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adharabhuta siddanta of BK.pptx

Bhaishajya kalpana, paribhasha, anupana, bheshaj sevan kala, mana paribhasha, saveeryata avadhi, aushada matra, aushada namakarana, dose, drug collection & storage.

1 of 92
Seminar on adharabhutha siddhantha of
bhaishajya kalpana
INDRODUCTION
 Every science will have its own set of
basic principles .which guide us as we
advance with the best.
 They are the base for the further theories
in it.
 Bhaishajya kalpana adharabhuta
siddhantas can be considered as basic
fundamental principles of aushadha
nirmana.
Adharabhuta siddhanta’s of Bhaishajya
kalpana may be listed as below
• Paribhasha
• Dravya sangrahana and samrakshana
• Rasa ,guna, virya,vipaka,prabhava
• Mana paribhasha
• Panchavidha kashaya kalpana
• Aushadha namakarana
• Aushadha sevana kala
• Saviryata avadhi
• Aushadha matra
• Anupana
PARIBHASHA
• In bhaishajya kalpana and Rasa shasthra
certain technical terms are often used.
• The term paribhasha means the definition
given to any classical terminology to
clarify its broader and clearer meaning.
 ÌlÉaÉÔRûÉlÉÑ£üsÉåzÉÉå£üxÉÎlSakÉÉjÉïmÉëS
ÏÌmÉMüÉ|
xÉÑÌlÉͶÉiÉÉjÉÉï ÌuÉoÉÑkÉæ:mÉËUpÉÉwÉÉ
निगद्यते(U. iÉ 22)
• The paribhasha is a statement that gives a
clear and distinct meaning of a word or an
expression.
• It clarifies the concealed,hidden
unclear,vague, and confusing meaning of a
word or a verse in the classics.
• The paribhasha are like guiding lights in
understanding every concept in the
classics.
sÉuÉhÉ mÉlcÉMü:
 xÉÉæuÉcÉïsÉÇ xÉælkÉuÉgcÉ
ÌuÉQûqÉÉæÎkpÉSqÉåuÉ cÉ|
xÉÉqÉÑSìåhÉ xÉWæûiÉÉÌlÉ mÉlcÉ
xrÉÑsÉïuÉhÉÉÌlÉ cÉ||
 xÉælkÉuÉlcÉÉjÉ xÉÉqÉÑSìÇ ÌuÉQÇû
xÉÉæuÉcÉïsÉÇ iÉjÉÉ|
UÉåqÉMügcÉåÌiÉ ÌuÉalÉårÉÇ
oÉÑkÉæsÉïuÉhÉmÉgcÉMüqÉç|| (U.iÉ.23)
sÉuÉhȨ́ÉMü:
 ÍxÉlkÉÑeÉÇ ÂcÉMÇü mÉÉYrÉqÉåiÉiÉç
̧ÉsÉuÉhÉÇ xqÉëÑiÉqÉç| (U.iÉ.24)
 iɧÉÉÌmÉ xÉælkÉuÉÇ qÉÑZrÉÇ
Ìuɲΰ:mÉËUMüÐÌiÉïiÉqÉç|
E£åü sÉuÉhÉxÉÉqÉÉlrÉå xÉælkÉuÉÇ

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adharabhuta siddanta of BK.pptx

  • 1. Seminar on adharabhutha siddhantha of bhaishajya kalpana
  • 2. INDRODUCTION  Every science will have its own set of basic principles .which guide us as we advance with the best.  They are the base for the further theories in it.  Bhaishajya kalpana adharabhuta siddhantas can be considered as basic fundamental principles of aushadha nirmana.
  • 3. Adharabhuta siddhanta’s of Bhaishajya kalpana may be listed as below • Paribhasha • Dravya sangrahana and samrakshana • Rasa ,guna, virya,vipaka,prabhava • Mana paribhasha • Panchavidha kashaya kalpana • Aushadha namakarana • Aushadha sevana kala • Saviryata avadhi • Aushadha matra • Anupana
  • 4. PARIBHASHA • In bhaishajya kalpana and Rasa shasthra certain technical terms are often used. • The term paribhasha means the definition given to any classical terminology to clarify its broader and clearer meaning.  ÌlÉaÉÔRûÉlÉÑ£üsÉåzÉÉå£üxÉÎlSakÉÉjÉïmÉëS ÏÌmÉMüÉ| xÉÑÌlÉͶÉiÉÉjÉÉï ÌuÉoÉÑkÉæ:mÉËUpÉÉwÉÉ निगद्यते(U. iÉ 22) • The paribhasha is a statement that gives a clear and distinct meaning of a word or an expression.
  • 5. • It clarifies the concealed,hidden unclear,vague, and confusing meaning of a word or a verse in the classics. • The paribhasha are like guiding lights in understanding every concept in the classics. sÉuÉhÉ mÉlcÉMü:  xÉÉæuÉcÉïsÉÇ xÉælkÉuÉgcÉ ÌuÉQûqÉÉæÎkpÉSqÉåuÉ cÉ| xÉÉqÉÑSìåhÉ xÉWæûiÉÉÌlÉ mÉlcÉ xrÉÑsÉïuÉhÉÉÌlÉ cÉ||
  • 6.  xÉælkÉuÉlcÉÉjÉ xÉÉqÉÑSìÇ ÌuÉQÇû xÉÉæuÉcÉïsÉÇ iÉjÉÉ| UÉåqÉMügcÉåÌiÉ ÌuÉalÉårÉÇ oÉÑkÉæsÉïuÉhÉmÉgcÉMüqÉç|| (U.iÉ.23) sÉuÉhȨ́ÉMü:  ÍxÉlkÉÑeÉÇ ÂcÉMÇü mÉÉYrÉqÉåiÉiÉç ̧ÉsÉuÉhÉÇ xqÉëÑiÉqÉç| (U.iÉ.24)  iɧÉÉÌmÉ xÉælkÉuÉÇ qÉÑZrÉÇ Ìuɲΰ:mÉËUMüÐÌiÉïiÉqÉç| E£åü sÉuÉhÉxÉÉqÉÉlrÉå xÉælkÉuÉÇ
  • 7. Trikatu : ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ qÉËUcÉÇ zÉÑhPûÏ निनित्र्यूषणमुच्यते|(zÉÉ.qÉ.612) Collective name for shunti,maricha and pippali,taken in equal quantities. Ksharadwaya Swarji kshara and yavakshara. • Ksharatraya • Yavakshara • Swarjikshara • Tankana
  • 8. ¤ÉÉU mÉlcÉMü: mÉsÉÉzÉqÉÑzMüMü¤ÉÉUÉæ rÉuɤÉÉU:xÉÑuÉÍcÉïMüÉ| ÌiÉsÉlÉÉsÉÉå°uÉ:¤ÉÉU:xÉÇrÉÑ£Çü ¤ÉÉUmÉgcÉMüqÉç|| (U.U.xÉ 1069)  Kadali kshara( Musa paradisiaca)  Mushkaka patala (stereospermum suaveolens)  Palasha kshara (Butea monosperma)  Tilakshara (sesamum indicum) and
  • 9. ¤ÉÉUɹMü:  xÉÑkÉÉmÉsÉÉzÉÍzÉZÉUÍcÉgcÉÉMïüÌiÉsÉlÉÉsÉeÉ É: | xuÉÎeÉïMüÉ rÉÉuÉzÉÔMüxcÉ ¤ÉÉUɹMüqÉÑSɾÒûiÉqÉç || (U.iÉ.28)  Snuhi kshara  Palasha kshara  Apamarga ( shikhari) kshara  Cincha kshara  Arka kshara  Tila kshara  Swargika kshara  Yava kshara
  • 10. qÉÔ§ÉɹMü : • AÌuÉqÉÔ§ÉqÉeÉÉqÉÔ§ÉÇ aÉÉåqÉÔ§ÉÇ qÉÉÌWûwÉÇ cÉ rÉiÉç| WûÎxiÉqÉÔ§ÉqÉjÉÉå·íxrÉ WûrÉxrÉ cÉ ZÉUxrÉ cÉ ||(cÉ.xÉÔ 114) Urine of • Female sheep • Goat • Cow • Buffalo • Elephant • Camel and
  • 11. AÉqsÉuÉaÉï: eÉqoÉÏUÇ ÌlÉqoÉÑMügcÉæuÉ iuÉqsÉuÉåiÉxÉqÉÎqsÉMüÉ | lÉÉU…û SÉÌQûqÉgcÉæuÉ uÉפÉÉqsÉÇ oÉÏeÉmÉÔUMüqÉç|| cÉÉ…åûUÏ cÉhÉMüÉqsÉgcÉ MüMïülkÉÑ:MüUqÉSïMü: cÉÑÌ¢üMüÉ cÉåÌiÉ xÉÉqÉÉlrÉSqsÉuÉaÉï: mÉëMüÐÌiÉïiÉ: (U.iÉ 214)
  • 12. AqsÉmÉlcÉMü: AqsÉuÉåiÉxÉeÉqoÉÏUsÉÑ…ûlÉÉU…ûÌlÉqoÉÑM æü: | TüsÉmÉlcÉÉqsÉMÇü ZrÉÉiÉÇ MüÐÌiÉïiÉgcÉÉqsÉmÉgcÉMüqÉç || ( U.iÉ.215) • Amlavetasa (garcinia pedunculata) • Jambira nimbu (citrus lemon) • Maatulunga (citrus medica ) • Naaranga (citrous reticulata)
  • 13. mÉgcÉÌiÉ£ : • aÉÑQÕûcÉÏ ÌlÉqoÉqÉÔsÉiuÉMçü ÍpÉwÉQèqÉÉiÉÉ ÌlÉÌSÎakÉMüÉ | mÉOûÉåsÉmɧÉÍqÉirÉåiÉiÉç mÉgcÉÌiÉ£Çü mÉëMüÐÌiÉïiÉqÉç ||(U.iÉ.218) Guduchi Nimba Vasa Kantakaari Patola .
  • 14. qÉkÉÑU§ÉrÉ : bÉëÑiÉÇ aÉÑQûÉå qÉÉͤÉMügcÉ ÌuÉalÉårÉÇ qÉkÉÑU§ÉrÉqÉç (U.U.xÉ 1070) • Ghee • Jaggery • Honey
  • 15. mÉgcÉÉqÉ×iÉ : aÉurÉÇ ¤ÉÏUÇ SÍkÉ bÉ×iÉÇ qÉÉͤÉMÇü cÉÉjÉ zÉMïüUÉ | mÉgcÉÉqÉ×iÉÇ xÉqÉÉZrÉiÉÇ UxÉMüqÉïmÉëxÉÉkÉMüqÉç || (U.iÉ.221) • Godugdha • Godadhi • Goghritha • Makshika
  • 16. mÉgcÉaÉurÉ: aÉurÉÇ ¤ÉÏUÇ SÍkÉ bÉ×iÉÇ aÉÉåqÉÔ§ÉÇ aÉÉåqÉrÉÇ iÉjÉÉ | LMü§É rÉÉåÎeÉiÉÇ iÉÑsrÉÇ mÉgcÉaÉurÉÍqÉWûÉåcrÉiÉå || (U.iÉ.222)  Godugdha.  Godadhi .  Goghritha .  Gomutra.  Gomaya
  • 17. Mutrashtaka (Ra.ta.211) • Mahisha mutra. • Aja mutra . • Avi mutra . • Ushtra mutra. • Gomutra . • Khara mutra . • Hasti mutra . • Haya mutra
  • 18. mÉgcÉqÉ×̨ÉMü: D̹MüÉcÉÔhÉïMÇü pÉxqÉ iÉjÉÉ uÉsqÉÏMüqÉ×̨ÉMüÉ| aÉæËUMÇü sÉuÉhÉgcÉåÌiÉ MüÐÌiÉïiÉÉ:mÉgcÉqÉ×̨ÉMüÉ: ||(U.iÉ.219) • Ishtika churna(brick powder). • Bhasma (wood ash). • Valmika (ant hill mud). • Gairika ( haematite). • Saindhava lavana.
  • 19. kÉluÉliÉUÏ pÉÉaÉ: AkÉïÇ ÍxÉ®UxÉxrÉ iÉæsÉbÉë×iÉrÉÉåsÉåïWûxrÉ pÉÉaÉÉå A¹qÉ:| xÉÇÍxÉ®ÉÎZÉsÉsÉÉåWûcÉÔhÉïuÉOûMüÉSÏlÉÉÇ iÉjÉÉ xÉmiÉqÉ: rÉÉå SÏrÉiÉå ÍpÉwÉauÉUÉrÉ aÉÌSÍpÉÌlÉïÌSïzrÉ kÉluÉliÉUÏqÉç| xÉuÉÉï AÉUÉåarÉxÉÑZÉÉmiÉrÉå ÌlÉaÉÌSiÉÉå pÉÉaÉ: xÉ kÉluÉÇiÉUå: || (U.U.xÉ 82) Share of the physician • Rasaoushadhis,ghrita,taila -12. • Bhasma of metals,minerals,gems,curna,vataka-17th.
  • 20. Paribhasha significance and essentiality:  mÉËUpÉÉwÉÉkrÉÉrÉqÉÉSÉæ rÉÉå AkÉÏiÉå UxÉxÉÉkÉMü:| रसतन्त्रार्थनिalÉÉlÉå lÉ xÉ qÉѽÉÌiÉ MÑü§ÉÍcÉiÉç ||(U.iÉ.21) The person who masters the paribhasha prakarana ,before going into the science,he Confronts no difficulties in understanding the subject.Therefore the knowledge of paribhasha is most essential and equally significant.
  • 21. Dravya sangraha and samrakshana : • The therapeutic efficacy of any drug depends strongly on the methods followed for its collection and storage . • Points of significance during drug collection are as below: • Time of drug collection . • Place of drug collection . • The state of drug collection . • Method of drug collection. • Storage and preservation.
  • 22. Time of drug collection : General rules ; • The raw materials used in ayurveda shall be collected according to part used,season,potency etc in a specific manner. • Time of collection acc to part used • acc to charaka • iÉåwÉÉÇ zÉÉZÉÉmÉsÉÉzÉqÉÍcÉUmÉëÃRÇû uÉwÉÉïuÉxÉliÉrÉÉåaÉëÉï½Ç,aÉëÏwqÉå qÉÔsÉÉÌlÉ ÍzÉÍzÉUå cÉ zÉÏhÉïmÉëÃRûÉlÉÉÇ, zÉUÌS iuÉ‚ülS¤ÉÏUÉÍhÉ, WåûqÉliÉå xÉÉUÉÍhÉ ,rÉjÉiÉÑï mÉÑwmÉTüsÉÍqÉÌiÉ......| (cÉ.Mü.110)
  • 23. Part used season Tender leaves and branches varsha and vasanta rutu . Roots a)for ushna veerya dravya. b) For sheeta veerya dravya Greeshma rutu. Sishira rutu Bark,tubers & latex sharad rutu. Heart wood (saara) hemantha rutu . Flowers and fruits . acc to their season.
  • 24. Acc to sushruta: parts Time of collection Roots pravrit leaves varsha rutu. Bark sarat ritu latex hemantha ritu. Heart wood vasantha ritu. Fruit Greeshma ritu
  • 25. c)Acc to RAAJA NIGHANTU : parts Time of collection kanda Hemanta ritu Mula and patra Sisira ritu Pushpa and phala Vasanta Tender leaves greeshma ritu Panchangas sarat ritu.
  • 26. cont…. • Saradh ritu is best time for collection of herbs for all types of preparations. • However ,for the drugs of vamana and virechana the best time is vasanta ritu . • zÉUSÎZÉsÉMüÉrÉÉïjÉïÇ aÉëÉ½Ç xÉUxÉqÉÉæwÉkÉqÉç| ÌuÉUåMüuÉqÉlÉÉjÉïÇ cÉ uÉxÉliÉÉliÉå xÉqÉÉWûUåiÉç ||(zÉ.mÉë.159).
  • 27. Cont… • Reason behind this is that the drugs collected in that particular season will posses the optimum potency level and prabhava. • As a general opinion acarya sharangadhara says that all ushna veerya dravya are to be collected from vindhya parvata and which are known for its hot temperature. • He also says that sheeta veerya dravyas should be collected from himalaya.
  • 28. Time of the day for drug collection: • It is indicated by many classical texts that the aushadha dravya are to be collected in early morning hours . aÉÚÎhWûrÉÉiÉÉÌlÉ xÉÑqÉlÉÉ: zÉÑÍcÉ: mÉëÉiÉ: xÉÑuÉÉxÉUå|(zÉ.mÉë.156) • Perhaps at brahma murhartha kala the yield and the potency of the drugs are expected to be more .
  • 29. • Bhumi of mahabhuta predominance and drug collection: • Sushruta described the significance of soil while collecting the drugs for different therapeutic procedure.
  • 30. Prithvi and jala mahabhuta pradhana virechana dravyas Agni ,akasha and vayu pradhana bhumi vamana dravya. Both the above soils together Ubhaya bhaga hara dravya. Akasha pradhana bhumi Shamana dravya
  • 31. Place from where drugs should not be collected : Ref sha.pra.158 • Valmika-anthill soil. • Kutsita –bibhatsa sthana . • Anupa –marshy land. • Smashana –burial ground. • Ushara pradesha-saline soil. • Marga –walking lanes. • Jantu pidita . • Agnidagdha. • Himavyapta
  • 32. Stage of drug collection : • Though the general rule speaks about the collection of all the drugs in fresh form,there are exceptions to this,where in the few of the drugs collected should be old . • lÉuÉÉlrÉåuÉ ÌWû rÉÉåerÉÉÌlÉ SìurÉÉhrÉÎZÉsÉMüqÉïxÉÑ| ÌuÉlÉÉ ÌuÉQ…¡éûMÚüwhÉÉprÉÉÇ aÉÑQûkÉÉlrÉÉerÉqÉÉͤÉMæü:|| (zÉÉ.mÉë.144)
  • 33. However sushruta mentions that whether the drug is nava or purana it doesn’t matter much but the rasa,gandha and other inherent properties of the drugs are to be un-spoilt. • ÌuÉaÉlkÉålÉÉपरामृष्टमनिपन्नं रसानिनि:| lÉuÉÇ SìurÉÇ mÉÑUÉhÉÇ uÉÉ aÉëɽqÉåuÉ ÌuÉÌlÉÌSïzÉåiÉç||(xÉÑ.xÉÔ 3615)
  • 34. Dwiguna maana ganana:  In any compound preparation of dry and wet drugs together,dry drugs collected should be freshly dried and the wet drugs which should be freshly collected are taken in double quantity of dry ones.  zÉÑwMÇü lÉuÉÏlÉÇ rÉSè SìurÉÇ rÉÉåerÉÇ xÉMüsÉMüqÉïxÉÑ| AÉSìïÇ cÉ Ì²aÉÑhÉÇ rÉÑgerÉÉSåwÉ सिथि ÌlɶÉrÉ: || (zÉÉ.mÉë.147)
  • 35. Rationality behind dwiguna maana:  शुष्कद्रव्ये तु या मािा चाद्रथस्य निगुणा नि सा। शुष्कस्य गुरुतीक्ष्णत्वात् तस्मािर्धं प्रकीनतथतम्॥ (uÉæ.mÉ,mÉë.49). • In a compound formulation in relation with the dry drugs the wet drugs are taken in double quantity. • Alternatively in relation with the wet drugs the dry ones are taken in half quantity.
  • 36. • Because in comparison with the wet drugs, the dry drugs are guru and tikshna. • Moreover the wet drugs do posses larger amount of water content in them which adds for their weight.
  • 37. Exception for the rule of dwiduna maana: (sha.pra.145) • Guduchi • Kutaja, • Vasa • Kushmanda, • Shatavari • Ashwagandha. • Sahachari . • Shatapushpa. • Prasarini
  • 38. Dravya sangrahana vidhi (method of drug collection): • The drug collection is done with all methodical and religious rituals. • In early morning hours, after bath with calm mind. • The person should pray lord shiva facing the early morning sun . • Later the drugs situated towards north should be collected.
  • 39. • गृण्हियात्तानि सुमिा: शुनच: प्रात: सुिासरे। आनित्यसम्मुखो मौिी िमस्क्र ु त्य नशिं ह्लनि॥ सार्धारणर्धराद्रव्यं गृहिीयाि् उत्तराश्रीतम्॥ (शा.प्र.ख.१५७) • मङ्गलाचार: कल्याणिृत्त: शुनच: शुक्लिासा:संपूज्य िेितामनिमनििौ गोब्राम्हणांश्च क ृ तोपिास: प्राड्मुखो उिन्मुखो िा गृण्हियात्॥ (च.क.११०)
  • 40. Dravya samrakshana: • Any drug material ,which is collected should be stored in suitable conditions to retain the inherent drug properties until the drug goes into a preparation. • For this the most primary thing which we require will be the suitable containers to store the raw drugs. • Then they are kept in the store rooms which are built in air tight area with plenty of precautions for sanitation.
  • 41. • The store house shall be cleaned regularly by ritual methods. • It should be free from fire,water vapour,smoke,dust,rats and away from cross roads. • The collected materials may be preserved in cloth,clay pots,planks conical flasks etc,. As per the necessity. • Afterwards they are to be preserved in the bheshajagara in a suitable corner by following all the preservative measures.
  • 42. • The room should have entrance towards east or north.there should be gandha dhupa,balikarmas conducted frequently. • It should be spacious ,with high ceiling and well ventilated. • It should have shelves and cupboards for all medicines . • Cupboards should have individual locking arrangements. • Medicines should be kept off the floor. • Leave two finger space between containers for easy handling
  • 43. • Labels should be towards the front, with bigger containers at the rear and smaller ones in front , so that all labels are visible. • Poisonous items should be stored separately, the word poison being written on them in blue or red ink in the mother tongue and english , and stored with due care. • inspect daily to see that labels are not damaged,contents have not gone bad and lids are not open.
  • 44. • Remove any spoilt product then and there,and find suitable remedy for any other defect. • Burn a stove or candle in the storehouse during rainy and cold seasons for warmth.The second floor is preffered for storage during these seasons. • Arishtas must be held in specially strong bottles away from other items due to the risk of the bottles bursting. • Oils are best kept in china porcelain jars properly closed and taken into bottles only when necessary.
  • 45. • Pills must be exposed to the sun once every week in their containers.Those dried in shade must be covered with a thin cloth during such exposure. • Ghritas are also to be stored like oils,but in wide mouthed jars. • Powders should be packed in bottles when hot and the bottles exposed to sun weekly. • Tailas should be kept in glass stoppered bottles. Those with strong scent or potency should be sealed with wax .
  • 46. • Additives are to be kept in a secure place in glass containers, properly sealed with wax. • Special attention is to be paid to keep the store house and sorrounding compulsory clean.
  • 47. Importance of rasa, guna,virya,vipaka,karma and prabhava: • Eventhough drugs have got some active principles with which they work, they have some other fractions too.which counteract their bad effects,if any. • Ayurveda propounds the principles of rasa,guna,virya, vipaka,karma and prabhava of dravya.
  • 48. • SìurÉå UxÉÉå aÉÑhÉÉåÇ uÉÏrÉï ÌuÉmÉÉMü:zÉÌ£üUåuÉ cÉ| mÉSÉjÉÉï: mÉgcÉ ÌiɹÎliÉ xuÉÇ xuÉÇ MÑüuÉïÎliÉ MüqÉï cÉ|| (pÉÉ.mÉë.6169) • The inherent properties of any drug are responsible for its action exerted. • The drugs which fulfill the above requirement are to be selected and used to obtain a potent compound preparation.
  • 49.  Mutual relation between rasadi gunas  Acc to charaka the action of any dravya will depend upon either rasa or virya or vipaka or prabhava .  ÌMüÎgcÉSè UxÉålÉ MÑüÂiÉå MüqÉï uÉÏrÉåïhÉ cÉÉmÉUqÉç| SìurÉÇ aÉÑhÉålÉ mÉÉMåülÉ mÉëpÉÉuÉåhÉ cÉ ÌMügcÉlÉ||(cÉ.xÉÔ26) Sushruta describes his view that the variation in increase or decrease in panchamahabhutas results in the variation
  • 50.  iÉSìurÉqÉÉiqÉlÉÉ ÌMüÎgcÉiÉç ÌMüÎgcÉ̲rÉåïhÉ xÉåÌuÉiÉqÉç| ÌMüÎgcÉSìxÉÌuÉmÉÉMüÉprÉÉÇ SÉåwÉÇ WûÎliÉ MüUÉåÌiÉ uÉÉ||(xÉÑ.xÉÔ40)  UxÉÇ ÌuÉmÉÉMüxiÉÉæ uÉÏrÉïÇ mÉëpÉÉuÉxiÉÉlurÉmÉÉåWûÌiÉ| oÉsÉxÉÉqrÉå UxÉÉSÏlÉÉÍqÉÌiÉ lÉæxÉÌaÉïMÇü oÉsÉqÉç||(cÉ,xÉÔ 26) • Normally ,in a drug vipaka is supersed rasa, rasa and vipaka will be superseded by virya and finally prabhava will supersede all the three .
  • 51. • Therefore it is concluded that when ever there is association of dissimilar qualities ,the more potent quality will supersede the quality of lower potency and exhibits its own effects . • Though the qualities rasa,guna,virya,vipaka etc ..are opposite to one another ,they do not interfere with the therapeutic effects of drugs.
  • 52. • ÌuÉ®ÉqÉÌmÉ cÉÉlrÉÉålrÉÇ UxÉɱÉ:MüÉrÉïxÉÉkÉlÉå| lÉÉuÉzrÉÇ xrÉÑÌuÉïbÉÉiÉÉrÉ aÉÑhÉSÉåwÉ ÍqÉjÉÉårÉjÉÉ||(A.xÉÇ.xÉÔ 17) Just like tridosha which are possessing different qualities are maintainig the homoeostasis of human body.The dissimilar constituents of body will also have mutual balance and produce good effect.
  • 53. Aushadi naamakarana: In classics we find majority of the compound preparations named on the basis of the first drug name mentioned. • However this rule doesn’t apply in all cases.Many preparations are named on their main ingredient,action exerted,method of preparation,appearance,dosage and many other significant factors of that particular preparation.
  • 54. a)Based on the first drug of the compound: • Punarnavashtaka curna. • Khadhiradi vati. • Abhayadi modaka. • Jatyaadi taila. • Eladi rasayana. • Jirakadyarishta.
  • 55. b) Based on important ingredient • Hingwashtaka curna. • Candanabalalakshadi taila. • Drakshasava . • Dashamularishta .etc • Based on number of drugs or the quantity of drugs used • Punarnavashtaka kwatha. • Rasna saptaka qwatha. • Ashtanga churna .etc
  • 56. d) Based on physical appearance of the product: • pinda taila . • Swarna vanga. • Parpati kalpa.etc • e)Based on the time of collection of the ingredients: • Pushyanuga churna. • F) based on therapeutic efficacy of the drugs • Arogyavardini vati.
  • 57. • Brimhana gutika. • Ashmaribhedaka kwatha. • Arshoghna vati. • Vaataghna lepa.etc • G) Based on the method of preparation • Shatadhota ghrita. • Sahasradouta ghrita. • Sahasrapaaka balataila. • Gandhaka driti. • Putapakwa vishama jwarantaka louha.
  • 58. h) Based on the dosagedrug quantity used: • Sadbindu taila. • Kamsaharitaki rasayana ( 1kamsa=120g). • Hingu triguna taila. • Asta katwara taila. • Pancha sama churna .etc i) Based on the name of the discover: • Cyavanaprashavaleha. • Agatsya haritaki rasayana. • Vasista rasayana.etc
  • 59. j) Based on the similies given to the preparation • Kanakasundara . • Kamadhenu rasa. • Indra vati.etc k) Based on the point emphasizing its fame: • Tribhuvana keerthi rasa. • Tripura bhairava rasa. • Trailokya chintamani rasa. • Trivikrama rasa.etc
  • 60. Anuktha visheshoktha grahana: In case of unspecified To be considered Kala ( time) Prabhata (morning hours) Anga ( part of the plant) Jata ( root system) Bhaga ( ratio of hte ingredient) Samya ( all equal ) Patra ( vessels for preparation) Mrtpatra ( mud pots) Drava ( liquid used in the preparations) Jala ( water) Taila ( oil) Tila taila (sesame oil)
  • 61. In case of unspecified part To be taken Atisthula jata(larger roots) The bark of the plant is taken Suksma mula(tender roots) Whole root system is considered Nyagrodha,udumbhara,asvattha ,parisa,plaksha etc Bark of these plants Bijaka,khadira,devadaru,candan a,asana,babbula etc Sara bhaga (drug essence) is considered Talisa ,palasa,kumari,tejapatra,nagava lli etc Patra(leaves of these plants) Haritaki,bhitakai,amalaki Phala(fruit part)of these plants Dhataki,maduka etc Puspa(flowers of these plants) Snuhi,arka etc Ksira (milky exudates) of these plants
  • 62. Specified preparations Variety of candana to be used For the preparation of curna,sneha,asava arishta.avleha etc Sveta candana For the preparation of kasayakalpana and lepa kalpana. Rakta candana
  • 63.  कालेऽिुक्ते प्रिाते स्यािङ्ग े ऽिुक्ते जटा ििेत्। िागेऽिुक्ते तु साम्यं स्यात्पािेऽिुक्ते च म्रुन्मयम्॥ द्रिेऽिुक्ते जलं ग्राह्यं तैलेऽिुक्ते नतलोद्भिम्। (शा.प्र.ख.१/४७-४८)  अनतस्र्ूलजटा या: स्युस्तासां ग्राह्यास्त्वचो बुर्धै:। ग्रुह्णीयात् सुक्ष्ममूलानि सकलान्यनप बुनिमाि्। न्यग्रोर्धािेस्तिचो ग्राह्या: सार: स्यानिजाकानित:। तानलसािेस्च पिानण फलं स्यात् निफलानित:॥ र्धातक्यािेश्च पुष्पानण स्न्युह्यािे: क्षीरमािरेत्॥ (शा.प्र.ख.१/६०-६२)  चूणाथस्नेिासिा लेि: प्रायशश्चन्दिाण्िता:। कषायलेपयो: प्रायो युज्यते रक्तचन्दिम्॥ (शा.प्र.ख.१/५०) )
  • 64. Use of swetha and rakta candana for specific preparations: Rationality : • The term kashaya here is to be taken as panchavidha kashaya kalpana . • Rakta candana is more ugra in all its properties when compared with other . • prayah word here indicates the need of using them according to the demand of disease condition.
  • 65. • Since rakta candana is more ugra ,it is used either in preparations of diluted form . Or in preparations meant for external application. • Moreover swetha candana that possesses milder properties is used in all preparations meant for intake.
  • 66. Aushadha sevanakala: • Different acharyas have mentioned different drug administering times. • The time of drug administration is very important aspect since they are depended on roga and dosha involved .
  • 67. Acc to charaka (cha.chi.30298) 1.bhaktadu-1 Early morning on empty stomach 2.bhaktadu-2 Before food 3.madhye In between a single meal 4.pascat-1 After morning food 5.pascat-2 After evening food 6.muhurmuhur Frequently. 7.samudga Before and after food 8.bhaktasamyukta Along with the food 9.grasa Along with each bolus of the food 10.grasantara In between two meals
  • 68. Acc to vaghbhata 1.Abakta Without food 2.pragbhakta Before food 3.madyabhakta In between a meal 4.adhobhakta After food 5.sabhakta Mixed along with food 6.antarabhakta In between two meals 7.samudga Before and after meals 8.muhurmuhur Again and again 9.Sagrasa Along with each bolus of the food 10.Grasantra In between two bolus 11.Nisi Night at bed time
  • 69. Acc to sharangadhara Suryodaya At sun rise time Divasabhojana During day meals Sayantara Evening times Muhurmuhu Repeatedly Nisi At bed time
  • 70. • िैषज्यकालो िुक्तािौ मध्ये पश्चान्मुहुमुथि:। समुद्गं िक्तसंयुक्तं ग्रासग्रासान्तरे िश॥ (च.नच.३०/२९८)  तिािक्तं प्राग्भक्तं अर्धोिक्तं अन्तारािक्तं सिक्तं सामुद्गं मुहुमुथि: ग्रासं ग्रासान्तरं च इनत िशौषर्धकाला:॥(सु.उ.६४/६५)  अिक्तं प्राग्भक्तं मध्यिक्तं अर्धोिक्तं सिक्तं अन्तारािक्तं सामुद्गं मुहुमुथि: ग्रासं ग्रासान्तरं निनश च।(अ.स.सू.२३/१२)
  • 71. • घ्नेय: पञ्चनिर्ध: कालो िैषज्यग्रिणे िृणाम्। नकनञ्चत्सूयोिये जाते तर्ा नििासेिोजिे। सायान्ते िोजिे च मुहुश्चानप तर्ा निनश॥(शा.प्र.ख.२/२-३)
  • 72. Saveeryata avadhi Aushadha Kalpana Saviryatha avadhi Aushadha Dravya/Aushadha Kalpana 1 year Laghupaki Aushadha 1 year Churna 2 months Gutika and Avaleha 1 year Ghrita and Taila 1 year + 4 months = 16 months Asavarista Infinite (older the better) Dhatu and Rasa Aushadha Infinite
  • 73. Aushadha Kalpana (Dosage forms) Matra (dosage) Saviryata avadhi (potency time period) Swarasa 1 pala niragni ½ pala sagni For instant use Kalka 1 karsa For instant use Kwatha 2 pala For instant use Hima 2 pala For instant use Phanta 2 pala For instant use Churna 1 karsa 2to 6 months Upakalpana of Kwatha /Hima/ Phanta 1 to 2 pala For instant use Arka 12 to 24 ml 1 year or until it stays clear without turbidity Ksara/ksara sutra 2 to 8 gunja 5 years Satva ½ to 1 gm 3-4 months masi For external use infinite
  • 74. masi For external use infinite lavana 1 to 2 grams infinite Ayaskrithi ½ to 2 rathis infinite Rasakriya 1 pala 1year Phanitha 1 pala 1year Sarkara Half to 1 pala 1year Avaleha 1 pala 1year gudapaka 1 karsa 1 year Khanda kalpana 1 karsa 1year Vati/varti 1 karsa 1 year Guggulu kalpana 1 karsa 1to 5 years Sneha 1 pala 16 months
  • 75. Sata and sahasra dhoutha ghritha For external use 16 months Asava arista/ sukta kalpana 1 pala infinite Pathya kalpana No doasage specified For instant use Kriya kalpa/nasya / basti --- Depends on the form of medicine utilised lepa For external use 6 months in powder form Sikta taila/ malahara For external use 1 year upanaha For external use Prepared for instant use dhumapana For fumigation Until drugs retain their properties(6-to 12 months
  • 76. Anupana  AlÉÑmɶÉÉiÉç mÉÏrÉiÉå CÌiÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç ( zÉ.Mü.SìÓ)  A³ÉÉSè AlÉÑ mÉxcÉÉSè mÉÏrÉiÉå CÌiÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç( xÉÑ.xÉÔ.46)  Anupaana is a very important factor which helps in absorption ,assimilation as well as efficacy of the drug.  This should be decided acc to the constitution of the patient as well as condition of dosha.
  • 77.  तत्ति् रोगघ्न िैषज्यम् िेषजस्यािुmÉÏयते यच्च सिायकारी स्याि् अिुmÉÉिम् ति् उच्यते।(Qû.PûÏ) Whatever which reduces the ailment by augmenting action of medicine,when taken along with it is known as anupana
  • 78. mɶÉÉiÉçmÉÉlÉ:- A secondary drug which is consumed after the administration of main medication.  iɨÉSìÉãaÉblÉ pÉæwÉerÉÇ pÉãwÉeÉxrÉÉlÉÑmÉÏrÉiÉã | rÉccÉ xÉÉWûÉrrÉMüÉËUxxrÉÉiÉç AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ iÉSÒcrÉiÉã || (U.iÉ 6/202) A drug which possess a guna or prabhava to cure the specific roga and also assist the pradhana yoga in destroying the disease. xÉWûmÉÉlÉ:- xÉWû ÍqÉÍsÉiuÉÉ mÉÉlÉqÉç | A dravya consumed along with or by mixing with main medication
  • 79.  AÉæwÉkÉÇ vÉÉx§ÉxÉÇrÉÑ£üÇ SìurÉÇ rÉÉãaÉuÉɽÎeÉiÉÉã | vÉÑwMüÇ SìuÉÈ UxÉÈ SÒakÉÉ xÉWûmÉÉlÉÇ lÉÉqlÉÉ oÉÑkÉÈ || (U.xÉÇ) • It can be dry drug or wet or any liquid like swarasa, kwatha or ksheera, it should have yogavaahi guna.  rɱÉãaÉãlÉ UxÉÉSÏlÉÉÇ ÌuÉpÉ£üÉÈ mÉUqÉÉhÉuÉÈ| SìÓiÉqÉÇaÉãwÉÑ xÉmÉïÎliÉ xÉWûmÉÉlÉÇ iÉSÒcrÉiÉã || (U.iÉ 6/199) A Yoga in which Rasoushadies disintegrate into minute particles and quickly absorb and
  • 80. Dosa visesa Anupana Vataja Roga Snigdha and usna anupana Pittaja roga Madhura and seethala anupana Kaphaja roga Ruksha and usna anupana Dhathu Kshaya Mamsa rasa anupana, ksira Krisa Vyakti Sura Sthula Vyakti Madhu and jala Agni Mandya Madya Anidra, tandra, Soka and Klama Madya or Mamsa
  • 81. Best anupana :  सuÉåïwÉÉÇ अनुmÉÉनाम qÉÉहेन्द्रम तोयमुत्qÉqÉç|| • The rain water is considered as the best anupana.
  • 82. After consumoption of adjuvant Sneha prepared with bhallataka as a ingredient Cold water Sneha prepared with tuvaraka as a ingredient Cold water After ghrithpana Warm water After tailapana Yusha After vasa &majja Manda After consumption of any sneha kalpana in general Warm water
  • 83. Importance of anupana : UÉåcÉlÉÇ बंिणं uÉ×wrÉÇ SÉåwÉblÉÇ uÉÉiÉpÉåSlÉqÉç| iÉmÉïhÉÇ qÉÉSïuÉMüUÇ ´ÉqÉYsÉqÉWûUÇ mÉUqÉç|| (uÉæ.mÉ.mÉë.3ZÉÇQû) SÏmÉlÉÇ SÉåwÉzÉqÉlÉÇ ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉcNåûSlÉÇ mÉUqÉç| UxÉuÉhÉïMüUgcÉÉÌmÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ xÉSÉåcrÉiÉå|| (uÉæ.mÉ.mÉë.3ZÉÇQû)
  • 84. Maana paribhasha : • The utility of weights and measurements is an integral part of our day to day life. • Without the knowledge about measurements, better understanding of the science may not be possible. • Defn  qÉëÏrÉiÉå AlÉålÉ CÌiÉ qÉÉlÉqÉç| (AqÉUMüÉåwÉ). • Mana is that through which any material is measured.
  • 85. Types of maana : a) • Maagadha maana. • Kaalinga maana . • B) Depending on the nature of the measuring material. • Pautava maana. • Druvaya maana. • Payya maana.
  • 86. Significance and essentiality of maana:  lÉ qÉÉlÉålÉ ÌuÉlÉÉ rÉÑÌ£üSìïurÉÉhÉÉÇ eÉÉrÉiÉå YuÉÍcÉSè| AiÉ: mÉërÉÉåaÉMüÉrÉÉïjÉïÇ मािमिोच्यते मया॥(zÉÉ.mÉë.115) • it is said in the classics that the accurate outcome of any treatment cannot be expected if the dosage of the medicine given in improper.
  • 87. • Panchavidha kashaya kalpana : • The invention of pancha vidha kashaya kalpanas by agnivesha is really a revolutionary step in ayurvedic pharmaceutics. • Earlier people used to consume leaves,tubers etc .in a raw form to appease hunger and to treat health problems. • Later on with the invention of these panchavidha kashaya kalpanas plants,minerals, and drugs of animal origin were made therapeutically fit and patent even in small doses.
  • 88.  mÉgcÉÌuÉkÉÇ MüwÉÉrÉ MüsmÉlÉÇ CÌiÉ| iɱjÉÉ xuÉUxÉ: MüsMü:´ÉÑiÉ:zÉÏiÉ: TüÉhOû¶É MüwÉÉrÉ CÌiÉ|| (cÉ.xÉÔ 4).  AjÉÉiÉ: xuÉUxÉ:MüsMü:YuÉÉjÉ¶É ÌWûqÉ TüÉhOûMæü| alÉårÉÉ: MüwÉÉrÉÉ:mÉgcÉåiÉå sÉbÉuÉ: xrÉÑ: rÉjÉÉå¨ÉUqÉç||(zÉÉ.qÉ,1)  UxÉ:MüsMü:´ÉÑiÉ:zÉÏiÉ:TüÉhOû¶ÉåÌiÉ mÉëMüsmÉlÉÉ| mÉlcÉkÉæ LuÉÇ MüwÉÉrÉÉhÉÉÇ mÉÔuÉïÇ mÉÔuÉïÇ oÉsÉÉÍkÉMüÉ || (A.¾Òû.Mü.68)
  • 89. • Acc to vagbhata Panchavidha kashaya kalpanas are potent in their ascending order . Swarasa is the most potent preparation and phanta is the least potent one • Charaka declares that pancha vidha kashaya kalpanas should be used after proper discrimination . • One has to ascertain the sarirabala as well as agnibala of the patient and also vyadhi avastha and vyadhi bala and accordingly the appropriate preparation must be used.
  • 90. CONCLUSION : • Bhaishajya kalpana adharabhuta siddantas can be considered as basic fundamental principles of aushadha nirmana. • By doing different pharmaceutical processes,raw drugs are converted into medicinal form. • The drugs selected for the treatment of any disease may be of plant originanimal origin mineral origin . They cannot be used as they are .
  • 91. • To make them fit for therapeutic administration to keep them potent for many days , they have to undergo some modifications . • A small quantity of simple drug becomes competent to cure even the most complicated diseases by the influence of different modifying procedures. • So in order to prepare such a potent drug .one has to follow certain siddhantas related to pharmaceutical science.