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# The ipo model

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### The ipo model

1. 1. The IPO Model Input – Process - Output
2. 2. I = Input    Input is something from the external environment that is fed into the system. In an information system, the inputs may be raw data "captured" in some way or pre-existing data which has been provided by an external system. In either case, the data input is provided by an external entity.
3. 3. P = Process    The transformation process is the most important element of a system. The process accepts the inputs into the system and performs some type of operation on it which transforms it into some other state. In the simplest of terms, the process is at the heart of any system. In a computerised information system, the process is normally the storage, retrieval and modification of data which is accomplished by hardware and software.
4. 4. O = Output    Output from the system which is the result of processing the input. Without output, a system has no link back into it's external environment. Output of an information system may be reports generated by an information system, or a picture on a computer monitor, or even data that is fed into another external system.
5. 5. The IPO Model INPUT Data and Processing OUTPUT Your analysis starts here The requirements of the Output, more than anything else, will determine the requirements of the System.
6. 6. Steps to complete an IPO Model Steps 1. 2. Read and understand the problem Identify the outputs  3. Decide what data (the inputs) is required in order to get the required output  4. Pick intrinsic variable names that represent the output Sometimes these will be given to you, sometimes not, which means you may need to invent inputs. Once you have the outputs and the inputs you need to determine how the inputs can be transformed into the required outputs. This is a dynamic process which may mean you need to continually return to the previous steps.
7. 7. Example Analysis for CelsiusToFahrenheit Program:  Input degrees Celsius  Process F = C * 9/5 + 32  Output degrees Fahrenheit
8. 8. Problem Statement A student's final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a student's grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. What output/s are require?
9. 9. Problem Statement A student's final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a student's grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. What input/s are required?
10. 10. Problem Statement A student's final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a student's grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. What process/es are required?
11. 11. Problem Statement A student's final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a student's grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. Input Get Get Get Get Get Get Get Result Result Result Result Result Result Result of of of of of of of Test1 Test2 FinalExam Project1 Project2 Project3 Project4 Process 1. 2. Calculate FinalScore FinalScore = (Test1 + Test2) * 15/100 + Test3 * 30/100 + (Project1 + Project2 + Project3 + Project4) * 40/100 Output FinalScore
12. 12. Self-Check 1. Consider a student file that contains the following data fields: First Name Last Name Course Grade Would this set of data be suitable and sufficient to use to test each of the following programs? Explain why or why not.      A program that A program that A program that A program that A program that prints a prints a prints a prints a prints a list list list list list of of of of of SDD students students nearly failing - those with a grade is less than 50% student on the Principal’s list students from Parramatta female students. 2. Construct an IPO chart for a program that gives an employee \$50 bonus for every 500 items sold in a week. 3. Construct an IPO chart for a program that will output a student's grading based on letter grades (A, B, C, D, or F) in five courses.
13. 13. 4. IPO Examples Input Processing Output original number 1. squared value 2. calculate the squared value by multiplying the original number by itself display the squared value Input Processing Output state1 sales state2 sales commission rate 1. 2. commission 3. enter state1 sales, state2 sales, and commission rate calculate the total commission by adding the state1 sales to the state2 sales, and then multiplying the result by the commission rate display the total commission Describe what these two IPO models are doing…