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Seminar Title: Technological Singularity
Guided By: Assistant Prof.
Submitted By:
Vivekanand College for BCA
CONTENTS
 Introduction: What is Singularity
 Can Technology Really Surpass Human Intelligence?
 Are We There Yet? Achieving True Artificial Intelligence..
 The Turing Test
 Merging of Humans and Machines
 In 2018, how dependant are we on AI?
 What Does The Singularity Mean For Human Evolution?
 HUMANS WILL TRANSCEND THEIR INTELLECT
 HUMANS BECOME AN AUGMENTED VERSION OF THEMSELVES
 HUMANS WILL CONQUER ALL DISEASE
 HUMANS WILL ACHIEVE IMMORTALITY
Contd…
 Beginnings Of The Singularity
GENETICS, NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ROBOTICS
SINGULARITY UNIVERSITY
GREATER TRUST IN TECHNOLOGY
THE POST-HUMAN ERA IS HERE
REVERSE ENGINEERING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN HAS BEGUN
 Conclusion
INTRODUCTION: What is Singularity
 Bascially the term "singularity“, comes originally from the field of theoretical physics. It denotes
a point in space and time where the gravitational field becomes infinite. At the center of a black
hole, for example, we might find a singularity.
 The technological singularity, A future point in time when technology will rapidly improve itself
to surpass human intelligence, changing human life as we know it.
 When computer power grows without limit, surpassing human intelligence, especially if it is
uncontrolled then result will be catastrophic.
 Humankind must merge with artificial superintelligence to avoid this inevitable disaster.
 After this future event takes place, it will be so transformative that it will change everything, it
will rewrite the rules of the human condition and also will become a definitive break-point in
our story as a species.
CAN TECHNOLOGY REALLY SURPASS
HUMAN INTELLIGENCE?
 Computer scientist, Alan Turing, predicted as
early as 1950 that there would be “thinking
machines”.
 “I believe that at the end of the century the use
of words and general educated opinion will
have altered so much that one will be able to
speak of machines thinking without expecting
to be contradicted.” – Alan Turing
Are we there yet? Achieving True Artificial Intelligence…
 Ray Kurzweil, Google’s Director Of Engineering, Is A Well-known
Futurist With A Good Track Record For Accurate Predictions.
 Of His 147 Predictions, Kurzweil has 86% Accuracy Rate.
 At A Conference, Kurzweil Made Yet Another Prediction: The
Technological Singularity Will Happen Sometime In The Next 30
Years.
 By 2020 We will have Computers That Are Powerful Enough To
Simulate The Human Brain
 By 2029 A.I. Will Pass A Valid TURING TEST And Achieve Human
Levels Of Intelligence.
 The Singularity Will Take Place In 2045, At Which Point,
 “We Will Multiply Our Effective Intelligence A Billionfold By
Merging With The Intelligence We Have Created.”
THE TURING TEST
THE TURING TEST
 In 1950, Alan Turing
described an Imitation Game
where a machine imitates
human behavior in a way that
a human has to decide
whether they are interacting
with a machine or a human
being on the other end.
 The object of the machine is
to try to cause the
interrogator to mistakenly
conclude that the machine is
the other person.
Contd…
The Turing test has been passed
 A chatbot, Russian-designed programme called Eugene, passed a Turing test in 2014.
 Each judge has just five minutes to talk to each machine, and the machines passed, if more than
30% of the judges thought that they were human.
 It remains impressive that Eugene had 33% of the judges, as he spoke and convinced that he was
infact a human.
 But the robots still have a long way to go to pass the gold standard of modern Turing tests, using
rules laid out in 1990 by the inventor Hugh Loebner. Those rules state that the computer and a
human must have a 25-minute conversation with each of four separate judges.
 The machine only wins, only if it fools at least half the judges into thinking that it is a human
 Every year a "bronze medal" is awarded to the machine that manages to convince most of the
judges.
The Technological Singularity:
Merging With Machines
Merging of Humans and Machines
 Humans are always evolving, and the next step of our evolution will
be the internal implementation of technology. AI is crucial to the
evolution of our species.
 The human-robot hybrid won’t only be made up of metal. It will
also be a chip in our brain.
 Our brain can be connected to the smart cloud by the
year 2029.
 Billionaire Elon Musk is known for his futuristic ideas and
he suggested that as A.I. grows more powerful,
Humans must merge with machines or become
irrelevant in AI age.
Contd…
 He also said that humans need to merge with
machines to become a sort of cyborg.
 Over time we will see a closer merger of biological
intelligence and digital intelligence.
 Today, computers can communicate at "a trillion bits
per second", while humans, whose main
communication method is typing with their fingers via
a mobile device, can do about 10 bits per second.
 In an age when AI threatens to become widespread,
humans would be useless, so there's a need to merge
with machines.
 We would see a new layer of a brain able to access
information quickly and tap into artificial intelligence.
 He is also backing a brain-computer interface venture
called Neuralink.
 The company, which is still in the earliest stages of
existence, is centered on creating devices that can be
implanted in the human brain, with the eventual
purpose of helping human beings merge with
software and keep pace with advancements in artificial
intelligence.
How dependant are we on AI, in 2018?
Humans and AI: The dependence on AI in
our daily life
 Imagine the following scenario. It’s Monday morning. You wake up to an alarm. It’s been set
automatically and synchronized to your work schedule for the day.
 As you partake in your routine, your key nutritional data (such as hydration, body mass, and
hemoglobin levels) are calibrated for you.
 You strap yourself into your car but there’s no need to steer. It “knows” where you need to go.
And, on account of the technology embedded in the roads, real-time travel information, and the
like, the roads are clear of congestion.
 Everything is connected and is programmed to operate at peak efficiency.
 Upon arriving at work, all the boring work have been performed for you.
Contd…
 You are calm and focused on decision making and relationship building and
can spend more time on your sales and marketing strategy.
 The above scenario seemed impossible few years ago. But, thanks to the
emergence of Artificial Intelligence, it’s an imminent reality.
 While we tend to associate AI with fictional movies like Terminator,etc, We
have already started to use A.I. to automate our basic/daily tasks, such as:
 Home Delivery - Swiggy/Bigbasket/foodpanda,
 Navigation - Google Maps,
 Transportation - Uber/Ola,
 Digital music selection – Spotify/Saavn, etc
WHAT DOES THE SINGULARITY MEAN FOR
HUMAN EVOLUTION?
1. HUMANS WILL TRANSCEND THEIR
INTELLECT
 For example, in the case of
pattern recognition, the human
brain can process a couple of
dozen variables, while a machine
might be able to recognize
millions of variables
 Further, human pattern
recognition is limited to faces,
speech, sounds, etc, but
machines are capable of
identifying any type of pattern.
2. HUMANS BECOME AN AUGMENTED
VERSION OF THEMSELVES
 ‘Augmented Humanity’, this phrase was first
made by ex-Google CEO Eric Schmidt in 2010.
 If defines the use of technology to add and
replace human capability in such a way that it
joins a person and machine : as one.
 For example, a human being might be able to
augment themselves to break record speeds in
running.
3. HUMANS WILL CONQUER ALL
DISEASE
 Human beings will be a combination
of nanobots and biological material, it
will be possible to intelligently
program genes and the human body
at the cellular and sub-cellular level so
as to reverse and cure any disease
 Nanobots are robots that are
microscopic in nature. They are
currently in research & development
phase.
 They can be considered to be a
machine version of bacteria or virus.
4. HUMANS WILL ACHIEVE
IMMORTALITY
 When we reach the Singularity, we will be able
to upload the human mind to a computer.
 “Minduploading” will ensure that human
beings will have a digital version that can live
forever.
BEGINNINGS OF THE SINGULARITY
 GENETICS, NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ROBOTICS
 SINGULARITY UNIVERSITY
Contd…
The introduction of nano-robots or nanobots,
which can be used in medicine to diagnose and
cure diseases, and even to fix genetic diseases in
future.
Backed by NASA and Google, the Singularity
University offers innovation programs that will create
global social impact.
 GREATER TRUST IN TECHNOLOGY
 THE POST-HUMAN ERA IS HERE
Contd…
Bitcoin virtual currency and blockchain technology combined, is
helping people gain trust in the service.
Technology platforms, such as Ola/ Uber, in the sharing economy
are more trusted because they cut out the possible errors and
inconsistencies.
The 2030’s will see more appearance of cyborgs as well as
acceptance of them in society.
The use of technology currently is still outside the human body,
and overtime humans will become more open to exploration of
technology inside the body.
 REVERSE ENGINEERING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN HAS BEGUN
Researchers have already started to reverse
engineer the human brain, parts of which have been
completed.
Apart from understanding the workings of the
human mind, there are benefits in detecting and
curing diseases.
Conclusion
• Singularity, if feasible, is bound to happen
sooner or later.
• Instead of fighting against it, we must
combine.
• It is the next step in human evolution.

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Technological Singularity & A.I. 2018 - PPT

  • 1. Seminar Title: Technological Singularity Guided By: Assistant Prof. Submitted By: Vivekanand College for BCA
  • 2. CONTENTS  Introduction: What is Singularity  Can Technology Really Surpass Human Intelligence?  Are We There Yet? Achieving True Artificial Intelligence..  The Turing Test  Merging of Humans and Machines  In 2018, how dependant are we on AI?  What Does The Singularity Mean For Human Evolution?  HUMANS WILL TRANSCEND THEIR INTELLECT  HUMANS BECOME AN AUGMENTED VERSION OF THEMSELVES  HUMANS WILL CONQUER ALL DISEASE  HUMANS WILL ACHIEVE IMMORTALITY Contd…
  • 3.  Beginnings Of The Singularity GENETICS, NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ROBOTICS SINGULARITY UNIVERSITY GREATER TRUST IN TECHNOLOGY THE POST-HUMAN ERA IS HERE REVERSE ENGINEERING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN HAS BEGUN  Conclusion
  • 4. INTRODUCTION: What is Singularity  Bascially the term "singularity“, comes originally from the field of theoretical physics. It denotes a point in space and time where the gravitational field becomes infinite. At the center of a black hole, for example, we might find a singularity.  The technological singularity, A future point in time when technology will rapidly improve itself to surpass human intelligence, changing human life as we know it.  When computer power grows without limit, surpassing human intelligence, especially if it is uncontrolled then result will be catastrophic.  Humankind must merge with artificial superintelligence to avoid this inevitable disaster.  After this future event takes place, it will be so transformative that it will change everything, it will rewrite the rules of the human condition and also will become a definitive break-point in our story as a species.
  • 5. CAN TECHNOLOGY REALLY SURPASS HUMAN INTELLIGENCE?  Computer scientist, Alan Turing, predicted as early as 1950 that there would be “thinking machines”.  “I believe that at the end of the century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted.” – Alan Turing
  • 6. Are we there yet? Achieving True Artificial Intelligence…  Ray Kurzweil, Google’s Director Of Engineering, Is A Well-known Futurist With A Good Track Record For Accurate Predictions.  Of His 147 Predictions, Kurzweil has 86% Accuracy Rate.  At A Conference, Kurzweil Made Yet Another Prediction: The Technological Singularity Will Happen Sometime In The Next 30 Years.  By 2020 We will have Computers That Are Powerful Enough To Simulate The Human Brain  By 2029 A.I. Will Pass A Valid TURING TEST And Achieve Human Levels Of Intelligence.  The Singularity Will Take Place In 2045, At Which Point,  “We Will Multiply Our Effective Intelligence A Billionfold By Merging With The Intelligence We Have Created.”
  • 8. THE TURING TEST  In 1950, Alan Turing described an Imitation Game where a machine imitates human behavior in a way that a human has to decide whether they are interacting with a machine or a human being on the other end.  The object of the machine is to try to cause the interrogator to mistakenly conclude that the machine is the other person. Contd…
  • 9. The Turing test has been passed  A chatbot, Russian-designed programme called Eugene, passed a Turing test in 2014.  Each judge has just five minutes to talk to each machine, and the machines passed, if more than 30% of the judges thought that they were human.  It remains impressive that Eugene had 33% of the judges, as he spoke and convinced that he was infact a human.  But the robots still have a long way to go to pass the gold standard of modern Turing tests, using rules laid out in 1990 by the inventor Hugh Loebner. Those rules state that the computer and a human must have a 25-minute conversation with each of four separate judges.  The machine only wins, only if it fools at least half the judges into thinking that it is a human  Every year a "bronze medal" is awarded to the machine that manages to convince most of the judges.
  • 11. Merging of Humans and Machines  Humans are always evolving, and the next step of our evolution will be the internal implementation of technology. AI is crucial to the evolution of our species.  The human-robot hybrid won’t only be made up of metal. It will also be a chip in our brain.  Our brain can be connected to the smart cloud by the year 2029.  Billionaire Elon Musk is known for his futuristic ideas and he suggested that as A.I. grows more powerful, Humans must merge with machines or become irrelevant in AI age. Contd…
  • 12.  He also said that humans need to merge with machines to become a sort of cyborg.  Over time we will see a closer merger of biological intelligence and digital intelligence.  Today, computers can communicate at "a trillion bits per second", while humans, whose main communication method is typing with their fingers via a mobile device, can do about 10 bits per second.  In an age when AI threatens to become widespread, humans would be useless, so there's a need to merge with machines.  We would see a new layer of a brain able to access information quickly and tap into artificial intelligence.  He is also backing a brain-computer interface venture called Neuralink.  The company, which is still in the earliest stages of existence, is centered on creating devices that can be implanted in the human brain, with the eventual purpose of helping human beings merge with software and keep pace with advancements in artificial intelligence.
  • 13. How dependant are we on AI, in 2018?
  • 14. Humans and AI: The dependence on AI in our daily life  Imagine the following scenario. It’s Monday morning. You wake up to an alarm. It’s been set automatically and synchronized to your work schedule for the day.  As you partake in your routine, your key nutritional data (such as hydration, body mass, and hemoglobin levels) are calibrated for you.  You strap yourself into your car but there’s no need to steer. It “knows” where you need to go. And, on account of the technology embedded in the roads, real-time travel information, and the like, the roads are clear of congestion.  Everything is connected and is programmed to operate at peak efficiency.  Upon arriving at work, all the boring work have been performed for you. Contd…
  • 15.  You are calm and focused on decision making and relationship building and can spend more time on your sales and marketing strategy.  The above scenario seemed impossible few years ago. But, thanks to the emergence of Artificial Intelligence, it’s an imminent reality.  While we tend to associate AI with fictional movies like Terminator,etc, We have already started to use A.I. to automate our basic/daily tasks, such as:  Home Delivery - Swiggy/Bigbasket/foodpanda,  Navigation - Google Maps,  Transportation - Uber/Ola,  Digital music selection – Spotify/Saavn, etc
  • 16. WHAT DOES THE SINGULARITY MEAN FOR HUMAN EVOLUTION?
  • 17. 1. HUMANS WILL TRANSCEND THEIR INTELLECT  For example, in the case of pattern recognition, the human brain can process a couple of dozen variables, while a machine might be able to recognize millions of variables  Further, human pattern recognition is limited to faces, speech, sounds, etc, but machines are capable of identifying any type of pattern.
  • 18. 2. HUMANS BECOME AN AUGMENTED VERSION OF THEMSELVES  ‘Augmented Humanity’, this phrase was first made by ex-Google CEO Eric Schmidt in 2010.  If defines the use of technology to add and replace human capability in such a way that it joins a person and machine : as one.  For example, a human being might be able to augment themselves to break record speeds in running.
  • 19. 3. HUMANS WILL CONQUER ALL DISEASE  Human beings will be a combination of nanobots and biological material, it will be possible to intelligently program genes and the human body at the cellular and sub-cellular level so as to reverse and cure any disease  Nanobots are robots that are microscopic in nature. They are currently in research & development phase.  They can be considered to be a machine version of bacteria or virus.
  • 20. 4. HUMANS WILL ACHIEVE IMMORTALITY  When we reach the Singularity, we will be able to upload the human mind to a computer.  “Minduploading” will ensure that human beings will have a digital version that can live forever.
  • 21. BEGINNINGS OF THE SINGULARITY
  • 22.  GENETICS, NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ROBOTICS  SINGULARITY UNIVERSITY Contd… The introduction of nano-robots or nanobots, which can be used in medicine to diagnose and cure diseases, and even to fix genetic diseases in future. Backed by NASA and Google, the Singularity University offers innovation programs that will create global social impact.
  • 23.  GREATER TRUST IN TECHNOLOGY  THE POST-HUMAN ERA IS HERE Contd… Bitcoin virtual currency and blockchain technology combined, is helping people gain trust in the service. Technology platforms, such as Ola/ Uber, in the sharing economy are more trusted because they cut out the possible errors and inconsistencies. The 2030’s will see more appearance of cyborgs as well as acceptance of them in society. The use of technology currently is still outside the human body, and overtime humans will become more open to exploration of technology inside the body.
  • 24.  REVERSE ENGINEERING OF THE HUMAN BRAIN HAS BEGUN Researchers have already started to reverse engineer the human brain, parts of which have been completed. Apart from understanding the workings of the human mind, there are benefits in detecting and curing diseases.
  • 25. Conclusion • Singularity, if feasible, is bound to happen sooner or later. • Instead of fighting against it, we must combine. • It is the next step in human evolution.