AbstractAn embedded system is some combination of computerhardware and software; either fixed in capability orprogrammable that is specifically designed for a particular kindof application device.Industrial machines, automobiles, medical equipment,cameras, as well as the more obvious cellular phone are amongthe myriad possible hosts of an embedded system.
In the past, doctors who needed to diagnose digestiveproblems would either use X-rays or endoscopy.Endoscopy is the examination of the inside of the body using alighted, flexible instrument called an endoscope.Capsule endoscopy allows us to see places inside the smallbowel where other methods cannot reach.
The most common endoscopic procedures evaluate theesophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, and portions of theintestine, colon.The video capsule is specifically designed to view the innerlining of the Esophagus.The Imaging Capsule contains a miniature camera, battery,light, computer chip and wireless transmitter. The targetdestination for the device is the small bowel, where theminiature camera may help physicians detect sources of bleedingor diagnose disease.
The PillCam™ ESO travels through the esophagus by normalperistaltic waves, flashing 14 times per second, each timecapturing images of the inner lining of the esophagus.As it continues down the esophagus, the images captured mayidentify potential abnormalities, such as EsophagitisImages captured by the PillCam™ ESO may also identifysymptoms of Barretts Esophagus, which occurs as a result ofabnormal cell growth in the lower esophagus.
DESCRIPTIONcapsule itself is larger than an aspirin, about 11 mm x 26 mm in size andabout 4grams in weight. Besides the miniature color video camera, thecapsule contains a light source, batteries, a transmitter, and an antenna.
Once swallowed this capsule/camera travels easily through thedigestive tract and is naturally excreted. It is never absorbed inthe body. The patient wears a wireless Given Data Recorder on abelt around his or her waist, much like a portable “Walkman.”This device receives and records signals transmitted by thecamera to an array of sensors placed on the patient’s body.These signals can also track the physical course of the capsule’sprogress.
During this procedure, users feel no pain or discomfort and areable to continue their regular activities as the camera worksinside the body and the sensors and belt work outside. Theentire process takes about eight hours.
Once all equipment is removed from the patient, theportable DataRecorder™ downloads the video images to adesignated workstation, from which the physician views andassesses the results in order to recommend next steps inthe patient’s treatment.Doctors can then view, edit, and save both individualimages and the streaming video. The images produced areof an especially high quality.
PillCam™ ESO Capsule Images General Suspected Barret Esophagitis Varices
How it Works•PillCam™ ESO is equipped with two miniature color video cameras(one on each end), battery and flashing light source•Cameras transmit 14 color images per second as capsule movesthrough the esophagus•Transmits about 2,600 images of the esophagus to a recordingdevice worn by the patient•Data is transferred from the recorder belt to the RAPID®Workstation (used for viewing, editing, archiving and e-mailing videoimages. Saves individual images and short video clips)
ProcedurePatients fast for two hours before swallowing the PillCam™ESOSmooth plastic capsule is easily swallowed with water whilepatient lies on his/her backAfter swallowing PillCam™ ESO, patients are raised by 30degree angles every two minutes over a six minute ingestionperiod until they are sitting uprightPillCam™ ESO makes its way through the esophagus in aboutthree minutes
Transmits images to recorder belt worn around the patient’swaistTotal procedure takes approximately 20 minutes in thedoctor’s office, hospital or clinicNatural digestive contractions help propel the disposablePillCam™ ESO through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and ispassed naturally and painlessly from the body, usually within 24hours
CONTROLABLE CAPSULE CAMERA WITH LEGSMetin Sitti, director of the NanoRobotics Lab, isdeveloping a set of legs that could be incorporated into theswallowable camera-in-a-pill that has become available inthe past four years for diagnosing gastrointestinal disordersin the small intestine.The capsule camera snaps thousands of pictures as itmakes its way slowly through the narrow tract, carried bythe wave-like peristaltic motion that moves all contentsthrough the intestines.
Metin Sitti, director of Carnegie Mellon Universitys Nanorobotics Lab,with his six-legged intestinal robot.
A more elaborate, telescoping capsule, featuring a set of threelegs on either end, would enable it to crawl as if it wereinchworm.The capsule could thus go rapidly to a point of interest or, ifsufficient power was available, move upstream to give doctors asecond look at a suspicious lesion.
A number of problems remain to be solved. For instance, thesmall intestine is typically collapsed, so maneuvering through itmight be difficult for a legged robot.And power already is limited for the capsule cameras; preciouslittle additional power may be available for locomotion.
CONCLUSIONIn clinical trials, the Given Imaging System seemed to bemore effective than surgical techniques in detectingsuspected physical abnormalities in the small intestines. Todate, there have been no side effects associated with thisprocedure.Given Imaging believes their system will be cost effective and isplanning to work with insurers to see that this procedure isincluded in reimbursement policies.