A Brief History of Police Technology

1,738 views

Published on

The companion PowerPoint presentation for Chapter Six (A Brief History of Police Technology) for the book Police Technology.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,738
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

A Brief History of Police Technology

  1. 1. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Chapter SixChapter Six A Brief History of PoliceA Brief History of Police TechnologyTechnology
  2. 2. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  Explore the development of policeExplore the development of police technology against the backgrounds of thetechnology against the backgrounds of the policing models –policing models – politicalpolitical,, professionalprofessional,, andand community based modelscommunity based models  Expand understanding ofExpand understanding of tacticaltactical andand strategicstrategic information by looking at howinformation by looking at how technology changed the nature oftechnology changed the nature of fingerprint evidencefingerprint evidence
  3. 3. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives  Understand the difference betweenUnderstand the difference between policypolicy andand procedureprocedure and look at howand look at how technology may impact policy andtechnology may impact policy and procedureprocedure  Further exploreFurther explore fragmentationfragmentation and theand the market-place.market-place.
  4. 4. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo IntroductionIntroduction Look at history of technology two ways:Look at history of technology two ways:  What happened and consequences of newWhat happened and consequences of new technologiestechnologies  Following a specific piece ofFollowing a specific piece of information that has beeninformation that has been critical to solving crimes forcritical to solving crimes for more than one hundred yearsmore than one hundred years (fingerprinting)(fingerprinting)
  5. 5. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Police Technology in TimePolice Technology in Time Most CJ scholars divide the history ofMost CJ scholars divide the history of American policing into three eras:American policing into three eras:  PoliticalPolitical  ProfessionalProfessional  Community OrientedCommunity Oriented
  6. 6. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Political Policing EraPolitical Policing Era Most police forcesMost police forces established in the lateestablished in the late 1919thth century consisted orcentury consisted or men who had beenmen who had been appointed for limited termsappointed for limited terms by local Politicians.by local Politicians.  Patronage – an officer’sPatronage – an officer’s primary source ofprimary source of information came frominformation came from the people who lived inthe people who lived in the community or theirthe community or their beatbeat Photograph provided by Cultural Tourism DC.
  7. 7. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Professional PolicingProfessional Policing  Government and policingGovernment and policing evolved out of theevolved out of the patronage system into apatronage system into a civil service system.civil service system.  Prized hierarchy,Prized hierarchy, centralization rules, andcentralization rules, and standards became thestandards became the professional policingprofessional policing model.model.  Control of day-to-dayControl of day-to-day operations from politics tooperations from politics to professional policeprofessional police managers.managers.
  8. 8. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Technology impacting the modelTechnology impacting the model Through the 1950s and 1960s, the idea thatThrough the 1950s and 1960s, the idea that police supervisors and managers shouldpolice supervisors and managers should control the production of service began tocontrol the production of service began to take hold.take hold.  Supervisors and managers began to countSupervisors and managers began to count the numbers of calls for service an officerthe numbers of calls for service an officer handledhandled  Timed how fast he arrived at the scene ofTimed how fast he arrived at the scene of a calla call
  9. 9. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo ““You get what you count. . .”You get what you count. . .”  Officer were not walking the communityOfficer were not walking the community any longerany longer  They were evaluated on the number ofThey were evaluated on the number of calls they handled andcalls they handled and  How fast they got to the call.How fast they got to the call.
  10. 10. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Incident Driven PolicingIncident Driven Policing  Through the 1970s thereThrough the 1970s there continued to be a reliancecontinued to be a reliance on what was to be seenon what was to be seen asas incident-drivenincident-driven policingpolicing..  The advent of theThe advent of the computer made itcomputer made it possible to organize andpossible to organize and review this information onreview this information on incidents and response.incidents and response.  The development of 9-1-1The development of 9-1-1 only added to the police’sonly added to the police’s ability to handle incidents.ability to handle incidents.Photograph provided by Gary Allen, 9-1-1 Dispatch Magazine
  11. 11. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Incident Driven PolicingIncident Driven Policing  As officers judged on theAs officers judged on the number of calls theynumber of calls they handled rose through thehandled rose through the ranks, the concept ofranks, the concept of professionalismprofessionalism increased.increased.  Police managers didPolice managers did notnot rely on community inputrely on community input  The idea that the policeThe idea that the police were the professionalswere the professionals who knew best,who knew best, responded quickly, andresponded quickly, and handled incidentshandled incidents became organizationallybecame organizationally entrenched.entrenched. Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency ServicesPhotograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services
  12. 12. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  The professional model and theThe professional model and the technology changed the relationshiptechnology changed the relationship between the police and the communitybetween the police and the community  This introduced a new problem of theThis introduced a new problem of the growing distance between policegrowing distance between police officers and the communities theyofficers and the communities they served.served. Incident Driven PolicingIncident Driven Policing
  13. 13. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Community Oriented PolicingCommunity Oriented Policing Founded on two social science theories:Founded on two social science theories:  Normative Sponsorship TheoryNormative Sponsorship Theory – Most– Most people are good. People will workpeople are good. People will work together if the goal is within the normaltogether if the goal is within the normal standards of the community.standards of the community.  Critical Social TheoryCritical Social Theory – Looks at the way– Looks at the way the community comes together to analyzethe community comes together to analyze a problem that is preventing thea problem that is preventing the attainment of their goals or needs.attainment of their goals or needs.
  14. 14. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Problem Oriented PolicingProblem Oriented Policing  Shares many of the same characteristicsShares many of the same characteristics of community-oriented policing.of community-oriented policing.  Concentrates on situational crimeConcentrates on situational crime prevention.prevention.  Looks at the community of the problem.Looks at the community of the problem. The Definition of “community” would shiftThe Definition of “community” would shift as problems were solved (versus staticas problems were solved (versus static geographic communities).geographic communities).
  15. 15. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Technology’s Impact on PolicingTechnology’s Impact on Policing StyleStyle Political Model Professional Model Incident DrivenTechnology
  16. 16. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Changing the Value ofChanging the Value of InformationInformation  The increasing abilityThe increasing ability to obtain, organize,to obtain, organize, analyze and recallanalyze and recall information hasinformation has increased its valueincreased its value
  17. 17. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Changing the Value ofChanging the Value of InformationInformation  One of the earliest applications of scienceOne of the earliest applications of science to criminal investigation isto criminal investigation is fingerprintfingerprint classification.classification.  Visible – left by touching a substance beforeVisible – left by touching a substance before touching a surface (e.g., blood on a counter)touching a surface (e.g., blood on a counter)  LatentLatent – hidden fingerprints left behind by the– hidden fingerprints left behind by the natural oils from our hands. (Best obtainednatural oils from our hands. (Best obtained when surface is clean, dry, smooth and non-when surface is clean, dry, smooth and non- porous.)porous.)
  18. 18. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Changing the Value ofChanging the Value of InformationInformation  At the beginning ofAt the beginning of the 20the 20thth CenturyCentury fingerprints werefingerprints were routinely taken fromroutinely taken from offenders and theoffenders and the cards stored.cards stored.  At this time, for aAt this time, for a match each print mustmatch each print must be compared againstbe compared against millions of cardsmillions of cards
  19. 19. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Changing the Value ofChanging the Value of InformationInformation  At first, systems of classification enableAt first, systems of classification enable fingerprint specialist to narrow the searchfingerprint specialist to narrow the search from millions of cards to thousands – butfrom millions of cards to thousands – but still a hand search and analysisstill a hand search and analysis The computer enabled the automation ofThe computer enabled the automation of the process.the process.
  20. 20. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Automated FingerprintAutomated Fingerprint Identification SystemIdentification System  The process of analyzing fingerprints isThe process of analyzing fingerprints is dactylography.dactylography.  Software used sophisticated and complexSoftware used sophisticated and complex algorithms to recognize and comparealgorithms to recognize and compare minutiaeminutiae.. HoweverHowever;;  Computer processing speeds were slowComputer processing speeds were slow  Hardware and software to store theHardware and software to store the information had not yet been developedinformation had not yet been developed
  21. 21. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo National Crime InformationNational Crime Information CenterCenter  NCICNCIC organized in 1967 by the FBI toorganized in 1967 by the FBI to handle fingerprints cards and requests forhandle fingerprints cards and requests for comparison.comparison.  Began to incorporate criminal historiesBegan to incorporate criminal histories and correlate them to offender fingerprintand correlate them to offender fingerprint cards on file.cards on file.  Medium of transmission was U.S. mail andMedium of transmission was U.S. mail and eventually fax.eventually fax.
  22. 22. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo  Local agencies forged ahead developingLocal agencies forged ahead developing their own applications similar to NCICtheir own applications similar to NCIC creating fragmentationcreating fragmentation  AFISAFIS technology began to be usedtechnology began to be used routinely especially in the investigation ofroutinely especially in the investigation of cold cases.cold cases.  1999 – the FBI launched IAFIS and made1999 – the FBI launched IAFIS and made available nationwide the fingerprints of 33available nationwide the fingerprints of 33 million criminals.million criminals. Automated FingerprintAutomated Fingerprint Identification SystemIdentification System
  23. 23. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Automated FingerprintAutomated Fingerprint Identification SystemIdentification System Digital scanning – obtainsDigital scanning – obtains an image on the fingerprint,an image on the fingerprint, examines and compares.examines and compares.  Capacitance scanningCapacitance scanning – uses– uses a charged coupled devicea charged coupled device (CCD)(CCD)  Optical ScanningOptical Scanning – light– light source illuminates thesource illuminates the suspect’s fingertipssuspect’s fingertips Photograph provided by Cross Match Technologies, Inc.
  24. 24. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Differences are important for twoDifferences are important for two reasons:reasons:  Capacitance scanner does not contain theCapacitance scanner does not contain the CCD and is more readily miniaturizedCCD and is more readily miniaturized  Capacitance scanner is actually takingCapacitance scanner is actually taking measurements and is not easily fooled.measurements and is not easily fooled. Automated FingerprintAutomated Fingerprint Identification SystemIdentification System
  25. 25. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo NCIC 200NCIC 200  NCIC 2000 promisesNCIC 2000 promises to take fingerprintto take fingerprint technology into thetechnology into the fieldfield Photograph provided by Cross Match Technologies, Inc.
  26. 26. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo Policy and ProcedurePolicy and Procedure  ProceduresProcedures are a set of instructions onare a set of instructions on how to do something.how to do something.  PolicyPolicy is a broad statement on howis a broad statement on how things should be done – how we wantthings should be done – how we want human beings to exercise judgment.human beings to exercise judgment.
  27. 27. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo FragmentationFragmentation The nature of United States Law enforcement has caused policies, procedures and technology to develop different from agency to agency.
  28. 28. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo FragmentationFragmentation  17,000 state and local law enforcement17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies.agencies.  Different community expectations andDifferent community expectations and standardsstandards  Difference equipment acquisitionsDifference equipment acquisitions according to size of budgetaccording to size of budget  Expertise develops at different ratesExpertise develops at different rates
  29. 29. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymo FragmentationFragmentation  Fragmentation –Fragmentation – policy, procedure andpolicy, procedure and technology – causestechnology – causes problems wheneverproblems whenever agencies must oragencies must or should work togethershould work together Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency ServicesPhotograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services
  30. 30. Copyright Protected 2005: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police TechnologyPolice Technology Go to theGo to the Student ResourcesStudent Resources pagepage atat www.hitechcj.comwww.hitechcj.com

×