Manufacturing processes

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  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2010
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009 Society of Manufacturing Engineers (Producer). (2010). Casting . Available from the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, One SME Drive: Dearborn, Michigan 48121.
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Introduction to Manufacturing Processes Principles Of Engineering TM Unit 3 – Lesson 3.2 Material Properties Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2009
  • Manufacturing processes

    1. 1. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes
    2. 2. Products and Manufacturing Product Creation Cycle Design → Material Selection → Process Selection → Manufacture → Inspection → Feedback Typical product cost breakdown
    3. 3. Manufacturing Process A sequence of operations and processes designed to create a specific product The process of turning materials into a product ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    4. 4. Engineers in Manufacturing Manufacturing Engineer Select and coordinate specific processes and equipment Industrial Engineer Responsible for the manufacturing system design Materials Engineer Develop and select materials based on desired material properties and manufacturing processes
    5. 5. Manufacturing System Designs Job Shop Small quantities of products Large variety of products Products move through the shop to various machines General-purpose machines ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    6. 6. Manufacturing System Designs Flow Shop Larger quantities of products Production line Special purpose machines ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    7. 7. Manufacturing System Designs Linked-Cell Shop Manufacturing and subassembly cells connected to final assembly Lean production system One piece flow system ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    8. 8. Manufacturing System Designs Project Shop Product being manufactured cannot be easily moved during production Production processes are brought to the product Examples: Bridges, ships, large airplanes, locomotives, large machinery ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    9. 9. Manufacturing System Designs Continuous Process Large plants Utilized in the manufacture of liquids, oils, gases, and powders ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    10. 10. Manufacturing System Designs Lean Manufacturing 100% “good” units flow from process to process Integrated quality control (IQC) All employees are inspectors ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    11. 11. Basic Manufacturing Processes Casting and Foundry Forming or Metalworking Machining Joining and Assembly Rapid Prototyping Other
    12. 12. Casting and Foundry Processes In one step raw materials are transformed into a desirable shape Parts require finishing processes Excess material is recyclable ©iStockphoto.com
    13. 13. Basic Casting Process A mold is created – A cavity that holds the molten material in a desired shape until it is solidified Multiple-use mold Single-use molds Material is heated to a specified temperature Molten material is poured into a mold cavity Molten material solidifies into the shape of the cavity Casting or mold is removed Casting is cleaned, finished, and inspected
    14. 14. Forming and Metalworking Processes Utilizes material that has been cast Modify the shape, size, and physical properties of the material Hot and cold forming ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    15. 15. Forming and Metalworking Processes Rolling – Material passes through a series of rollers, reducing its thickness with each pass Forging – Material is shaped by the controlled application of force (blacksmith)
    16. 16. Forming and Metalworking Processes Extrusion – Material is compressed and forced through a die to produce a uniformed cross section Wire, rod, and tube drawing – Material is pulled through a die to produce a uniformed cross section ©iStockphoto.com
    17. 17. Forming and Metalworking Processes Cold forming and forging – Slugs of material are squeezed into dies
    18. 18. Machining Processes Controlled removal of material from a part to create a specific shape or surface finish Cutting element is used Movement must exist between the part and cutting element ©iStockphoto.com
    19. 19. Machining Processes Turning Processes Operations that create cylindrical parts Work piece rotates as cutting tool is fed into the work ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    20. 20. Machining Processes Turning Processes Lathes and turning centers Processes include: Straight, taper, contour turning, facing, forming, necking, parting, boring, threading, and knurling ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    21. 21. Machining Processes Milling Processes Operations that create flat or curved surfaces by progressively removing material Cutting tools rotate as the work piece is secured and fed into the tool
    22. 22. Machining Processes Milling Processes Mills – Vertical and horizontal Processes include: Surfacing, shaping, forming, slotting, T-slotting, angle, straddle, dovetailing, and slab milling
    23. 23. Machining Processes Drilling Processes Operations that create holes Cutting tools rotate and are fed into nonmoving secured work pieces
    24. 24. Machining Processes Drilling Processes Drilling and boring machines Processes include: Drilling, counter drilling, step drilling, boring, counter boring, countersinking, reaming, spot facing, and tapping
    25. 25. Machining Processes Shearing Processes Operations that break unwanted material away from the part A material is placed between a stationary and movable surface. The movable surface (blade, die, or punch) applies a force to the part that shears away the unwanted material.
    26. 26. Machining Processes Shearing Processes Automated hole punch, squaring shear, and rotary cutter Processes include: Shearing, blanking, cutoff, and parting; punching, perforating, and slotting; notching, lacing, and trimming
    27. 27. Machining Processes Abrasive Machining Processes Operations in which small particles of materials (abrasives) remove small chips of material upon contact Drum, disc, and belt sanders; surface, vertical and horizontal spindle; disc grinders; media blaster; tumblers
    28. 28. Machining Processes Thermal and Chemical Processes Operations that cut and shape materials through chemical means No mechanical force is used Electrical discharge, electrochemical, chemical, laser, electron beam, flame cutting, and plasma-arc cutting Processes include: Grinding, sawing, cutting, machining, milling, blanking, and etching
    29. 29. Heat Treating Processes Controlled heating and cooling of a material to alter its properties while maintaining its shape Properties include: Strength, toughness, machinability, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance 90% of heat treating is preformed on steel and other ferrous metals
    30. 30. Heat Treating Processes To aid in the manufacturing process, materials can be treated to be weak and ductile and then can be re-treated to provide high strength. Can also occur incidentally during the manufacturing process
    31. 31. Joining and Assembly Processes Can you think of a product with only one part? Most products consist of multiple parts that are assembled to form a finished product. Typical assembly processes include: Mechanical fastening; soldering and brazing, welding; adhesive bonding
    32. 32. Joining and Assembly Processes Mechanical Fastening Use physical force to hold parts together Mechanical fasteners or part design Screws, bolts, nails, rivets, cotter pins, retaining clips, and edge design ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    33. 33. Joining and Assembly Processes Welding Operations that use heat, pressure, or both to permanently join parts Gas, arc, stud, spot, forge, roll laminating, resistance, and induction welding ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    34. 34. Joining and Assembly Processes Adhesive bonding Bonding of adjoining surfaces by filling the gap between each surface with a bonding material Glue, cement, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and elastomers ©iStockphoto.com ©iStockphoto.com
    35. 35. Joining and Assembly Processes Soldering and Brazing Operation in which metal surfaces are bonded together by an alloy Heated molten alloy flows between the adjoining surfaces When the heat is removed, the molten metal solidifies and the metal surfaces are bonded ©iStockphoto.com
    36. 36. Rapid Prototyping Additive process Parts are produced directly from software applications Common rapid prototyping systems include: stereolithography (SLA), selective laser sintering (SLS), fused deposition modeling (FDM), laminated object manufacturing (LOM), digital light processing (DLP)
    37. 37. Rapid Prototyping Finished parts can be field tested depending upon building material Created parts can be used to create a mold Modifications to design can be implemented quickly
    38. 38. Other Manufacturing Processes Testing Transportation Material handling Packaging ©iStockphoto.com
    39. 39. Material-SpecificManufacturing Processes Plastic Processes Ceramic Processes ©iStockphoto.com
    40. 40. Plastics Manufacturing Processes Extrusion A rotating screw forces plastic through a heating chamber and then through a heated die Produces long plastic parts with uniform cross sections
    41. 41. Plastics Manufacturing Processes Injection Molding Heated plastic is forced by a movable plunger through a nozzle and then into a mold. The material fills the mold and then is cooled. Most widely used high-volume production process
    42. 42. Plastics Manufacturing Processes Casting Plastic is melted and poured into a mold – No pressure or fillers are required. Rotational Molding A closed mold is filled with a predetermined amount of plastic. The mold is heated, rotated, and then cooled to create a hollow plastic object with uniform wall thickness.
    43. 43. Plastics Manufacturing Processes Blow Molding A solid bottom hollow tube is placed between two mold halves and heated. The heated tube is then expanded into the sides of the mold with compressed air.
    44. 44. Plastics Manufacturing Processes Thermoforming Plastic sheets are heated over an open mold to a working temperature. Once workable, a vacuum is applied to the mold, forcing the plastic sheet to take the shape of the mold. Reaction Molding Liquid reactants are mixed and then pressurized into a mold. No heat is needed. Curing time is typically less than 1 minute.
    45. 45. Ceramic Manufacturing Processes Two distinct classes of materials and processes exist. Glass is heated to a molten state, shaped by viscous flow, and then cooled to produce a solid. Crystalline Ceramics Material is shaped and then heated to produce a permanent solid.
    46. 46. Manufacturing Importance Typical product cost breakdown

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