliamentary Committee is required to be constituted to 'oversee' the Corporation, may dispensed with. In our opinion, the Standing Committee on Communication, looking after the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and also the Consultative Committee attached to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, can perform the roles assigned to the said Parliamentary Committee.  10. We recommend the setting up of an independent Radio and Television Authority of India, as strongly enjoined by the Supreme Court, to license private channels, domestic and foreign, to impose appropriate terms and conditions on these licensees in accordance with the Broadcasting and Advertising Codes and also to receive and adjudicate on complaints of violation of these Codes, received from the public or representative bodies or consumers' forums. These 'complaints' functions of the Authority will also cover the channels run by Prasar Bharati. This Authority will also serve as the regulatory mechanism for private radio and television stations/ channels. As such, the establishment of a Broadcasting Council under Section 14 is not considered necessary.
  • 13. • 11. We find the provision under Section 24 of the Act enabling the Central Government to seek such information as the Government may consider necessary, rather sweeping and nebulous and may impair the very concept of autonomous functioning of Prasar Bharati. There is need to precisely define the areas in respect of which the Corporation will furnish information to the Central Government. Of course, the Central Government can legitimately ask the Corporation to furnish all forecasts, estimates, information and documents which the Government may require with regard to the financial transactions and engagements of the Corporation. • 12. We recommend six Deputy Managing Directors under the Managing Director of Akashvani and Doordarshan respectively representing the six disciplines of engineering, programmes, news, marketing and audience research, finance, and personnel/ administration.
  • 14.  13. There is urgent need to create a professional marketing set-up in the Corporation, one each for both the wings, i.e. Akashvani and Doordarshan. As a first step in this direction, the Commercial Broadcasting Wing of these two organisations should be strengthened and the personnel trained in the art of marketing airtime.  14. We recommend an authorised share capital of say Rs. 5,000 crores and paid-up capital of Rs. 2,000 crores for the Prasar Bharati.  15. The hardware at the disposal of Akashvani and Doordarshan of the estimated value of Rs. 55,000 crores can be transferred on a 99- year lease to Prasar Bharati.
  • 15.  16. While self-sufficiency should be the ultimate goal of Prasar Bharati, it will have to initially depend on an annual grant-in-aid from the Government. As and when the share of advertising and commercial revenue goes up, grant-in-aid will gradually diminish.  17. We recommend the revival of an annual BR Licence fee for TV sets - Rs. 500 on a colour TV and Rs. 200 on black & White sets. The fee could he collected through commercial banks. Alternatively, if a one-time BRL fee to be levied at the time of purchase of TV set is found acceptable, we recommend a fee of Rs. 1000 for colour TV and Rs. 500 for black & white.  18. The Prasar Bharati should evolve more aggressive strategies for the sale of programme material including archival material, facilities, services and expertise available in abundance in Akashvani and Doordarshan to meet the heavy capital investment required in the next decade to take advantage of technological opportunities.
  • 16.  19. We are convinced that without statutory protection, public service broadcasting will be far too vulnerable, especially in a multi-channel scenario. Public service broadcasting needs to be structurally embedded to Prasar Bharati so that it becomes a source of enrichment and empowerment of the masses.  20. The cost of running the public service broadcasting channels, as distinct from purely entertainment-oriented channels, should be met from the Central Government's funding paid to the Corporation by way of grant-in-aid, equity or loan. As far as the external services and the Central Monitoring Service are concerned, the Central Government would reimburse expenses incurred by the Corporation in this regard as mentioned in Section 12  21. Doordarshan and Akashvani should dedicate at least one channel to education, including both literacy promotion and continuing education. Satellite channels including the Open Universities and institutions of higher learning should also be encouraged to do so. The spread of literacy among the people will make them capable of forging their own destinies.
  • 17.  22. We recommend that the Government should consider granting licences to satellite channel operators, domestic or foreign, with uplinking facilities from the Indian soil. The major spinoff of such a policy will be generation of substantial revenue. and also employment opportunities and regulatory control to ensure that the private operators also fall in line with Prasar Bharati in terms of adherence to the programming and advertising codes in vogue in this country.  23. We recommend that local terrestrial TV and radio stations should be permitted. These stations will also help municipal bodies and Panchayati Raj Institutions in providing local broadcasting services to the community. For this purpose, the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 could be suitably amended.
  • 18.  24. We have elsewhere recommended (Recommendation No. 10) creation of an independent Radio and Television Authority of India to grant licences subject to payment of requisite fee and adherence to the standard codes of broadcasting and advertising of our country. All complaints relating to infringement of these codes should be brought before the Authority to initiate punitive action where considered necessary. The decision of the Authority shall be binding. The Authority will take a firm and objective stance in support of healthy development and growth of radio and television network in India while containing and controlling mushroom growth.  25. The proposed Radio and Television Authority to be created by a new Act should consist of a full-time President with a sound background of the electronic media and ten members appointed by the President of India from amongst the public-academia, consumer activists, social scientists/researchers, etc. This Authority, inter alia will perform the 'complaints' function as envisaged for the Broadcasting Council in Section 15 of the Act which will not be necessary any longer.