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Diplomatic History
•Foreign Policy as Geopolitics:
Nixon’s Triangular Diplomacy
•Detente and its Discontents
•The End of the Cold War : Reagon
and Gorbachov
•The New World Order Reconsidered
TOPICS TO BE COVERED:
• Foreign Policy as Geopolitics: Nixon’s Triangular Diplomacy
• Detente and its Discontents
• The End of the Cold War : Reagon and Gorbachov
• The New World Order Reconsidered
Foreign Policy as Geopolitics: Nixon’s Triangular Diplomacy
Triangular
Diplomacy
Using
relations with
one country
as leverage
to extract
concessions
from another
“Triangular
diplomacy”,
a term coined by
US secretary of state
Henry Kissinger
Mao Zedong
Richard Nixon
Leonid Brezhnev
President
Richard Nixon
stands in car
during the
inaugural
parade on Jan.
20, 1969.
President
Richard Nixon
and Henry
Kissinger
Henry Kissinger’s Secret trip to China
Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, 9 July 1971,
during the secret trip
Kissinger and Chinese officials at the Great
Wall, 26 October 1971, during Kissinger's
second trip
Henry Kissinger and
Richard Nixon
Times Magazine
1971
Nixon’s visit to China - 1972
“I have taken this action
because of my profound
conviction that all nations will
gain from a reduction of
tensions and a better
relationship between the
United States and the People's
Republic of China,”
- Nixon
President Nixon shaking hands with
Premier Chou Enlai
US president Richard Nixon, and his wife, Patricia,
visit the Great Wall during their trip to China in
February 1972
He was the first sitting US president to
travel to the country
While First Lady Pat Nixon and Chinese
officials stand nearby, February 21, 1972
Baijiu,
China’s
national
drink served
to US
presidents
Nixon and
Reagan
The Mao-
Nixon
meeting
1972
Nixon
review
ing the
troops
“The Enemy of My Enemy Is My Friend”
- an ancient proverb
The Soviets soon changed their tune
when Nixon reopened talks with China
Nixon’s
visit to
the USSR
The First U.S. President to visit Moscow
Nixon and Brezhnev Sign Agreements (Moscow Summit)
“Ignore
Them”
Detente and its Discontents
Détente
Detente is a French term
The Moscow Summit
marked the beginning of
détente.
meaning “relaxation of tension”
Kissinger's approach to Detente
Realpolitik
Balance of Power
Negotiation and Diplomacy
SALT I Treaty
Pragmatic Engagement
STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TREATY (SALT I) 1972
US and Soviet negotiators ‘meet’ in Vladivostok To sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treat (SALT)
APOLLO-SOYUZ Agreement (1975)
The first international
crewed space
mission
On July 15, 1975, a NASA Apollo spacecraft carrying three astronauts
launched, and, two days later, it rendezvoused with a Soyuz spacecraft
carrying two cosmonauts. It was the first successful international
venture of its kind.
President Richard Nixon and Soviet
Premier Alexei Kosygin sign an
agreement for joint US-Soviet
spaceflights.
Spaceship crew members
President Nixon
and Nikolay
Podgorny
(Chairman of
the Presidium
of the Supreme
Soviet of the
USSR) signed
agreements.
St. Vladimir Hall
in the Grand
Kremlin Palace,
Moscow
President Nixon,
accompanied by
Henry Kissinger,
walk between
buildings in the
Kremlin,
Moscow
The End of the Cold War :
Reagon and Gorbachov
This was Reagan's
outline for his
foreign policy
Reagan Doctrine,
1985
military support for
"freedom fighters"
around the globe.
Gorbachev's foreign policy, "new
thinking",
also contributed to the Cold War's
end.
Was the youngest member upon
assuming the position.
Mikhail Gorbachev’s Foreign Policy
He brought with him a fresh approach
to many issues, including nuclear
diplomacy.
And by December 1991, the Soviet
Union ceased to exist.
Reagan
rehearsed for his
first meeting with
Gorbachev, which
took place in
Geneva in
November 1985
Reagan and Gorbachev: The Geneva Summit (1985)
Reykjavik Summit - 1986
Initially conceived
as an
introductory
meeting between
the two leaders,
the Reykjavik
meeting moved
forwarded at a
dramatic pace.
Washington Summit 1987
The third summit meeting
between President
Reagan and Soviet leader
Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
Ronald Reagan and Mikhail
Gorbachev signed the
Intermediate-Range Nuclear
Forces (INF) Treaty.
The image suggests a new thaw in
U.S.-Soviet relations,
which the disarmament agreement of the
INF Treaty made a reality.
Soviet poster (1987)
Promoted the importance of the upcoming meeting.
The text simply reads:
"Soviet-American Summit
"meeting at the highest level"
The New World Order Reconsidered
In the 21st century the United States will face a
nationalistic world inhabited by many superpowers—
China, Russia, Europe, Japan, and India
The major question is how the United
States can remain true to its values.
Kissinger’s Thoughts
While also promoting a more
peaceful and prosperous world
Sources
• https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/i/21100.htm
• https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Diplomacy/
• https://www.cfr.org/event/henry-kissinger-looks-back-cold-war
• https://www.ushistory.org/us/56g.asp
• https://www.inverse.com/innovation/ussr-us-space-agreement-fifty-years-anniversary
• https://coldwar.unc.edu/theme/detente/
• https://www.politics-dz.com/detente-the-cold-war/
• https://www.history.com/news/nixon-china-visit-cold-war
• https://www.ft.com/content/5546e1d9-f222-4136-bd8a-2b6932f0028d
• https://content.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19710726,00.html
• https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB66/index2.html
• https://www.nixonfoundation.org/2022/05/50th-anniversary-moscow-summit/
• https://historyinpieces.com/photos/gallery/president-nixons-trip-soviet-union-1972
• https://china.usc.edu/getting-beijing-henry-kissingers-secret-1971-trip
• https://www.army.mil/article/194953/smdc_history_remembering_the_reykjavik_summit
• https://www.reaganlibrary.gov/archives/audiovisual/white-house-photo-collection-galleries/summits-mikhail-gorbachev
• https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/infographic-today-history-reagan-and-gorbachev-sign-inf-treaty
• https://worldhistorycommons.org/us-soviet-summit-washington-dc
• https://www.thoughtco.com/the-reagan-doctrine-and-communism-4571021
• https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/1980-s-digital-timeline-m9l2a1
THANK YOU.
ANY QUESTIONS?

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Foreign Policy as Geopolitics Nixons Triangular Diplomacy

  • 1. Diplomatic History •Foreign Policy as Geopolitics: Nixon’s Triangular Diplomacy •Detente and its Discontents •The End of the Cold War : Reagon and Gorbachov •The New World Order Reconsidered
  • 2. TOPICS TO BE COVERED: • Foreign Policy as Geopolitics: Nixon’s Triangular Diplomacy • Detente and its Discontents • The End of the Cold War : Reagon and Gorbachov • The New World Order Reconsidered
  • 3. Foreign Policy as Geopolitics: Nixon’s Triangular Diplomacy
  • 4. Triangular Diplomacy Using relations with one country as leverage to extract concessions from another “Triangular diplomacy”, a term coined by US secretary of state Henry Kissinger Mao Zedong Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev
  • 5. President Richard Nixon stands in car during the inaugural parade on Jan. 20, 1969.
  • 7. Henry Kissinger’s Secret trip to China Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, 9 July 1971, during the secret trip Kissinger and Chinese officials at the Great Wall, 26 October 1971, during Kissinger's second trip
  • 8. Henry Kissinger and Richard Nixon Times Magazine 1971
  • 9. Nixon’s visit to China - 1972 “I have taken this action because of my profound conviction that all nations will gain from a reduction of tensions and a better relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China,” - Nixon
  • 10. President Nixon shaking hands with Premier Chou Enlai US president Richard Nixon, and his wife, Patricia, visit the Great Wall during their trip to China in February 1972 He was the first sitting US president to travel to the country While First Lady Pat Nixon and Chinese officials stand nearby, February 21, 1972
  • 13. “The Enemy of My Enemy Is My Friend” - an ancient proverb
  • 14. The Soviets soon changed their tune when Nixon reopened talks with China
  • 15. Nixon’s visit to the USSR The First U.S. President to visit Moscow
  • 16. Nixon and Brezhnev Sign Agreements (Moscow Summit)
  • 18. Detente and its Discontents
  • 19. Détente Detente is a French term The Moscow Summit marked the beginning of détente. meaning “relaxation of tension”
  • 20. Kissinger's approach to Detente Realpolitik Balance of Power Negotiation and Diplomacy SALT I Treaty Pragmatic Engagement
  • 21. STRATEGIC ARMS LIMITATION TREATY (SALT I) 1972 US and Soviet negotiators ‘meet’ in Vladivostok To sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Treat (SALT)
  • 22. APOLLO-SOYUZ Agreement (1975) The first international crewed space mission On July 15, 1975, a NASA Apollo spacecraft carrying three astronauts launched, and, two days later, it rendezvoused with a Soyuz spacecraft carrying two cosmonauts. It was the first successful international venture of its kind.
  • 23. President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin sign an agreement for joint US-Soviet spaceflights. Spaceship crew members
  • 24. President Nixon and Nikolay Podgorny (Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR) signed agreements. St. Vladimir Hall in the Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow
  • 25. President Nixon, accompanied by Henry Kissinger, walk between buildings in the Kremlin, Moscow
  • 26. The End of the Cold War : Reagon and Gorbachov
  • 27. This was Reagan's outline for his foreign policy Reagan Doctrine, 1985 military support for "freedom fighters" around the globe.
  • 28. Gorbachev's foreign policy, "new thinking", also contributed to the Cold War's end. Was the youngest member upon assuming the position. Mikhail Gorbachev’s Foreign Policy He brought with him a fresh approach to many issues, including nuclear diplomacy. And by December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
  • 29. Reagan rehearsed for his first meeting with Gorbachev, which took place in Geneva in November 1985 Reagan and Gorbachev: The Geneva Summit (1985)
  • 30. Reykjavik Summit - 1986 Initially conceived as an introductory meeting between the two leaders, the Reykjavik meeting moved forwarded at a dramatic pace.
  • 31. Washington Summit 1987 The third summit meeting between President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev. Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.
  • 32. The image suggests a new thaw in U.S.-Soviet relations, which the disarmament agreement of the INF Treaty made a reality. Soviet poster (1987) Promoted the importance of the upcoming meeting. The text simply reads: "Soviet-American Summit "meeting at the highest level"
  • 33. The New World Order Reconsidered
  • 34. In the 21st century the United States will face a nationalistic world inhabited by many superpowers— China, Russia, Europe, Japan, and India The major question is how the United States can remain true to its values. Kissinger’s Thoughts While also promoting a more peaceful and prosperous world
  • 35. Sources • https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/i/21100.htm • https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Diplomacy/ • https://www.cfr.org/event/henry-kissinger-looks-back-cold-war • https://www.ushistory.org/us/56g.asp • https://www.inverse.com/innovation/ussr-us-space-agreement-fifty-years-anniversary • https://coldwar.unc.edu/theme/detente/ • https://www.politics-dz.com/detente-the-cold-war/ • https://www.history.com/news/nixon-china-visit-cold-war • https://www.ft.com/content/5546e1d9-f222-4136-bd8a-2b6932f0028d • https://content.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19710726,00.html • https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB66/index2.html • https://www.nixonfoundation.org/2022/05/50th-anniversary-moscow-summit/ • https://historyinpieces.com/photos/gallery/president-nixons-trip-soviet-union-1972 • https://china.usc.edu/getting-beijing-henry-kissingers-secret-1971-trip • https://www.army.mil/article/194953/smdc_history_remembering_the_reykjavik_summit • https://www.reaganlibrary.gov/archives/audiovisual/white-house-photo-collection-galleries/summits-mikhail-gorbachev • https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/infographic-today-history-reagan-and-gorbachev-sign-inf-treaty • https://worldhistorycommons.org/us-soviet-summit-washington-dc • https://www.thoughtco.com/the-reagan-doctrine-and-communism-4571021 • https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/1980-s-digital-timeline-m9l2a1