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Manufacturing processes


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Manufacturing processes introduction ,different types of processes and their advantages and disadvantages.

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Manufacturing processes

  2. 2. Manufacturing processes are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the creation of the materials from which the design is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.
  3. 3. Forming, or metal forming, is the metalworking process of fashioning metal parts and objects through mechanical deformation; the work piece is reshaped without adding or removing material, and its mass remains unchanged. CHARACTERISTICS:  Large, heavy and expensive machinery is required.  Production runs with many parts and steps.
  5. 5. It involves those processes where the primary means of metal deformation is done. It includes the following processes: ROLLING EXTRUSION The material is passed through a pair of rollers. The material is forced through an orifice.
  6. 6. DIE FORMING FORGING Where the material is stamped by a press around or onto a die. Where the material is shaped by localized compressive forces
  7. 7. Tensile forming involves those processes where raw material is extended to a point till it fractures. EXPANDING STRETCHING Where the tensile load is applied along the longitudinal axis of the work piece. Where the circumference of a hollow body is increased.
  8. 8. This category of forming processes involves those operations where it involves both tensile stresses and compressive loads. DEEP DRAWING A flat sheet metal blank is formed into a hollow body open on one side or a hollow body is formed into a hollow body with a smaller cross-section.
  9. 9. METAL SPINNING FLANGE Basically a metal disk or cylinder is rotated at high speed by using specially designed tool through which symmetric product are formed. It is a process of producing protruding rim, edge, rib, or collar, as on a wheel or a pipe shaft, used to strengthen an object, hold it in place, or attach it to another object.
  10. 10. Bending is a manufacturing process that produces a V- shape, U-shape, or channel shape. Similar to other forming processes it does not cause any change in the volume of the material. Usually this sheet metal bending process can be carried out cold but may require to heat the metal sometimes.
  11. 11. When a great enough shearing force is applied, the tensile stress in the material will exceed the ultimate strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location. Shearing is also known as die cutting and cuts the stock without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting. The process can be performed manually or through electric power.
  12. 12. Gravity die casting Process In this reusable metallic molds are used for creating the mold cavity where molten metal are poured without applying any force or pressure other than gravity.
  13. 13. Ideal applications- Suitable for producing aluminum alloy and other similar light metal components. Advantages:  Low cost set up  Quick cycle time  Waste can be recycled  Good surface finish compare Disadvantages:  Chances of defects are high  Suitable for simple components
  14. 14. Squeeze casting Process It requires pressure or force to be applied on the molten metal to push the molten metal to be fill the heated metallic mold cavity.
  15. 15. Ideal applications- Small complex mass produced by aluminum alloy or other similar metals. Advantages:  Less porosity  Very less wastage  Good surface finish  Less post casting operation required  Good strength due to finer micro structure Disadvantages:  High tooling and equipment cost
  16. 16. Centrifugal casting Process In this, the tabular and axisymmetric components are produced by revolving the mold at high speed(300-3000 rpm) about its own axis while pouring the molten metal into the mold cavity.
  17. 17. Ideal application- Suitable for making cylinders, flywheels made of iron, steel etc. Advantages:  Low tooling costs  Very less wastage Disadvantages:  Lower mechanical strength
  18. 18. Sheet metal punching process It is the process of removing part of the sheet metal by using punching press and punching tool.
  19. 19. Ideal application- Suitable for making mass production of the sheet metal components. Advantages:  Same machine can be used for manufacturing different components by changing the dies. Disadvantages:  High equipment and tooling costs
  21. 21. Machining tools 1. Boring tools: These are typically used as finishing equipment to enlarge holes previously cut into the material. 2. Cutting tools: Devices such as saws and shears are typical examples of cutting implements. They are often used to cut material with predetermined dimensions, such as sheet metal, into a desired shape. 3. Drilling tools: This category consists of two-edged rotating devices that create round holes parallel to the axis of rotation. 4. Grinding tools: These instruments apply a rotating wheel to achieve a fine finish or to make light cuts on a work piece. 5. Milling tools: A milling tool employs a rotating cutting surface with several blades to create non-circular holes or cut unique designs out of the material. 6. Turning tools: These tools rotate a work piece on its axis while a cutting tool shapes it to form. Lathes are the most common type of turning equipment
  22. 22. 1. Boring 2. Drilling 3. Thread Cutting 4. Grooving
  23. 23. What is CNC Machining ? Computer numerical control Machining it is a automated process. It requires software and programming, usually in the G- code language, to guide a machining tool in shaping the workpiece according to preset parameters.
  24. 24. Advantages 1. High production cycles: Once the CNC machine has been properly coded, it usually needs minimal maintenance or downtime, allowing for a faster production rate. 2. Low manufacturing costs: Due to its turnover speed and low manual labor requirements, CNC machining can be a cost-efficient process, particularly for high-volume production runs. 3. Uniform production: CNC machining is typically precise and yields a high level of design consistency among its products.
  25. 25. CASTING
  26. 26. What is Casting? Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting materials are usually metals or various cold setting materials that cure after mixing two or more components together; examples are epoxy, concrete, plaster and clay. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.
  27. 27. Types of Casting
  28. 28. Casting Process It is the oldest manufacturing process in which liquid molten metal is poured into a perforated casting cavity of refractory material. Allow liquid metal to solidify, after solidification the casting metal can be taken out by breaking the mould. Casting process is used to produce components such as pistons, mill rolls, wheels, cylinder blocks, liners, machine tool beds.
  29. 29. Advantages Advantages of casting process: • Molten metal flows into ant small section in molten cavity, hence any complex shape can be easily produced. • Practically any type of material can be casted. • Ideal method is by producing small quantities • Due to small cooling rate from all directions, the properties of casting are same in all directions. • Any size of casting can be produced like up to 200 tonnes. • Casting is the often cheapest and most direct way of producing a shape with certain desired mechanical properties. • Certain metals and alloys such as highly creep resistant metal-based alloys for gas turbines cannot be worked mechanically and can be cast only. • Heavy equipment like machine leads, ship’s propeller etc. can be cast easily in the required size rather than fabricating them by joining several small pieces. • Casting is best suited for composite components requiring different properties in different direction. These are made by incorporating preferable inserts in a casting. For example, aluminium conductors into slots in iron armature for electric motors, wear resistant skins onto shock resistant components.
  30. 30. Limitations • With normal casting process the dimensional accuracies and surface finish is less. • Defects are unavoidable. • It is labor intensive.
  31. 31. Joining:-
  32. 32. Why do we need joining? To restrict some degrees of freedom of motion for components (i.e. to make mechanisms). (a) A complex shaped component may be impossible/expensive to manufacture, but it may be possible/cheaper to make it in several parts and then join them. (b) Some products are better made as assemblies, since they can be disassembled for maintenance. (c) Transporting a disassembled product is sometimes easier/feasible compared to transporting the entire product. A good example of this is the beautiful TsingMa bridge of Hong Kong; individual sections were fabricated, raised to the correct position, and then welded/riveted together to construct the structure.
  33. 33. Joining Process Welding Brazing and Soldering Adhesive bonding
  34. 34. Welding:- In the welding process, two or more parts are heated and melted or forced together causing the joined parts to function as one.
  35. 35. Brazing:- During the brazing process a filler metal is melted and distributed in between multiple solid metal components after they have been heated to the proper temperature. The filler metal must have a melting point that is above 840 degrees Fahrenheit but below the melting point of the base metals and the metal must also have high fluidity and wettability. No melting of the base metals occurs during brazing.
  36. 36. Brazing:- During the brazing process a filler metal is melted and distributed in between multiple solid metal components after they have been heated to the proper temperature. The filler metal must have a melting point that is above 840 degrees Fahrenheit but below the melting point of the base metals and the metal must also have high fluidity and wettability. No melting of the base metals occurs during brazing.
  37. 37. Adhesive bonding:- Adhesive bonding is a low cost process that normally has 100% material utilization. In adhesive bonding a filler material called an adhesive is used to hold multiple closely spaced parts together through surface attachment. The adhesive is a nonmetallic substance often it is a polymer.
  39. 39. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature then the process is known as Hot rolling . Advantages: Drastic shape change is possible Good microstructure & good strength Disadvantages: Less dimensional tolerance compared to cold rolling Poor surface finish HOT ROLLING PROCESS
  40. 40. Given shape by applying high force(hammer) with the presence of heat. Advantages: Good strength Versatility in design Disadvantages: Equipment & tooling cost is high Forging is skillful job FORGING PROCESS
  41. 41. Process of making components by pumping the liquid materials into the mold. Advantages: Good surface finish High production rate Fully automated(less manpower) Disadvantage: High tooling and equipment cost INJECTION MODELLING PROCESS
  42. 42. Air is pumped after pumping the molten materials into the two piece mold cavity, the combine effect produce walled components. Advantages: Lower manufacturing cost per item Variety of designs Disadvantages: Only hollow parts can be produced BLOW MOLDING PROCESS
  43. 43. Single point cutting tool used for removing materials from a fast rotating work piece by using a machine called lathe. Advantages: Lead time is shorter Tight tolerance cannot be achieved Disadvantages: Large scrap wastage Equipment cost is quite high TURNING PROCESS
  44. 44. Making hole in a work piece by removing materials from it by means of a rotating cutting tool called drill bit. Advantages: Variety of materials can be chosen Lead time is shorter Disadvantages: Large scrap wastage DRILLING PROCESS
  45. 45. Layer by layer materials removing process from the work piece. Advantages: Lead time is shorter Variety of materials can be chosen Disadvantages: Large scrap wastage Equipment cost is high MILLING PROCESS
  46. 46. Use grinding wheel as cutting tool to make surface smoother. Advantages: Good surface finish Lead time is shorter Disadvantages: Large scrap wastage GRINDING PROCESS
  47. 47. Moving the work piece slowly against some sort of abrasives. Can be performed manually or by machine. Advantages: Great surface finish Variety of materials can be chosen Disadvantages: Slow process LAPPING PROCESS
  48. 48. Mechanically rubbing the honing stone against the work piece surface along the controlled path. Advantages: Good surface finish Variety of materials can be chosen Disadvantages: Equipment cost is high HONING PROCESS
  49. 49. Abrasive jet machining Abrasive jet machining (AJM), also known as abrasive micro-blasting, pencil blasting and micro-abrasive blasting, is anabrasive blasting machining process that uses abrasives propelled by a high velocity gas to erode material from the work piece. Common uses include cutting heat-sensitive, brittle, thin, or hard materials. Specifically it is used to cut intricate shapes or form specific edge shapes. Advantage: 1. Hard Materials can be Machined. 2. Complex Profile can be Created. 3. Very Good Surface can be Achieved.
  50. 50. Fusion Welding Fusion welding is a generic term for welding processes that rely upon melting to join materials of similar compositions and melting points. Due to the high-temperature phase transitions inherent to these processes, a heat-affected zone is created in the material (although some techniques, like beam welding, often minimize this effect by introducing comparatively little heat into the workpiece. Advantage: Variety of materials can be chosen Variety of welding design can be Chosen
  51. 51. Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene welding in 1903. Pure oxygen, instead of air, is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the work piece material (e.g. steel) in a room environment. A common propane/air flame burns at about 2,000 °C (3,630 °F), a propane/oxygen flame burns at about 2,500 °C (4,530 °F), and an acetylene/oxygen flame burns at about 3,500 °C (6,330 °F). Oxy-fuel welding Advantages: 1.Less equipment Cost. 2.Portable equipment. 3.Easy to Operate.
  52. 52. Powder metallurgy is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing them into a desired shape or form (compacting), and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere to bond the material sintering. The powder metallurgy process generally consists of four basic steps: powder manufacture, powder blending, compacting, and sintering. Compacting is generally performed at room temperature, and the elevated-temperature process of sintering is usually conducted at atmospheric pressure. Optional secondary processing often follows to obtain special properties or enhanced precision. The use of powder metal technology bypasses the need to manufacture the resulting products by metal removal processes, thereby reducing costs. Powder metallurgy is also used in "3D printing" of metals. Powder Metallurgy
  53. 53. Advantage:  Very less Machining operation required after the Components are Produced  Rate of Production is very high.  Scrap wastage is very less.  Complex 3D objects can be Created
  54. 54. Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using 3D printing or "additive layer manufacturing" technology. Rapid prototyping