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1
By
Dr. Priyanka Patil
MD(Ayu)
Dept of RS & BK
अल्पमात्रं महावेगं बहुदोषहरं सुखम्।
लघुपाक
ं सुखस्वादं प्रीणनं व्यधिनाशनम्॥
आधिकारर च व्यापत्तौ नाधि ग्लाधनकरं च िि्।
गन्धवणणरसोपेिम् धवध्यान्मात्रावदौषिम्॥
च.धस.६/१५.१६
Aushada is one which can be taken in disease,
in alpha matra, even in severe condition, many
doshas involved. Taken in specific disease,
aushada which is of good quality, in proper dose
should destroy it, without any complications.
2
 Dhanwantari Bhaga
 Rudra Bhaga
 Kajjali
 Rasapankha
 Rasapishti
 Pishti
 Patana pishti
 Swarna Roupya Krishti
 Varaloha
 Hemarakti
 Tararakti
 Chandradala
 Analadala
 Shulbanaga
 Pinjari
 Chandrarka
 Nirvapana
 Varitara Bhasma
 Apunarbhava bhasma
 Unama/Uttama
bhasma
 Nirutta bhasma
 Beeja
 Tadana
 Dhanyabhraka
3
 Satva
 Eka kolisa
 Kokila
 Hingulakrihta Parada
 Ghoshakrihta Parada
 Varanaga
 Utthapana
 Dhalana
 Nagasambhuta Chapala
 Vangasambhuta Chapala
 Dhatu
 Dvandvana
 Anuvarna/Suvarnaka
 Bhanjani
 Patangi
 Chullika
 Patangi raga
 Avapa
 Abhisheka
 Nirvapa
 Shuddhavarta
 Bijavarta
 Swangasheeta
 Bahihsheeta
 18 Samskaras of Parada
4
 Lavana panchaka
 Lavana trika
 Kshara dwaya
 Kshara trika
 Kshara panchaka
 Ksharashtaka
 Mutrashtaka
 Gorvara / Gomaya
 Amla varga
 Amla panchaka
 Panchatikta
 Panchamrittika
 Madhuratrika
 Panchamrita
 Panchagavya
 Ksheeratraya
 Dugdha varga
 Taila varga
 Kajjali
 Rasapankha
 Pishtika
 Hingulakrishta rasa
 Dhatu satva
 Vanoushadi satva
5
 Siktha taila
 Dravaka gana
 Dalana
 Mitrapanchaka
 Avapa
 Nirvapa
 Shuddhavarta
 Parpati
 Tadana
 Goshakrishta Tamra
 Vankanala
 Swanagsheeta
 Bahihsheeta
 Bhavana
 Shodhana
 Varitara
 Mrita loha
 Apunarbhava
 Niruttha
 Amritikarana
 Parisruta Salilam
 Mana Paribhasha
 Dhanwantari Bhaga
 Vishwasaghataka
vaidya
6
7
RASAYOGA
Bahya Kalpa Abhyantara Kalpa
Khalveeya, Parpatee, Pottalee ,
Kupipakwa rasayanas
Lepa, Malahara etc
8
Khalveeya
Rasayana
Parpati
Kalpana
Kupi pakwa
Rasayana
Pottali
Kalpana
 Kharliya Rasayanas form is the largest group of herbo-
mineral Ayurvedic therapeutic agents.
 Most of them have the kajjalī prepared by triturating parada
and gandhaka together in a by mortar. Being exclusively
prepared in khalva yantra they have been called Kharliya.
 These drugs are prepared by blending Mercury and Sulphur
together by impregnating the mixture with a particular
decoction or the fresh juice of the herbal drugs and then
blending a number of incinerated / calcined organic and
inorganic therapeutic agents or the herbal powder in it.
9
 About 80% of rasa kalpas used are khalvi rasayana in which
Kajjali is key ingredient. Kajjali is also used in preparation of
different dosage forms like parpati, Kupipakwa rasayana and
pottali.
 Kajjali is a Sagandha, Niragni Parada yoga. The Bandha
involved in this preparation is Kajjali Bandha, where purified
Parada and Gandhaka are thoroughly ground in definite
proportion, to get a fine black powder called Kajjali.
10
Definition
 Parpati is a rasa preparation. The name is derived
from the method by which flakes of the compound
are obtained.
 Method of preparation
Kajjali is prepared first with purified Parada and
Gandhaka. Other drugs mentioned in the formula are
added one by one and mixed well by trituration in a
khalva. The powder is put in an iron vessel and kept
over fire in the Sikata yantra.
11
 A shallow pit in fresh cow dung is made and a
Kadali leaf or an Eranda leaf is spread over the pit.
When the medicine melts and becomes liquid it is
poured on the leaf carefully. Another leaf is covered
over it and fresh cow dung is spread and gently
pressed. After it is allowed to cool the flakes of the
medicine are collected and powdered.
 Parpaties are mainly indicated in grahani vikaras,
which is agni siddha kalpana.
12
 Drugs of mineral and metalic origin well mixed together in
fine powder form in Kacakupi 1/3rd full which is wrapped by
Clay smeared pieces of cloth in seven consecutive layers, is
dried and then be buried in Valukayantra up to the neck.
 The Valukayantra is heated gradually in three stages of agni,
viz. mrdvagni, madhyamagni and teevragni for a specified
period of time. A red hot iron rod,of about 5 cm in diameter
is inserted into the kacakupi through its opening and stirred
now and then so that, the opening of the flask may be choked
by a thick coating of subliming sulphur. Otherwise, the
pressure of the vapour may break the flask.
13
Tests for completion of kupipaka
(I)Suryodaya lakshana
(2)copper coin test. If a piece of broken pot or thin piece of copper
plate is kept over the mouth of the flask a white deposit is formed
on it.
(3) When a red hot iron rod inserted into the flask and removed it is
covered with smoke.
(4) A cold iron rod should be inserted into the bottom of the flask
and removed. The material sticking to the rod when cool should be
red in colour. At this stage the mouth of the bottle is sealed with
chalk or bnck piece sand this is to be wrapped with cloth strip
smeared with clay or a solution of jaggery and lime.
14
 When the kupi gets cooled, it is removed carefully and
broken in the middle so as to separate the upper and
lower halves of the body of the kacha kupi.
 The sindoora deposited at the neck or base is scraped
and collected. This should be done carefully so that no
part of the glass piece may mix with the sindoora.
 Kupi pakwa rasayana is a process in which there will
be gandhaka jarana/ thermo stable compound having
high potency & action on body.
15
 Word pottali means to minimize, to concise and to make
compact.
 It can be defined as to collect scattered materials in to
compact and comprehensive size. Otherwise the kalpana or
the processing which give compactness to scattered
materials.
DIFFERENT METHOD OF PREPARATION
 1 PUTAPAKA
 2 GANDHAKA DRAVA PAKA
 3 BHAVANA VIDHI
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 Significance - Positive aspects
 Easy to administrate drug
 Life saving remedy
 Helps to tackle the acute condition
 Long shelf life
 Absorbs even from the tongue
 Easy to handle
17
1. ZÉsuÉÏrÉ(ZÉUsÉÏrÉ) UxÉÉrÉlÉ – Mü‹sÉÏ,
̧ÉpÉÑuÉlÉMüÐÌiÉï UxÉ AÉÌS
2. mÉmÉïOûÏ UxÉÉrÉlÉ – UxÉ mÉmÉïOûÏ, aÉaÉlÉ
mÉmÉïOûÏ AÉÌS
3. MÔümÉÏmÉYuÉUxÉÉrÉlÉ – UxÉ ÍxÉÇSÕU, xuÉhÉï
18
Sl Kajjali Rasa parpati Rasa sindhoora
Free mercury traces traces absent
Free suphur less Still more less traces
Total sulphur less Still more less Still less
XRD Metacinnabar in
cubic
crystallinity,&
sulphur in
orthorhombic
crystallinity.
Metacinnabar in
cubic
crystallinity,&
sulphur in
orthorhombic
crystallinity
Mercuric
sulphide in
hexagonal
crystallinity.
19
Kajjali Rasa Parpati Rasasindura Rasa-pottali
Method Grinding
Thermodynamic
action
Limited heating Heating Intensive
heating
Object Homogenous
blending
Melting of
Sulfur
Evaporation of
Sulfur
Hardening of
Sulfur
Mechanism of
Action
Yogavahi
Bioenhancer
Local Astringent Neuro-
stimulator
Stimulates
secretion of
digestive
enzymes
Instant
Distribution
Effect Dose reduction Improves
functions of
‘Grahani’
Digestion,
Absorption and
Excretion
Improves
digestion
Effective in
micro doses
Instant Action
Cubic Meta
cinnabar
Meta cinnabar Red Cinnabar Meta Cinnabar
Free Sulfur ++++
Orthorhombic
alpha Sulfur
++
Beta octasulfur
Nil +++
Plastic Sulfur
gama Sulfur
20
 Powder of a substance obtained by calcination is
called Bhasma. In this section, it is applied to the
metals, minerals and animal products which are
calcined by special processes, in closed cruibles and
with cow dung cakes (puta).
Method of preparation
 First stage (Shodhana)
 Bhasmas are prepared from purified minerals,
metals and animal products.
21
Shodhana is of two kinds
 (1) Samanya shodhana which is applicable to a large
number of metals or minerals, as heating the thin
sheets of the metals and immersing them in Taila,
Takra, Gomutra etc.
 (2) Vishesha shodhana which is applicable only to
certain drugs and in certain preparations. Vishesha
shodhana consists of (1) Bhavana (2) swedana (3)
Nirvapa¸(4)Mardana.
22
 The second stage is the preparation of Bhasma.
 The purified drug is put into a khalva and ground with
juices of the specified plants or Kasayas of drugs
mentioned for a particular mineral or metal.
 It is ground for the specified period of time.Then small
chakrikas are made.
 The size and thickness of the chakrikas depend on the
heaviness of the drug, The heavier the drug, the thinner
are the chakrikas.
 These chakrikas are dried well under sunlight and
placed in one single layer in a sharava and closed with
another sharava.
 The edge is sealed with clay-smeared cloth in seven
consecutive layers and dried.
23
 A pit is dug in an open place. The diameter and the depth of
the pit depends on the metal or mineral that is to be calcined.
Two third of the pit is filled with cow dung cakes.
 The sharava samputa is placed in it and the remaining space is
filled with more cow dung cakes.
 Fire is put on all four sides and in the middle of the pit.
 When the burning is over, it is allowed to cool itself
completely.
 The sharava samputa is removed, the seal is opened and the
contents are taken out.
 The medicine is ground into a fine powder in a khalva. This
process of bhavana, making chakrikas and giving Putas, is
repeated as many times as prescribed in the texts or till the
bhasma siddhi lakshanas obtained.
24
The tests for properly prepared Bhasma are
(1) there should be no Candrika (metallic lustre)
(Niscandrikatwa)
(2) When taken between the index finger and thumb and spread,
it should be so fine as to get easily into the finger lines (Rekha
Pooratva)
(3) When a small quantity is spread on cold and still water, it
should float on the surface (Varitaram);
(4)The Bhasma should not revert to the original state
(Apunarbhava).
25
 Bhasmas, unless otherwise specified in individual
formulations, are generally yellowish, black, pure white, grey,
reddish black or red; depending upon the predominant drug as
well as the other drugs used in the process of Marana.
 Bhasmikarana is a process of converting
meataliic/the compounds into the form which
our body can accept.
26
 These are preparations containing shodhita mandoora along with
other drugs.
Method of preparation
 Mandoora is purified by a special method {(Rasakamadhenu,
Sarvalohavidhanadhikara)mandoora Q.S.gomutra Q.S. (for
sinchana) Triphala kvatha twice the quantity of mandoora .
 Fine powder of shodhita mandoora is taken}and boiled in
gomutra till it becomes a rasa-kriya (a paste). Then the powders
mentioned in the yogas are added and stirred well. While warm,
vatakas are prepared.This can be kept in powder form also.
 Ex.. Punarnavadi Mandoora, Mandoora Vataka
27
 Lauha kalpas are preparations of Loha
Bhasma as main ingredient added to other
drugs.
Method of Preparation
 The drugs are reduced to fine powder and
mixed with loha bhasma. Bhavana is given
with prescribed liquids if mentioned.
28
 Pisti’s are prepared by triturating the drug with the specified
liquids and exposing to sun or moonlight. These are termed
anagnitapta bhasma (bhasma prepared without the medium of
fire).
Method of preparation
 After purification (sodhana) the drug is put in a khalva and
triturated generally with rose water, unless otherwise mentioned.
It is triturated with the liquid for a day and dried in the sun for
another day. This process is generally continued for seven days
or more tiII fine pisti in powder form is obtained.
 They are as fine as bhasma and have the characteristics of
bhasma.
29
30
 Is one of the aqueous extract.
 Is extraction of juice from fresh drug,
crushed by yantra & vastra nispida is
swarasa.
Purpose; to make the drug free from
albuminous matter & cell contents which are
not absorbable by body in raw farm.
31
 Is one of the aqueous extract.
 preparation of paste by grinding(paste should
be smooth to touch). In this whole plant is
uesd but its concentration is comparitively
less than swarasa as it contains cell debris &
other undigestible parts which make it less
concentrated.
32
 Is one of the aqueous extract.
 Here coarsely powdered drugs are boiled with
definate quantity of water & reduced to 1/4th or
1/8th & then filtered. In this drugs comes in
contact of liquid & fire for certain period to get
water soluble extract of drug, aqueous extract by
boiling with mentioned quantity of liquid.
 This process is chiefly applicable in case of
vegetable, drugs which are hard & woody in
nature & containing the water soluble
constituents & also for mucilage containing
drugs.
33
 Is one important upakalpana refers to
medicated milk which is prepared by boiling
the milk with drug & water to get protein &
lipid extract.
 Generally adopted for drugs like bhallataka,
lasuna etc tikna veerya drugs & arjuna,
ashoka etc kashaya rasa predominant drugs
so that their unwanted side effects could be
reduced to minimum & desired theraupetic
effects could be achieved to maximum.
34
 Is one of the aqueous extract.
 Here drug is kept in contact of water
overnight & the next day macerated & the
liquid obtained after filtering is known as
hima/sitakashaya.
It is known as cold infusion nowadays,
applicable for light drugs without containing
dense tissues & contituents of which are
soluble in water.
35
 Is one of the aqueous extract.
 Here drugs are put in hot water & rubbed
properly & on filtration, the filtrate is known
as phanta. Done for drugs which are fragrant
in nature ,light in structure, free from dense
tissue. Their active principles may not be
thermostable hence not boiled. Extraction of
active principles by hot infusion.
36
 Described mainly in vatavyadhi in samhitas.
 Ex: narikela lavana, arka lavana.
 The powdered saindhava lavana is mixed with
some specified leaves or filled in narikela &
subjected to paka over agni , black colour
powder obtained from this is known as lavana
kalpana.
37
 Ksharas are alkaline substances obtained from
the ash of drugs.
 Acharya Bhavamishra stated that ksara is equal to
agni & cures gulma & sula.
 The dried kshara vriksa kasta pieces are burnt to
ash & dissolved in six times of water, rubbed
with hands properly & kept for 24hrs
undisturbed.
 Then it should be filtered through 4 folded cloth
for 21 times. The filtrate is boiled in an earthen
vessel till complete evaporation of water content,
the obtained clear powder is known as kshara
38
 The product obtained by heating dravya kept
in closed container.
 Dravya taken in sharava sandhibandhana
done & subjected to puta.
 It is described in sastiupakrama of vrana by
sushrutha.
39
 Medicines prepared in the form of tablets or pills are known as vati/
Gutika. These are made of one or more drugs of plant, animal or
mineral origin.
Method of preparation
 The drugs of plant origin are dried and made into fine powders,
separately. The minerals are made into bhasma or sindura, unless
otherwise mentioned.
 In cases where parada and gandhaka are mentioned, kajjali is made
first and other drugs added, one by one, according to the formula.
 These are put into a khalva and ground to a soft paste with the
prescribed fluids. When more than one liquid is mentioned for
grinding, they are used in succession.
 When the mass is properly ground and is in a condition to be made
into pills, sugandha dravyas, like kasturi, karpura, which are
included in the formula, are added and ground again.
40
 Asava is that in which fermantation is allowed
to proceed for generating alcoholic, liquids &
drugs kept without boiling.
 Arista is that in which fermantation is allowed
to proceed for generating alcoholic, liquids &
drugs kept after boiling.
41
 The required quantity of water, to which
jaggery or sugar as prescribed in the formula
is added, is boiled and cooled.
 This is poured into the fermentation pot,
vessel or barrel. Fine powder of the drugs
mentioned in the formula are added.
 The container is covered with a lid and the
edges are sealed with clay-smeared cloth
wound in seven consecutive layers.
42
After the specified period, the lid is removed,
and the contents examined to ascertain
whether the processof fermentation
(sandhana) has been completed.
The fluid is first decanted and then strained
after two or three days. When the fine
suspended particles settle down, it is strained
and bottled.
Can be taken as preservation & exraction of
self generated alchoholic contents.
43
 The required quantity of water, to which jaggery
or sugar as prescribed in the formula is added, is
boiled and cooled. This is poured into the
fermentation pot, vessel or barrel. Fine powder of
the drugs mentioned in the formula are added.
The container is covered with a lid and the edges
are sealed with clay-smeared cloth wound in
seven consecutive layers.
 The rest of the process is as in the case of
Arishta.
44
 Arka is a liquid preparation obtained by distillation of
certain liquids or of drugs soaked in water using the
Arkayantra or any convenient modern distillation
apparatus.
Method of preparation
 The drugs are cleaned and coarsely powdered.Some
quantity of water is added to the drugs for soaking
and kept over-night. This makes the drugs soft and
when boiled releases the essential volatile principles
easily. The foIlowing morning it is poured into the
Arka yantra and the remaining water is added and
boiled. The vapour is condensed and collected in a
receiver.
45
 In the beginning, the vapour consists of only steam and
may not contain the essential principles of the drugs. It
should therefore be discarded. The last portion also may not
contain therapeutically essential substance and should be
discarded. The aliqnots collected in between contain the
active ingredients and may be mixed together to ensure
uniformity of the arka.
 Characteristics
 Arka is a suspension of the distillate in water having slight
turbidity and colour according to the nature of the drug or
drugs used and smell of the predominant drug.
46
 Avaleha or Lehya is a semi-solid preparation of drugs, prepared with
the addition of jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy and boiled with
prescribed drug juice Or decoction.
Method of preparation
 These preparations generally have (1) kashaya or other liquids,
 2) jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy,
 (3)powders or pulps of certain drugs; and
 (4) ghee, or oil and honey.
 Jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy is dissolved in the liquid and strained to
remove the foreign particles.
 This solution is boiled over a moderate fire. When the paka is thready
(tantumat) when pressed between two fingers or when it sinks in water
without getting easily dissolved, it should be removed from the fire.
Fine powders of drugs are then added in small quantities and stirred
continuously and vigorously to form a homogenous mixture.
47
 Ghee or oil, if mentioned, is added while the preparation is still
hot and mixed well. Honey, if mentioned is added when the
preparation is cool and mixed well.
Characteristics
 The Lehya should neither be hard nor be a thick fluid. When pulp
of the drugs is added and ghee or oil is present in the preparation,
this can be rolled between the fingers. Growth of fungus Over it
or fermentation are, among others, signs of deterioration.
 When metals are mentioned, the bhasmas of the metals are used.
In the case of drugs like bhalliitaka, purified drugs alone are
included in the preparation. The colour and smell depend on the
drugs used.
Preservation and Storage
 The Lehya should be kept in glass or porcelain jars. It can also be
kept in a metal container which does not react with it. Normally,
Lehyas should be used within one year.
48
 Guggulu is an exudate (niryasa) obtained from the plant
Commiphora mukul. Preparations having the exudate as
main effective ingredient. are known as Guggulu. There are
five different varieties of Guggulu described in the texts.
However two of the varieties, namely, Mahishaksha and
Kanaka Guggulu are usually preferred for medicinal
preparations. , Mahishaksha Guggulu is dark greenish
brown and kanaka Guggulu is yellowish brown in colour.
 Process of Sodhana
 (1) Sand, stone, glass etc. are first removed.
 (2) It is then broken into small pieces.
 (3) It is thereafter bundled in a piece of cloth and boiled in
Dola Yantra containing any one of the following fluids.
 (a) Gomutra. (b) Triphala kashaya. (c) Vasapatra kashaya.
(d) Vasapatra svarasa.(e) Nirgundi patra svarasa with '
Haridra choorna and (f) Dugdha.
49
 The boiling is continued till the Guggulu becomes a
soft mass. It is then taken out of the cloth and spread
over a smooth wooden board smeared with ghee or oil.
By pressing with fingers the sand and other remaining
foreign impurities are removed.It is taken out and dried
in a place free from dust.
 These bits are again fried with ghee and ground in a
stone mortar (khalva). This is called Sodhita Guggulu.
 The other method is to suspend the bundle of Guggulu
in Dola Yantra so as to remain immersed in the
specified fluid as it is boiled*. The boiling of Guggulu
in Dola Yantra is carried on untill all the Guggulu
passes into the fluid through the cloth.
50
 The residue in the bundle is discarded. The fluid is filtered and
again boiled till it forms a mass. This mass is dried in sun rays
and then pounded with a pastle in a stone mortar, adding ghee in
small quantities till it becomes waxyl.
Characteristics
 Sodhita Guggulu is soft, waxy and brown in colour.
haracteristics of preparations of Guggulu vary depending on the
other ingredients added to the preparations.
Preservation and Storage
 It should be kept in glass or porcelain jars free from moisture and
stored in a cool place. The potency is maintained for two years
when prepared with ingredients of plant origin and indefinitely
when prepared with metals and minerals.
51
 Ghritas are preparations in which ghee is boiled with
prescribed kashayas (decoction) and kalkas of drugs
according to the formula. This process ensures absorption
of the active therapeutic principles of the ingredients used.
General method of Preparation :
 1. There are generally three essential components for the
preparation of sneha (ghrta or taila) viz :-
 (i) drava (a liquid which may be one or more as kashaya,
svarasa, dugdha, mastu, etc.);
 (ii) kalka [a fine paste of the drug(s)]
 (iii) sneha dravya (ghrita, taila, etc.).
52
 2. Generally, unless otherwise mentioned in the text, if
kalka is one part by weight,. sneha should be four parts and
the drava-dravya should be sixteen parts. Exceptions are :
 (i) where no drava is prescribed, four parts of water is
added to one part of sneha; the kalka is one fourth the
weight of the sneha.
 (ii) where drava-dravya is either kvatha or swarasa, kalka
should be one-sixth and one-eighth respectively of sneha.
 (iii) where the number of drava dravyas is four or less than
four, each drava has to be taken four times the weight of
sneha.
 (iv) where the drava dravyas are more than four, each drava
will be equal in weight to the sneha.
 (v) if in a preparation, no kalka dravya is prescribed, then
the drugs of the kashaya may be used as kalka.
53
 3. The kalka and the drava are mixed together,sneha is then
added, boiled and stirred well continuously so that the kalka is
not allowed to adhere to the vessel. Sometimes, the drava-
dravyas are directed to be added one after another as the process
of boiling is continued till the drava-dravya added earlier has
evaporated.
 4. When all the drava-dravyas have evaporated the moisture in
the kalka will also begin to evaporate; at this stage, it has to be
stirred more often carefully to ensure that the kalka does not stick
to the bottom of the vessel. The kalka is taken out of the ladle
and tested from time to time to know the condition and stage of
the paka.
 5. There are three stages of paka :-
(i) mrdu paka, (ii) madhyama paka and (iii) khara paka
In mrdu paka, kalka is waxy and when rolled between the
fingers, rolls like lac without sticking. In madhyama paka,
kalka is harder and when put in fire burns without any
crackling noise. A further degree of heating leads to khara
paka. Any further heating will lead to dagdha paka and the
sneha becomes unfit of use.
54
 6. In the sneha group, sarkara, if mentioned, is added to the
final product when cool.
 7. Where the paka is to be done with kvatha, svarasa,
dugdha and mamsa rasa, etc. the paka is to be done with
these dravas separately in the above Qrder. The period of
paka with various dravyas should be as below :
(i) kvatha, aranala, takra, etc. - 5 days
ii) svarasa - 3 days
(iii) dugdha - 2 days
(iv) mamsa rasa - 1 day
 8. Patrapaka : Patrapaka is the process by which the sneha
is flavoured or augmented by certain soluble or mixable
substances. The powders of the drugs are placed in the
vessel into which fairly warm sneha is filtered.
 9. Mrdupaka sneha is used for nasya; madhyamapaka sneha
is used for pana, vasti, etc.; kharapaka sneha is used only
for abhyanga.
55
 10. In the beginning the boiling should be on mild fire and in the
end also it should be only on mild (mrdvagni) fire.
 11. Whenever lavanas and ksharas. are used in these
preparations, they are added to the sneha and then strained.
Characteristics :
 The Ghrta will generally solidify when cooled. It will have the
colour, odour and taste of the drug(s) used.
Preservation
 Ghrtas are preserved in glass, polythene or aluminium containers.
Ghrta preparations for internal use keep their potency for about
sixteen months.
Method of use :
 Generally as the anupana or internal use, when not specified with
warm water or warm milk. The Ghrita has to be taken after
warming. This is taken with the medium of other liquids also.
56
 Choorna is a fine powder of drug or drugs.
General Method of preparation
 Drugs mentioned in the Yoga are cleaned and dried properly.
They are finely powdered and sieved.
 Where there are a number of drugs in a Yoga, the drugs are
separately powdered and sieved. Each one of them (powder) is
weighed separately, and well mixed together, As Some of the
drugs contain more fibrous matter than others, this method of
powdering and weighing them separately, according to the Yoga,
and then mixing them together, is preferred.
 Salt, sugar, camphor etc., when mentioned are separately
powdered and mixed with the rest at the end.
57
 Asafoetida (hingu)and salt may also be roasted, powdered and then added.
Drugs like satavari, guduci,etc.,which are to be taken fresh, made into a
paste, dried, and then added.
Characteristics and preservation
 The powder is fine of at least 80 mesh sieve. It should not adhere
together or become moist.
 The finer the powder, the better its therapeutic value.
 They retain potency for one year and should be
kept in air tight containers.
58
 Dravakas are liquid preparations obtained from lavanas and
ksaras.
Method of preparation
 Dravakas are prepared with lavanas and ksaras by
Tiryakpatana (distillation) process with or without any
addition of fluids.
Characteristics and preservation
 These are preserved in glass stoppered bottles. These
preparations do not deteriorate by lapse of time.
59
 Medicines in the form of a paste used for external
application are called lepas.
Method of preparation
 The drugs are made into a fine powder. Before using it is
mixed with some liquid or other medium indicated in each
preparation and made into a soft paste. Water, cow's urine,
oil, and ghee are some of the media used for mixing.
Characteristics and Preservation
lepa choorna will preserve their potency for 30 days if kept in
air tight containers.
Mineral and metallic preparations last idefiniteIy.
60
 Medicines prepared in the form of tablets or pills are known as vati and Gutika.
These are made of one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin.
Method of preparation
 The drugs of plant origin are dried and made into fine powders, separately. The
minerals are made into bhasma or sindura, unless it is mentioned.
 In cases where parada and gandhaka are mentioned, kajjali is made first and
other drugs added, one by one, according to the formula.
 These are put into a khalva and ground to a soft paste with the prescribed
fluids.
 When more than one liquid is mentioned for grinding, they are used in
succession.
 When the mass is properly ground and is in a condition to be made into pills,
sugandha dravyas, like kasturi, karpura, which are included in the formula, are
added and ground again.
61
 The criterion to determine the final stage of the formulation
before making pills is that it should not stick to the fingers when
rolled.
 Pills may be dried in shade Or in sun as specified in the texts.
 In cases where sugar or jaggery (guda)is mentioned, paka of
these should be made on mild fire and removed from the oven.
 The powders of the ingredients are added to the paka and briskly
mixed. When still warm, vatakas should be rolled and dried in
shade.
Characteristics and Preservation
 Pills made of plant drugs when kept in air tight containers can be
used for two years.
 Pills containing minerals can be used for an indefinite period.
 Pills and vatis should not lose their original colour, smell, taste
and form. When sugar, salt or kshara is an ingredient, the pills
should be kept away from moisture.
62
 Medicines used extelllally for the eye come
under of Varti, Netrabjndu and Anjana.
 Method of Preparation
 Varti’s are made by grinding the fine powders
of drugs with the fluids specified in the
formula form a soft paste. This is then made
into thin sticks of about 2 cm in length and
dried in shade.
 Netrabindu is prepared by dissolving the
specified drugs in water or kashaya and used
as eye drops.
63
 Anjanas are very fine powders of drugs to
beapplied with netra salakas.
 Characteristics and preservation
 Colour and smell depend on the drugs
used.These can be preserved for one year if
kept i air tight container. In case of
formulations in which minerals are used, the
drugs are preserved indefinitely.
64
 Sattva is water extractable solid substance coJlected from
a drug.
 Method of extraction
 The drug is cut into small pieces, macerated in water and
kept overnight. Then it is strained through cloth and the
solid matter aIlowed to settle.The supernatant liquid is
decanted and the sattva washed by repeating the process
adding water and decanted. The sattva so sedimented is
allowed to dry and powdered.
 Preservation and Characteristics
 This can be preserved in a closed container. Thecolour
vacies from drug to drug.
65
Aoushada yoga includes.
 Roga nashaka dravya as a main ingredient.
 Dravyas which decreases upadravas of that roga.
 Dravyas which help the ingredient to reach the target
organ.
 Dravyas which decreases doshas caused by main & other
ingredients.
66
 Ingredients
Parada
Gandhaka
Vatsnabha bhavana with brugaraja
Trikatu swarasa
Triphala
jayaphala
67
Nidana –Nija Agantuka (Keetanu)
Dosha Vaisamya
Agnimandya
Production of Ama
Circulating in Rasa and Rakta Dhatu
Localisation in Rasa and Swedavaha
Srotas
Development of Vishamajwara
68
 Among these bhallataka is the one which dec
tapa & hence dec jwara.
• inc sweating
• inc urine output
• dec heart rate
• dec pain
• dec jwara
But bhallataka alone cannot cure jwara, hence
to this other sahayaka dravyas are to be added
69
• As a sahayaka dravya to bhallataka
• Krimijhna parada
• To purify rakta
 parada is most chanchala hence it is dificult
to prepare aoushada with this – gandhaka is
added
Some times malavarodha also causes jwara-
hence jayaphala is added.
But this causes- gastric irritation so that there
is severe burning sensation and vomitings
 for this brujaraga swarasa- dec daha &
vomiting.
 Triphala dec teekshanata - jayapala
70
 Here bhallataka dec ushnata & dec heart rate-
parada
gandhaka hrudaya
trikatu ushna, deepaka & pachaka
Bhallataka -1
Jayaphala-2
Parada & gandhaka- raktashodaka,
gunavardhaka, hence -3
Trikatu, brungaraja - dosha( upadrava
nashaka)-4
71
 There are many formulations in our classics with varied
indications.
 The formultions designed on the place of application ex
lepa.. Site of action ex parpati in grahani, stage of
patient,disease.etc.
 So one has to select the formulation which is suitable for
the patient, condition, dosha, dushya,stana, if given ,gives
maximum result.
 Acharyas have not put the dravyas randomly,
they have logical reason behind each yoga, hence new yoga
formation is not so each , one has to follow these rules &
regulation so that it does not cause any upadrava.
72

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  • 2. अल्पमात्रं महावेगं बहुदोषहरं सुखम्। लघुपाक ं सुखस्वादं प्रीणनं व्यधिनाशनम्॥ आधिकारर च व्यापत्तौ नाधि ग्लाधनकरं च िि्। गन्धवणणरसोपेिम् धवध्यान्मात्रावदौषिम्॥ च.धस.६/१५.१६ Aushada is one which can be taken in disease, in alpha matra, even in severe condition, many doshas involved. Taken in specific disease, aushada which is of good quality, in proper dose should destroy it, without any complications. 2
  • 3.  Dhanwantari Bhaga  Rudra Bhaga  Kajjali  Rasapankha  Rasapishti  Pishti  Patana pishti  Swarna Roupya Krishti  Varaloha  Hemarakti  Tararakti  Chandradala  Analadala  Shulbanaga  Pinjari  Chandrarka  Nirvapana  Varitara Bhasma  Apunarbhava bhasma  Unama/Uttama bhasma  Nirutta bhasma  Beeja  Tadana  Dhanyabhraka 3
  • 4.  Satva  Eka kolisa  Kokila  Hingulakrihta Parada  Ghoshakrihta Parada  Varanaga  Utthapana  Dhalana  Nagasambhuta Chapala  Vangasambhuta Chapala  Dhatu  Dvandvana  Anuvarna/Suvarnaka  Bhanjani  Patangi  Chullika  Patangi raga  Avapa  Abhisheka  Nirvapa  Shuddhavarta  Bijavarta  Swangasheeta  Bahihsheeta  18 Samskaras of Parada 4
  • 5.  Lavana panchaka  Lavana trika  Kshara dwaya  Kshara trika  Kshara panchaka  Ksharashtaka  Mutrashtaka  Gorvara / Gomaya  Amla varga  Amla panchaka  Panchatikta  Panchamrittika  Madhuratrika  Panchamrita  Panchagavya  Ksheeratraya  Dugdha varga  Taila varga  Kajjali  Rasapankha  Pishtika  Hingulakrishta rasa  Dhatu satva  Vanoushadi satva 5
  • 6.  Siktha taila  Dravaka gana  Dalana  Mitrapanchaka  Avapa  Nirvapa  Shuddhavarta  Parpati  Tadana  Goshakrishta Tamra  Vankanala  Swanagsheeta  Bahihsheeta  Bhavana  Shodhana  Varitara  Mrita loha  Apunarbhava  Niruttha  Amritikarana  Parisruta Salilam  Mana Paribhasha  Dhanwantari Bhaga  Vishwasaghataka vaidya 6
  • 7. 7 RASAYOGA Bahya Kalpa Abhyantara Kalpa Khalveeya, Parpatee, Pottalee , Kupipakwa rasayanas Lepa, Malahara etc
  • 9.  Kharliya Rasayanas form is the largest group of herbo- mineral Ayurvedic therapeutic agents.  Most of them have the kajjalī prepared by triturating parada and gandhaka together in a by mortar. Being exclusively prepared in khalva yantra they have been called Kharliya.  These drugs are prepared by blending Mercury and Sulphur together by impregnating the mixture with a particular decoction or the fresh juice of the herbal drugs and then blending a number of incinerated / calcined organic and inorganic therapeutic agents or the herbal powder in it. 9
  • 10.  About 80% of rasa kalpas used are khalvi rasayana in which Kajjali is key ingredient. Kajjali is also used in preparation of different dosage forms like parpati, Kupipakwa rasayana and pottali.  Kajjali is a Sagandha, Niragni Parada yoga. The Bandha involved in this preparation is Kajjali Bandha, where purified Parada and Gandhaka are thoroughly ground in definite proportion, to get a fine black powder called Kajjali. 10
  • 11. Definition  Parpati is a rasa preparation. The name is derived from the method by which flakes of the compound are obtained.  Method of preparation Kajjali is prepared first with purified Parada and Gandhaka. Other drugs mentioned in the formula are added one by one and mixed well by trituration in a khalva. The powder is put in an iron vessel and kept over fire in the Sikata yantra. 11
  • 12.  A shallow pit in fresh cow dung is made and a Kadali leaf or an Eranda leaf is spread over the pit. When the medicine melts and becomes liquid it is poured on the leaf carefully. Another leaf is covered over it and fresh cow dung is spread and gently pressed. After it is allowed to cool the flakes of the medicine are collected and powdered.  Parpaties are mainly indicated in grahani vikaras, which is agni siddha kalpana. 12
  • 13.  Drugs of mineral and metalic origin well mixed together in fine powder form in Kacakupi 1/3rd full which is wrapped by Clay smeared pieces of cloth in seven consecutive layers, is dried and then be buried in Valukayantra up to the neck.  The Valukayantra is heated gradually in three stages of agni, viz. mrdvagni, madhyamagni and teevragni for a specified period of time. A red hot iron rod,of about 5 cm in diameter is inserted into the kacakupi through its opening and stirred now and then so that, the opening of the flask may be choked by a thick coating of subliming sulphur. Otherwise, the pressure of the vapour may break the flask. 13
  • 14. Tests for completion of kupipaka (I)Suryodaya lakshana (2)copper coin test. If a piece of broken pot or thin piece of copper plate is kept over the mouth of the flask a white deposit is formed on it. (3) When a red hot iron rod inserted into the flask and removed it is covered with smoke. (4) A cold iron rod should be inserted into the bottom of the flask and removed. The material sticking to the rod when cool should be red in colour. At this stage the mouth of the bottle is sealed with chalk or bnck piece sand this is to be wrapped with cloth strip smeared with clay or a solution of jaggery and lime. 14
  • 15.  When the kupi gets cooled, it is removed carefully and broken in the middle so as to separate the upper and lower halves of the body of the kacha kupi.  The sindoora deposited at the neck or base is scraped and collected. This should be done carefully so that no part of the glass piece may mix with the sindoora.  Kupi pakwa rasayana is a process in which there will be gandhaka jarana/ thermo stable compound having high potency & action on body. 15
  • 16.  Word pottali means to minimize, to concise and to make compact.  It can be defined as to collect scattered materials in to compact and comprehensive size. Otherwise the kalpana or the processing which give compactness to scattered materials. DIFFERENT METHOD OF PREPARATION  1 PUTAPAKA  2 GANDHAKA DRAVA PAKA  3 BHAVANA VIDHI 16
  • 17.  Significance - Positive aspects  Easy to administrate drug  Life saving remedy  Helps to tackle the acute condition  Long shelf life  Absorbs even from the tongue  Easy to handle 17
  • 18. 1. ZÉsuÉÏrÉ(ZÉUsÉÏrÉ) UxÉÉrÉlÉ – Mü‹sÉÏ, ̧ÉpÉÑuÉlÉMüÐÌiÉï UxÉ AÉÌS 2. mÉmÉïOûÏ UxÉÉrÉlÉ – UxÉ mÉmÉïOûÏ, aÉaÉlÉ mÉmÉïOûÏ AÉÌS 3. MÔümÉÏmÉYuÉUxÉÉrÉlÉ – UxÉ ÍxÉÇSÕU, xuÉhÉï 18
  • 19. Sl Kajjali Rasa parpati Rasa sindhoora Free mercury traces traces absent Free suphur less Still more less traces Total sulphur less Still more less Still less XRD Metacinnabar in cubic crystallinity,& sulphur in orthorhombic crystallinity. Metacinnabar in cubic crystallinity,& sulphur in orthorhombic crystallinity Mercuric sulphide in hexagonal crystallinity. 19
  • 20. Kajjali Rasa Parpati Rasasindura Rasa-pottali Method Grinding Thermodynamic action Limited heating Heating Intensive heating Object Homogenous blending Melting of Sulfur Evaporation of Sulfur Hardening of Sulfur Mechanism of Action Yogavahi Bioenhancer Local Astringent Neuro- stimulator Stimulates secretion of digestive enzymes Instant Distribution Effect Dose reduction Improves functions of ‘Grahani’ Digestion, Absorption and Excretion Improves digestion Effective in micro doses Instant Action Cubic Meta cinnabar Meta cinnabar Red Cinnabar Meta Cinnabar Free Sulfur ++++ Orthorhombic alpha Sulfur ++ Beta octasulfur Nil +++ Plastic Sulfur gama Sulfur 20
  • 21.  Powder of a substance obtained by calcination is called Bhasma. In this section, it is applied to the metals, minerals and animal products which are calcined by special processes, in closed cruibles and with cow dung cakes (puta). Method of preparation  First stage (Shodhana)  Bhasmas are prepared from purified minerals, metals and animal products. 21
  • 22. Shodhana is of two kinds  (1) Samanya shodhana which is applicable to a large number of metals or minerals, as heating the thin sheets of the metals and immersing them in Taila, Takra, Gomutra etc.  (2) Vishesha shodhana which is applicable only to certain drugs and in certain preparations. Vishesha shodhana consists of (1) Bhavana (2) swedana (3) Nirvapa¸(4)Mardana. 22
  • 23.  The second stage is the preparation of Bhasma.  The purified drug is put into a khalva and ground with juices of the specified plants or Kasayas of drugs mentioned for a particular mineral or metal.  It is ground for the specified period of time.Then small chakrikas are made.  The size and thickness of the chakrikas depend on the heaviness of the drug, The heavier the drug, the thinner are the chakrikas.  These chakrikas are dried well under sunlight and placed in one single layer in a sharava and closed with another sharava.  The edge is sealed with clay-smeared cloth in seven consecutive layers and dried. 23
  • 24.  A pit is dug in an open place. The diameter and the depth of the pit depends on the metal or mineral that is to be calcined. Two third of the pit is filled with cow dung cakes.  The sharava samputa is placed in it and the remaining space is filled with more cow dung cakes.  Fire is put on all four sides and in the middle of the pit.  When the burning is over, it is allowed to cool itself completely.  The sharava samputa is removed, the seal is opened and the contents are taken out.  The medicine is ground into a fine powder in a khalva. This process of bhavana, making chakrikas and giving Putas, is repeated as many times as prescribed in the texts or till the bhasma siddhi lakshanas obtained. 24
  • 25. The tests for properly prepared Bhasma are (1) there should be no Candrika (metallic lustre) (Niscandrikatwa) (2) When taken between the index finger and thumb and spread, it should be so fine as to get easily into the finger lines (Rekha Pooratva) (3) When a small quantity is spread on cold and still water, it should float on the surface (Varitaram); (4)The Bhasma should not revert to the original state (Apunarbhava). 25
  • 26.  Bhasmas, unless otherwise specified in individual formulations, are generally yellowish, black, pure white, grey, reddish black or red; depending upon the predominant drug as well as the other drugs used in the process of Marana.  Bhasmikarana is a process of converting meataliic/the compounds into the form which our body can accept. 26
  • 27.  These are preparations containing shodhita mandoora along with other drugs. Method of preparation  Mandoora is purified by a special method {(Rasakamadhenu, Sarvalohavidhanadhikara)mandoora Q.S.gomutra Q.S. (for sinchana) Triphala kvatha twice the quantity of mandoora .  Fine powder of shodhita mandoora is taken}and boiled in gomutra till it becomes a rasa-kriya (a paste). Then the powders mentioned in the yogas are added and stirred well. While warm, vatakas are prepared.This can be kept in powder form also.  Ex.. Punarnavadi Mandoora, Mandoora Vataka 27
  • 28.  Lauha kalpas are preparations of Loha Bhasma as main ingredient added to other drugs. Method of Preparation  The drugs are reduced to fine powder and mixed with loha bhasma. Bhavana is given with prescribed liquids if mentioned. 28
  • 29.  Pisti’s are prepared by triturating the drug with the specified liquids and exposing to sun or moonlight. These are termed anagnitapta bhasma (bhasma prepared without the medium of fire). Method of preparation  After purification (sodhana) the drug is put in a khalva and triturated generally with rose water, unless otherwise mentioned. It is triturated with the liquid for a day and dried in the sun for another day. This process is generally continued for seven days or more tiII fine pisti in powder form is obtained.  They are as fine as bhasma and have the characteristics of bhasma. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31.  Is one of the aqueous extract.  Is extraction of juice from fresh drug, crushed by yantra & vastra nispida is swarasa. Purpose; to make the drug free from albuminous matter & cell contents which are not absorbable by body in raw farm. 31
  • 32.  Is one of the aqueous extract.  preparation of paste by grinding(paste should be smooth to touch). In this whole plant is uesd but its concentration is comparitively less than swarasa as it contains cell debris & other undigestible parts which make it less concentrated. 32
  • 33.  Is one of the aqueous extract.  Here coarsely powdered drugs are boiled with definate quantity of water & reduced to 1/4th or 1/8th & then filtered. In this drugs comes in contact of liquid & fire for certain period to get water soluble extract of drug, aqueous extract by boiling with mentioned quantity of liquid.  This process is chiefly applicable in case of vegetable, drugs which are hard & woody in nature & containing the water soluble constituents & also for mucilage containing drugs. 33
  • 34.  Is one important upakalpana refers to medicated milk which is prepared by boiling the milk with drug & water to get protein & lipid extract.  Generally adopted for drugs like bhallataka, lasuna etc tikna veerya drugs & arjuna, ashoka etc kashaya rasa predominant drugs so that their unwanted side effects could be reduced to minimum & desired theraupetic effects could be achieved to maximum. 34
  • 35.  Is one of the aqueous extract.  Here drug is kept in contact of water overnight & the next day macerated & the liquid obtained after filtering is known as hima/sitakashaya. It is known as cold infusion nowadays, applicable for light drugs without containing dense tissues & contituents of which are soluble in water. 35
  • 36.  Is one of the aqueous extract.  Here drugs are put in hot water & rubbed properly & on filtration, the filtrate is known as phanta. Done for drugs which are fragrant in nature ,light in structure, free from dense tissue. Their active principles may not be thermostable hence not boiled. Extraction of active principles by hot infusion. 36
  • 37.  Described mainly in vatavyadhi in samhitas.  Ex: narikela lavana, arka lavana.  The powdered saindhava lavana is mixed with some specified leaves or filled in narikela & subjected to paka over agni , black colour powder obtained from this is known as lavana kalpana. 37
  • 38.  Ksharas are alkaline substances obtained from the ash of drugs.  Acharya Bhavamishra stated that ksara is equal to agni & cures gulma & sula.  The dried kshara vriksa kasta pieces are burnt to ash & dissolved in six times of water, rubbed with hands properly & kept for 24hrs undisturbed.  Then it should be filtered through 4 folded cloth for 21 times. The filtrate is boiled in an earthen vessel till complete evaporation of water content, the obtained clear powder is known as kshara 38
  • 39.  The product obtained by heating dravya kept in closed container.  Dravya taken in sharava sandhibandhana done & subjected to puta.  It is described in sastiupakrama of vrana by sushrutha. 39
  • 40.  Medicines prepared in the form of tablets or pills are known as vati/ Gutika. These are made of one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin. Method of preparation  The drugs of plant origin are dried and made into fine powders, separately. The minerals are made into bhasma or sindura, unless otherwise mentioned.  In cases where parada and gandhaka are mentioned, kajjali is made first and other drugs added, one by one, according to the formula.  These are put into a khalva and ground to a soft paste with the prescribed fluids. When more than one liquid is mentioned for grinding, they are used in succession.  When the mass is properly ground and is in a condition to be made into pills, sugandha dravyas, like kasturi, karpura, which are included in the formula, are added and ground again. 40
  • 41.  Asava is that in which fermantation is allowed to proceed for generating alcoholic, liquids & drugs kept without boiling.  Arista is that in which fermantation is allowed to proceed for generating alcoholic, liquids & drugs kept after boiling. 41
  • 42.  The required quantity of water, to which jaggery or sugar as prescribed in the formula is added, is boiled and cooled.  This is poured into the fermentation pot, vessel or barrel. Fine powder of the drugs mentioned in the formula are added.  The container is covered with a lid and the edges are sealed with clay-smeared cloth wound in seven consecutive layers. 42
  • 43. After the specified period, the lid is removed, and the contents examined to ascertain whether the processof fermentation (sandhana) has been completed. The fluid is first decanted and then strained after two or three days. When the fine suspended particles settle down, it is strained and bottled. Can be taken as preservation & exraction of self generated alchoholic contents. 43
  • 44.  The required quantity of water, to which jaggery or sugar as prescribed in the formula is added, is boiled and cooled. This is poured into the fermentation pot, vessel or barrel. Fine powder of the drugs mentioned in the formula are added. The container is covered with a lid and the edges are sealed with clay-smeared cloth wound in seven consecutive layers.  The rest of the process is as in the case of Arishta. 44
  • 45.  Arka is a liquid preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or of drugs soaked in water using the Arkayantra or any convenient modern distillation apparatus. Method of preparation  The drugs are cleaned and coarsely powdered.Some quantity of water is added to the drugs for soaking and kept over-night. This makes the drugs soft and when boiled releases the essential volatile principles easily. The foIlowing morning it is poured into the Arka yantra and the remaining water is added and boiled. The vapour is condensed and collected in a receiver. 45
  • 46.  In the beginning, the vapour consists of only steam and may not contain the essential principles of the drugs. It should therefore be discarded. The last portion also may not contain therapeutically essential substance and should be discarded. The aliqnots collected in between contain the active ingredients and may be mixed together to ensure uniformity of the arka.  Characteristics  Arka is a suspension of the distillate in water having slight turbidity and colour according to the nature of the drug or drugs used and smell of the predominant drug. 46
  • 47.  Avaleha or Lehya is a semi-solid preparation of drugs, prepared with the addition of jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy and boiled with prescribed drug juice Or decoction. Method of preparation  These preparations generally have (1) kashaya or other liquids,  2) jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy,  (3)powders or pulps of certain drugs; and  (4) ghee, or oil and honey.  Jaggery, sugar or sugar-candy is dissolved in the liquid and strained to remove the foreign particles.  This solution is boiled over a moderate fire. When the paka is thready (tantumat) when pressed between two fingers or when it sinks in water without getting easily dissolved, it should be removed from the fire. Fine powders of drugs are then added in small quantities and stirred continuously and vigorously to form a homogenous mixture. 47
  • 48.  Ghee or oil, if mentioned, is added while the preparation is still hot and mixed well. Honey, if mentioned is added when the preparation is cool and mixed well. Characteristics  The Lehya should neither be hard nor be a thick fluid. When pulp of the drugs is added and ghee or oil is present in the preparation, this can be rolled between the fingers. Growth of fungus Over it or fermentation are, among others, signs of deterioration.  When metals are mentioned, the bhasmas of the metals are used. In the case of drugs like bhalliitaka, purified drugs alone are included in the preparation. The colour and smell depend on the drugs used. Preservation and Storage  The Lehya should be kept in glass or porcelain jars. It can also be kept in a metal container which does not react with it. Normally, Lehyas should be used within one year. 48
  • 49.  Guggulu is an exudate (niryasa) obtained from the plant Commiphora mukul. Preparations having the exudate as main effective ingredient. are known as Guggulu. There are five different varieties of Guggulu described in the texts. However two of the varieties, namely, Mahishaksha and Kanaka Guggulu are usually preferred for medicinal preparations. , Mahishaksha Guggulu is dark greenish brown and kanaka Guggulu is yellowish brown in colour.  Process of Sodhana  (1) Sand, stone, glass etc. are first removed.  (2) It is then broken into small pieces.  (3) It is thereafter bundled in a piece of cloth and boiled in Dola Yantra containing any one of the following fluids.  (a) Gomutra. (b) Triphala kashaya. (c) Vasapatra kashaya. (d) Vasapatra svarasa.(e) Nirgundi patra svarasa with ' Haridra choorna and (f) Dugdha. 49
  • 50.  The boiling is continued till the Guggulu becomes a soft mass. It is then taken out of the cloth and spread over a smooth wooden board smeared with ghee or oil. By pressing with fingers the sand and other remaining foreign impurities are removed.It is taken out and dried in a place free from dust.  These bits are again fried with ghee and ground in a stone mortar (khalva). This is called Sodhita Guggulu.  The other method is to suspend the bundle of Guggulu in Dola Yantra so as to remain immersed in the specified fluid as it is boiled*. The boiling of Guggulu in Dola Yantra is carried on untill all the Guggulu passes into the fluid through the cloth. 50
  • 51.  The residue in the bundle is discarded. The fluid is filtered and again boiled till it forms a mass. This mass is dried in sun rays and then pounded with a pastle in a stone mortar, adding ghee in small quantities till it becomes waxyl. Characteristics  Sodhita Guggulu is soft, waxy and brown in colour. haracteristics of preparations of Guggulu vary depending on the other ingredients added to the preparations. Preservation and Storage  It should be kept in glass or porcelain jars free from moisture and stored in a cool place. The potency is maintained for two years when prepared with ingredients of plant origin and indefinitely when prepared with metals and minerals. 51
  • 52.  Ghritas are preparations in which ghee is boiled with prescribed kashayas (decoction) and kalkas of drugs according to the formula. This process ensures absorption of the active therapeutic principles of the ingredients used. General method of Preparation :  1. There are generally three essential components for the preparation of sneha (ghrta or taila) viz :-  (i) drava (a liquid which may be one or more as kashaya, svarasa, dugdha, mastu, etc.);  (ii) kalka [a fine paste of the drug(s)]  (iii) sneha dravya (ghrita, taila, etc.). 52
  • 53.  2. Generally, unless otherwise mentioned in the text, if kalka is one part by weight,. sneha should be four parts and the drava-dravya should be sixteen parts. Exceptions are :  (i) where no drava is prescribed, four parts of water is added to one part of sneha; the kalka is one fourth the weight of the sneha.  (ii) where drava-dravya is either kvatha or swarasa, kalka should be one-sixth and one-eighth respectively of sneha.  (iii) where the number of drava dravyas is four or less than four, each drava has to be taken four times the weight of sneha.  (iv) where the drava dravyas are more than four, each drava will be equal in weight to the sneha.  (v) if in a preparation, no kalka dravya is prescribed, then the drugs of the kashaya may be used as kalka. 53
  • 54.  3. The kalka and the drava are mixed together,sneha is then added, boiled and stirred well continuously so that the kalka is not allowed to adhere to the vessel. Sometimes, the drava- dravyas are directed to be added one after another as the process of boiling is continued till the drava-dravya added earlier has evaporated.  4. When all the drava-dravyas have evaporated the moisture in the kalka will also begin to evaporate; at this stage, it has to be stirred more often carefully to ensure that the kalka does not stick to the bottom of the vessel. The kalka is taken out of the ladle and tested from time to time to know the condition and stage of the paka.  5. There are three stages of paka :- (i) mrdu paka, (ii) madhyama paka and (iii) khara paka In mrdu paka, kalka is waxy and when rolled between the fingers, rolls like lac without sticking. In madhyama paka, kalka is harder and when put in fire burns without any crackling noise. A further degree of heating leads to khara paka. Any further heating will lead to dagdha paka and the sneha becomes unfit of use. 54
  • 55.  6. In the sneha group, sarkara, if mentioned, is added to the final product when cool.  7. Where the paka is to be done with kvatha, svarasa, dugdha and mamsa rasa, etc. the paka is to be done with these dravas separately in the above Qrder. The period of paka with various dravyas should be as below : (i) kvatha, aranala, takra, etc. - 5 days ii) svarasa - 3 days (iii) dugdha - 2 days (iv) mamsa rasa - 1 day  8. Patrapaka : Patrapaka is the process by which the sneha is flavoured or augmented by certain soluble or mixable substances. The powders of the drugs are placed in the vessel into which fairly warm sneha is filtered.  9. Mrdupaka sneha is used for nasya; madhyamapaka sneha is used for pana, vasti, etc.; kharapaka sneha is used only for abhyanga. 55
  • 56.  10. In the beginning the boiling should be on mild fire and in the end also it should be only on mild (mrdvagni) fire.  11. Whenever lavanas and ksharas. are used in these preparations, they are added to the sneha and then strained. Characteristics :  The Ghrta will generally solidify when cooled. It will have the colour, odour and taste of the drug(s) used. Preservation  Ghrtas are preserved in glass, polythene or aluminium containers. Ghrta preparations for internal use keep their potency for about sixteen months. Method of use :  Generally as the anupana or internal use, when not specified with warm water or warm milk. The Ghrita has to be taken after warming. This is taken with the medium of other liquids also. 56
  • 57.  Choorna is a fine powder of drug or drugs. General Method of preparation  Drugs mentioned in the Yoga are cleaned and dried properly. They are finely powdered and sieved.  Where there are a number of drugs in a Yoga, the drugs are separately powdered and sieved. Each one of them (powder) is weighed separately, and well mixed together, As Some of the drugs contain more fibrous matter than others, this method of powdering and weighing them separately, according to the Yoga, and then mixing them together, is preferred.  Salt, sugar, camphor etc., when mentioned are separately powdered and mixed with the rest at the end. 57
  • 58.  Asafoetida (hingu)and salt may also be roasted, powdered and then added. Drugs like satavari, guduci,etc.,which are to be taken fresh, made into a paste, dried, and then added. Characteristics and preservation  The powder is fine of at least 80 mesh sieve. It should not adhere together or become moist.  The finer the powder, the better its therapeutic value.  They retain potency for one year and should be kept in air tight containers. 58
  • 59.  Dravakas are liquid preparations obtained from lavanas and ksaras. Method of preparation  Dravakas are prepared with lavanas and ksaras by Tiryakpatana (distillation) process with or without any addition of fluids. Characteristics and preservation  These are preserved in glass stoppered bottles. These preparations do not deteriorate by lapse of time. 59
  • 60.  Medicines in the form of a paste used for external application are called lepas. Method of preparation  The drugs are made into a fine powder. Before using it is mixed with some liquid or other medium indicated in each preparation and made into a soft paste. Water, cow's urine, oil, and ghee are some of the media used for mixing. Characteristics and Preservation lepa choorna will preserve their potency for 30 days if kept in air tight containers. Mineral and metallic preparations last idefiniteIy. 60
  • 61.  Medicines prepared in the form of tablets or pills are known as vati and Gutika. These are made of one or more drugs of plant, animal or mineral origin. Method of preparation  The drugs of plant origin are dried and made into fine powders, separately. The minerals are made into bhasma or sindura, unless it is mentioned.  In cases where parada and gandhaka are mentioned, kajjali is made first and other drugs added, one by one, according to the formula.  These are put into a khalva and ground to a soft paste with the prescribed fluids.  When more than one liquid is mentioned for grinding, they are used in succession.  When the mass is properly ground and is in a condition to be made into pills, sugandha dravyas, like kasturi, karpura, which are included in the formula, are added and ground again. 61
  • 62.  The criterion to determine the final stage of the formulation before making pills is that it should not stick to the fingers when rolled.  Pills may be dried in shade Or in sun as specified in the texts.  In cases where sugar or jaggery (guda)is mentioned, paka of these should be made on mild fire and removed from the oven.  The powders of the ingredients are added to the paka and briskly mixed. When still warm, vatakas should be rolled and dried in shade. Characteristics and Preservation  Pills made of plant drugs when kept in air tight containers can be used for two years.  Pills containing minerals can be used for an indefinite period.  Pills and vatis should not lose their original colour, smell, taste and form. When sugar, salt or kshara is an ingredient, the pills should be kept away from moisture. 62
  • 63.  Medicines used extelllally for the eye come under of Varti, Netrabjndu and Anjana.  Method of Preparation  Varti’s are made by grinding the fine powders of drugs with the fluids specified in the formula form a soft paste. This is then made into thin sticks of about 2 cm in length and dried in shade.  Netrabindu is prepared by dissolving the specified drugs in water or kashaya and used as eye drops. 63
  • 64.  Anjanas are very fine powders of drugs to beapplied with netra salakas.  Characteristics and preservation  Colour and smell depend on the drugs used.These can be preserved for one year if kept i air tight container. In case of formulations in which minerals are used, the drugs are preserved indefinitely. 64
  • 65.  Sattva is water extractable solid substance coJlected from a drug.  Method of extraction  The drug is cut into small pieces, macerated in water and kept overnight. Then it is strained through cloth and the solid matter aIlowed to settle.The supernatant liquid is decanted and the sattva washed by repeating the process adding water and decanted. The sattva so sedimented is allowed to dry and powdered.  Preservation and Characteristics  This can be preserved in a closed container. Thecolour vacies from drug to drug. 65
  • 66. Aoushada yoga includes.  Roga nashaka dravya as a main ingredient.  Dravyas which decreases upadravas of that roga.  Dravyas which help the ingredient to reach the target organ.  Dravyas which decreases doshas caused by main & other ingredients. 66
  • 67.  Ingredients Parada Gandhaka Vatsnabha bhavana with brugaraja Trikatu swarasa Triphala jayaphala 67
  • 68. Nidana –Nija Agantuka (Keetanu) Dosha Vaisamya Agnimandya Production of Ama Circulating in Rasa and Rakta Dhatu Localisation in Rasa and Swedavaha Srotas Development of Vishamajwara 68
  • 69.  Among these bhallataka is the one which dec tapa & hence dec jwara. • inc sweating • inc urine output • dec heart rate • dec pain • dec jwara But bhallataka alone cannot cure jwara, hence to this other sahayaka dravyas are to be added 69
  • 70. • As a sahayaka dravya to bhallataka • Krimijhna parada • To purify rakta  parada is most chanchala hence it is dificult to prepare aoushada with this – gandhaka is added Some times malavarodha also causes jwara- hence jayaphala is added. But this causes- gastric irritation so that there is severe burning sensation and vomitings  for this brujaraga swarasa- dec daha & vomiting.  Triphala dec teekshanata - jayapala 70
  • 71.  Here bhallataka dec ushnata & dec heart rate- parada gandhaka hrudaya trikatu ushna, deepaka & pachaka Bhallataka -1 Jayaphala-2 Parada & gandhaka- raktashodaka, gunavardhaka, hence -3 Trikatu, brungaraja - dosha( upadrava nashaka)-4 71
  • 72.  There are many formulations in our classics with varied indications.  The formultions designed on the place of application ex lepa.. Site of action ex parpati in grahani, stage of patient,disease.etc.  So one has to select the formulation which is suitable for the patient, condition, dosha, dushya,stana, if given ,gives maximum result.  Acharyas have not put the dravyas randomly, they have logical reason behind each yoga, hence new yoga formation is not so each , one has to follow these rules & regulation so that it does not cause any upadrava. 72

Editor's Notes

  1. Gandhaka is durgandha nashaka, rakta shodhaka, jantughna & inc pachana