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Drilling Operations of Ground Water Wells AAPG-TUSC Tanta Univ 05-09-2016

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Introduction about Hydrology.
Planning any project by scientific method.
Understand how Ground Water Wells Drilled.
Types of Pumping Test.
How you can Write the daily Report.

Published in: Engineering
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Drilling Operations of Ground Water Wells AAPG-TUSC Tanta Univ 05-09-2016

  1. 1. Tanta University Faculty of Science Department of Geology Submitted by Mohamed Mahmoud El-Shora Mud Engineer @ National Egyption Drilling and Petroleum Services Co. (DASCO)
  2. 2. Introduce Myself • Mud Engineer at National Egyptian Drilling and Petroleum Services Co. DASCO. • Well site Geologist at National Egyptian Drilling and Petroleum Services Co. DASCO. • Advanced Diploma, Alexandria University, Geophysics, 2013. • BSC, Tanta University, Special Geology, 2012. • Founder & President of AAPG_TUSC, 2011.
  3. 3. Audiences Expectations • At the first page of your notebook write down the following: • Your expectations from this presentation. • At the end of the course evaluate the deliverable against your expectations.
  4. 4. Session Goals • As a result of participating in this presentation, attendees will • Introduction about Hydrology. • Planning any project by scientific method. • Understand how Ground Water Wells Drilled. • Types of Pumping Test. • How you can Write the daily Report.
  5. 5. Introduction • When a person meets another Person. He asks, Do you speak English, Arabic or French….etc.? In Geology you have to forget the language!! This collections of slides are The language of geologist. #You_Will_Learn_Geologists_Language!! • At recent days you’ve heard many advertisements by ground water companies wanting to hire you, so you should be knowing more and more about ground water wells. • In this session we will introduce important topics about ground water Wells. • Firstly you should be known ground water terminology to #Speak_The_Same_Language.
  6. 6. What is Hydrology? • Is the science that encompasses the occurrence, distribution, movement and properties of the waters of the earth and their relationship with the environment within each phase of the hydrologic cycle.
  7. 7. Hydrologic Cycle • Continuous process start when rain falls to the ground, some of it flows along the land’s surface to streams or lakes, some becomes available to plants for growth, some evaporates and returns to the atmosphere, and some seeps into the ground. • Water seeping down from the land surface from rain, snowmelt irrigation or lake and river leakage adds to the ground water and is called Recharge water.
  8. 8. Seeping of Water Down • The Results of Seeping water Down from the Ground Surface to underground Layers is: “water sorted in four zones” Called (Sub Surface Zones). 1- Soil water 2- Intermediate Vadose water 3- Capillary water 4- Ground water
  9. 9. Subsurface Water Zones • 1- Soil water: • The water stored in the upper layers of the soil from the ground surface up to the extent of roots of plants depends on soil type and vegetation. • Plants extract water from this zone. • Evaporation occurs from this zone. • May become saturated during periods of rainfall otherwise unsaturated (soil pores partially filled with air). Soil water
  10. 10. Subsurface Water Zones • 2- Intermediate Vadose water: • That stored below in the region between soil water zone and the capillary fringe. • It is a link between water infiltrating from the ground surface and moving down to the saturated layer of ground water. • Unsaturated except during extreme precipitation events. Intermediate Vadose water
  11. 11. Subsurface Water Zones • 3- Capillary water: • That which has risen from the saturated ground water region due to capillary action. Capillary water
  12. 12. Subsurface Water Zones • 4- Ground water: • This is the water in the fully saturated zone. • Formations in this zone with ability to transmit water are called Aquifers. • Pressure of water here would be more than atmospheric. Ground water
  13. 13. Saturation of Different zones of soil
  14. 14. Aquifer • Definition: Is underground soil or rock through which it can bearing ground water and allow ground water to pass through. • Composition: Mainly consist of gravels, Sand, sandstone, fractured limestone, or Fractured Granit. • Characterization of Aquifer: Characterized by good porosity & permeability – Saturated Zone. • Now we can understand that when Rock have a good Porosity and Permeability and contain water it’s called Aquifer while when it’s contain Oil or Gas it’s called Reservoir Rock.
  15. 15. The two essential elements of Aquifer & Reservoir rock : Porosity Permeability
  16. 16. The Main Types of Aquifer • Confined Aquifer “Artesian Aquifer”: An aquifer in which groundwater is confined under pressure that is significantly greater than atmospheric pressure. • Unconfined Aquifer: An aquifer containing water that is not under pressure; the water level in a well is the same as the water table outside the well. Now we need to Extract this water from the Aquifer. How?? By Drilling a well (Ground Water Well).
  17. 17. Ground Water Wells • Definition: A water well is a hole, shaft, or excavation used for the purpose of extracting ground water from the subsurface. • Types of Production ground water wells: • 1st Type: Artesian wells. • 2nd Type: Flowing Artesian Wells. • 3rd Type: Water Table Wells.
  18. 18. Ground Water Wells • What’s the difference between Artesian Well, Flowing Artesian Wells and Water Table Wells? • Note That: All flowing wells are artesian, but not all artesian wells are flowing wells. Now we need to know How we can drill a well??? Let’s Go to Know
  19. 19. Drilling • Is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in earth layers. • The hole is drilled by simultaneously applying weight to the drill bit and rotating the bit. • Before Starting Drilling You Need Data. • Surface Geological Study. • Subsurface Mapping. • Identification of Structures e.g. Anticlines, Salt Domes, Faults Traps, and Sand Bodies Lenses. Geological Data • Logging Data. • Seismic Data. Geophysical Data
  20. 20. Drilling Drilling Green Field Brown Field Exploration Well Production Well
  21. 21. Why & where We Drill? • To know The Sub-Surface (Rocks – Structures – Fossils - …etc.). • To Get The Black Gold (Oil – Natural Gas) (Onshore & Offshore). • To Get Under Ground Water (Onshore). • Exploration of Minerals as (Gold – Silver – Iron - ….etc.) (Onshore). Now we need a Rig!!!!!
  22. 22. Rotary Drilling Rig Components • We are Live and working day and night in location, so we need electricity source. • To reach the TD we need Series of pipes connected together (Drill String). • Raising and Lowering of the Drill string (Hoisting System). • Drilling as we know is applying weight to the drill bit and rotating the Bit, So we need rotating source or rotating system. • When we drill we need fluid to carrying the cutting from the bottom of hole to surface so we need circulation system.
  23. 23. Rotary Drilling Rig Components Power & Prime Movers Drill String Hoisting Component Rotating Component Circulation Component
  24. 24. Rotary Drilling Rig Components • Internal combustion engine or a turbine that is the source of power for driving equipment on the Rig. Power & Prime Movers
  25. 25. Rotary Drilling Rig Components • Series of pipes connected together called the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA). from the surface to the bit. • Mainly Composed of (Bit & Tubular and Tubular Handling Equipment ). Drill String • Together they perform the following functions: • Lower the bit into the hole and withdraw it. • Place weight on the Bit so it can penetrate the formations more effectively. • Transmit a rotating action to the Bit. • Conduct the Mud under pressure from the surface to the Bit. BHA Bit Bit Sub Stabilizer & Reamer Drill Collar Cross Over Sub Heavy Weight Drill Pipe Drill Pipe Kelly Saver Sub Kelly • Series of pipes connected together called the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA). from the surface to the bit. • Mainly Composed of (Bit & Tubular and Tubular Handling Equipment ). Drill String
  26. 26. Rotary Drilling Rig Components • The Rig Equipment responsible for the raising and lowering of the Drill string. Hoisting Component • Consist of the following: • (Drawworks – Crown Block – Traveling Block – Drilling Line – Hook - Elevator)
  27. 27. Rotary Drilling Rig Components • The Rig Equipment responsible for rotating the Drill string. Consist of the following: Rotating Component • Consist of the following: (Swivel – Kelly – Kelly Bushing – Master Bushing – Rotary Table)
  28. 28. Rotary Drilling Rig Components • Circulation Component responsible the movement of drilling fluid within the well as well as solids removal incurred by the drilling fluid. • Normally the circulation would start from the mud pits, down the drill stem, up the annulus and back to the mud pits. Circulation Component 1. Mud Pit 2. Mud Pump 3. Pump Manifold 4. Standpip e 5. Swivel 6. Drill String 7. Annulus 8. Return Line 9. Shale Shaker 10. Desande r & Desilter 11. Degasser
  29. 29. Rig Crew • Tool Pusher. • Well Site Geologist (Site Engineer). • Mud Engineer. • Mechanical Engineer &/or Mechanical. • Electric Engineer &/or Electrician. • Driller. • Derick Man. • Floor Man. • Kitchener.
  30. 30. What Hydrologists Do? • May be involved in both field investigations and office work. • Persons trained in hydrology may have a wide variety of job titles. • (Well Site Geologist (Site Engineer) - Mud Engineer- Tool Pusher) • Job Descriptions: • Making development & pumping tests for the groundwater s’ wells and Daily Reports. • Supervision of the drilling process & Sample description. • Supervision of the drilling fluid s’ characteristics. • Concomitant for using E-log system.
  31. 31. The Well Life Cycle • Design: • Agree the well objectives, schedule, cost, order equipment, place contracts for the rig and services, prepare the Location. • Construction: • Drilling: The well is created by drilling a hole, isolating with casing and cementing job and repeating this process until reach TD. • Wireline Logging: (Electric Logging and interpret this log). • Design of Well: (End Point of Intermediate Casing and Design of Filters). • Installing Filters: According to design of well. • Washing & Development: wash the well by clear water then development using compressor and pump. • Pump Test: (Step Pump Test – Long Duration Pump Test – Recovery Test). • Commission: • The well is handed over to operations and connected to the process facilities.
  32. 32. Drop Pin • Input Latitude and Longitude of your location on GPS. • Detect the locations of wells and roads. • Then Prepare the site roads and wells locations.
  33. 33. Prepare the Location
  34. 34. Drilling Fluid • The understanding of the uses of drilling fluid can make a drilling operation successful. • Functions of Drilling Fluid: • Remove the cuttings from the bottom of the hole and carry them to the surface. • Cool and lubricate the drill string and bit. • Control formation pressure. • Seal permeable formations. • Minimize settling of cuttings and weight material in suspension when circulation is temporarily stopped. • Support and protect the walls of the hole. • Facilitate cementing and completion.
  35. 35. Types of Drilling Fluid • Water + Inert Solids + Reactive Solids Water Base Mud • Emulsion (oil/water) System: diesel or crude oil is dispersed in a continuous phase of water. • Invert Emulsion (water/oil) System: water is dispersed in a continuous phase of diesel/crude oil. Oil Base Mud • Used as a drilling fluid (at times with a foaming agent to improve carrying capacity), but its use is applicable only in areas where there is little formation water. Compressed Gases
  36. 36. Mixing Mud
  37. 37. Properties of Drilling Fluid • Density or mud weight – ppg or SG. • Marsh Funnel Viscosity – seconds per quart. Physical Properties • PH. Chemical Properties • % sand content. Solids Analysis
  38. 38. Physical Properties (Mud Balance Test)
  39. 39. Physical Properties (Marsh Funnel Viscosity Test)
  40. 40. From The Memory • On the beach do you remember when you try to drill a hole with your hands.
  41. 41. Annulus • The space around a pipe in a well bore, sometimes termed the annular space. Well Bore Pipe
  42. 42. Casing • Definition: Steel pipe placed in an oil, gas and Ground Water wells to prevent the wall of the hole from caving in, to prevent movement of fluids from one formation to another and to aid in well control. • The Zones which need to seal off by Casing Pipe: (high-pressured zones, weak and fractured formations, unconsolidated formations and sloughing shales).
  43. 43. Conductor Casing • The outermost casing. • The main purpose: Hold back the unconsolidated surface formations and prevent them from falling into the hole. • The conductor pipe is cemented back to the surface. • The conductor pipe size is from 16 - 20” in diameter.
  44. 44. Surface Casing (Pump House) • The principal functions: • Hold back unconsolidated shallow formations that can slough into the hole and cause problems. • It is generally set in competent rocks, such as hard limestone or dolomite, so that it can hold any pressure that may be encountered between the surface casing seat and the next casing seat. • Cemented back to the surface. • Sizes of the surface casing vary from 7 to 16” in diameter. The Most Common Sizes is 11 3/4” and 13 3/8” in diameter.
  45. 45. Intermediate Casing • Is set at a depth between the surface and production casings. • The main reason for setting intermediate casing is to case off the formations that prevent the well from being drilled to the total depth. • Troublesome zones encountered include those with abnormal formation pressures, lost circulation, unstable shales and salt sections. • Intermediate casing varies in size from 7 to 11 3/8” in outside diameter. • It is commonly cemented to top of overlap between intermediate casing and surface casing.
  46. 46. Production Casing (Filters) • Filters (Screen and Blanks) may be Stainless Steel or PVC in type. • Production casing is set through the prospective productive zones except in the case of open-hole wells. • According to design of well using log interpretation and sample descriptions. • Screen designed to set in front of production zones. • Blanks designed to isolate troublesome zones such as unstable shale. • Filters Common Size 6 5/8” and 8 5/8” in diameter.
  47. 47. Casing Accessories • Guide Shoe (G.S). • Float Collar (F.C). • Plugs (Top Plug - Bottom Plug). • Centralizers. • Cement Baskets. • Cementing Head.
  48. 48. Cement Mixing and Pumping Operations:
  49. 49. Setting Casing & Cementing Job • Once casing is set and circulation has been assured. • The bottom plug is released, which is immediately followed by the cement. • The top plug is released when all the cement has been pumped. It is dropped on top of the cement, followed by drilling mud, to displace the cement from the casing. • When the bottom plug reaches the float collar, the diaphragm in the plug ruptures to permit the cement to proceed down the casing and up the annulus. • This plug causes a complete shut-off when it reaches the float collar. • Pumping is stopped as soon as there is a positive indication (pressure increase) that the top plug has reached the float collar.
  50. 50. Circulating pressures while mixing and displacing from the casing to the annulus.
  51. 51. Cementing Job Purpose • Bonds the casing to the formation. • Protects the producing formations. • Helps in the control of blowouts from high-pressure zones. • Seals off troublesome zones (i.e. lost circulation zones – Unstable Shale). • Forms a seal in the event of a kick during drilling.
  52. 52. Break
  53. 53. Drilling Well Operations Drilling for Conductor Casing and Cementing Job Drilling to Target Depth Wireline Logging and interpretation Drilling for Surface Casing and Cementing Job Drilling For Intermediate Casing and Cementing Job Drilling for Production Casing “Filters” (Blank – Screen)
  54. 54. Bit Program • A plan for the expected number and types of bits that are to be used in drilling a well. 8 ½” 12 ¼” 17 ½” 26” Casing Size in. Hole Size in. 20 (22 - 24 - 26) 13 3/8 (16 - 17 ½) 11 ¾ (12 ¼ - 13 3/8 - 13 ½ - 13 ¾ - 14 ¾ - 15 ½) 9 5/8 (11 5/8 - 12 ¼ - 13 3/8 -13 ¾) 8 5/8 (9 5/8 - 10 5/8 - 11 5/8 – 12 ¼) 6 5/8 (8 ½ - 9 5/8)
  55. 55. Drilling for Conductor Casing • After we finished from preparing of site, starting Drilling Operations. • Drilling with Bit size 8 ½” to reach setting depths of the conductor casing which is vary from 200 to 900 m according to contract and well design. • Then opening (enlarge) of hole with Bit size 12 ¼” then Bit size 17 ½” and finally with Bit size 26”. • Reaming a hole with stabilizer size 26”. • Preparing Conductor casing for installation in Hole. • Run In Hole Casing size 20” and Complete Cementing Job. • W.O.C (Duration of Waiting is 36 hours).
  56. 56. Drilling to Target Depth • After duration of W.O.C is completed we start to drilling Float Collar, Cement in last casing pipe & Guide Shoe. • Check properties of Mud and maintain it, Mixing New Volume of Drilling Fluid. • Run In Hole Drill String With Bit Size 8 ½” and Continuous drilling of Well until reach the TD.
  57. 57. Sample Description •(Conglomerate – Breccia – Tillite) (Gravel - Scree – Till) (Sandstone – Siltstone) (Sand – Silt) (Claystone – Shale) (Clay - Clay/Mud) Clastic Rocks •(Limestone - Dolomitic limestone - Calcitic dolomite – Dolomite) Carbonate Rocks •(Chert – Halite - Anhydrite and Gypsum - Carbonaceous Rocks “coal”) Chemical Rocks Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks
  58. 58. Sample Description • Rock Name: Color, Gain Size, Hardness, Any Accessories. • Rock Name (Sand Stone - Lime Stone - Dolomitic Lime Stone – Dolomite – Shale – Clay – Chert – Coal - Fossiliferous Lime Stone - Calcareous Shale - Calcareous S.S…..Etc). • Color When determining the color of a sample, inspect the rock when wet. A color chart is useful, Useful indicator of Depositional Environment, especially in argillaceous rocks (Clay Stone & Shale). • Gain Size (V. Fine – Fine – Medium – Course – V. Course). • Hardness (Hard - V. Hard). • Accessories (Silt - Chert - Coal…..Etc). Red & Brown •ferric iron, an oxidizing environment Green & Grey •ferrous iron, a reducing environment Dark Brown •Organic material, possible source rock Black •An anaerobic environment
  59. 59. Geologic Rock Symbols
  60. 60. Wireline Logging (Electric Log) • Logging is one of most important step in well life cycle. • Tools are run in the hole on the end of a wireline. • Information is relayed back to the surface via the wireline. • Tools of Logging: ( NGR – R 16 – R 64 – SP). • Purpose of Logging: • Identify the underling layers. • Detect zones of Aquifer. • Use to determine casing Point. • Making a design of well (Filters & Blanks).
  61. 61. Drilling for Surface Casing • After we finished from step of wireline logging and interpretation of log, starting Drilling for surface Casing Operations as the following procedures: • Opening (enlarge) of hole with Bit size 12 ¼” then Bit size 17 ½”. • Reaming a hole with stabilizer size 17 ½”. • Preparing Surface casing for installation in Hole. • Run In Hole Casing size 13 3/8” and Complete Cementing Job. • (W.O.C).
  62. 62. Drilling For Intermediate Casing • After duration of W.O.C is completed we start to drilling Float Collar, Cement in last casing pipe & Guide Shoe. • Check properties of Mud and maintain it, Mixing New Volume of Drilling Fluid. • Run In Hole Drill String With Bit Size 12 ¼” and Continuous drilling of Well until reach the end point of Intermediate Casing. • Reaming a hole with stabilizer size 12 ¼”. • Preparing Intermediate casing for installation in Hole. • Run In Hole Casing size 9 5/8” and Complete Cementing Job. • (W.O.C).
  63. 63. Drilling for Production Casing “Filters” (Blank – Screen) • After duration of W.O.C is completed we start to drilling Float Collar, Cement in last casing pipe & Guide Shoe. • Check properties of Mud and maintain it, Mixing New Volume of Drilling Fluid. • Run In Hole Drill String With Bit Size 8 ½” and Continuous drilling of Well until reach the TD of well. • Reaming a hole with stabilizer size 8 ½”. • Preparing Screen and Blank for installation in Hole. • Run In Hole Casing size 6 5/8” and hanged it using Liner Hangar.
  64. 64. Groundwater Wells Design • Area: East Owinat. • Total Depth: 300 or 350 m. • Casing Size / Type : • 12” / Galvanized Iron – 10” 280 mm / PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or ST. ST (Stainless Steel). • The Connection Between the two types of casing is called (Reducer 12”/10”). • Annulus Fill With Gravel Pack except at least 2 m from surface. • When we installation of Gravel Pack into the Annulus of well, start Circulation Mud to remove the smallest size grains of gravel pack and make it well sorted.
  65. 65. Gravel Pack • Gravel pack settle around the well screen. • Size from 5 mm to 7 mm. • Purpose of it; keeps fine sediments “Fine Sand & Silt” out of the well and provides a clean and unrestricted flow path for ground water. • Gravel Pack Installation: • 1st Original “Manual” Method. • 2nd Conversely Cycle.
  66. 66. Groundwater Wells Design • Area: Alfarafra Oasis. • Total Depth: 750 or 850 m. • Casing Size / Type : • Conductor Casing Size 20” / Steel. • Surface Casing Size 13 3/8” / Steel. • Intermediate Casing Size 9 5/8” / Steel. • Production Casing (Blank & Screen) Size 6 5/8” / Stainless Steel. • Finally Sand Trap Size 6 5/8” / Stainless Steel. • Annulus Around All casing Type and Size Fill With Cement; except Production casing size 6 5/8”. 9 5/8” 20” 6 5/8” 6 5/8” 6 5/8” 6 5/8” 6 5/8” 13 3/8”
  67. 67. Groundwater Wells Design • Area: Sinai. • Total Depth: 1150 m. • Casing Size / Type : • Conductor Casing Size 20” / Steel. • Surface Casing Size 11 3/4” / Steel. • Production Casing (Blank & Screen) Size 8 5/8” / Stainless Steel. • Finally Sand Trap Size 8 5/8” / Stainless Steel. • Annulus Around All casing Type and Size Fill With Cement; except Production casing size 8 5/8”. 20” 8 5/8” 8 5/8” 8 5/8” 8 5/8” 8 5/8” 11 3/4” 8 5/8” 8 5/8” 8 5/8”
  68. 68. Groundwater Wells Design • Area: Any Drinking Water Company. • Total Depth: 200 m. • Casing Size / Type : • Conductor Casing Size 20” / Steel. • Production Casing (Blank & Screen) Size 12” / Stainless Steel. • Finally Sand Trap Size 12” / Stainless Steel. • Annulus Around Conductor casing Size 20” and Annulus Around Fill With Cement; except Production casing size 12” fill with gravel pack and there is an over lap between Conductor Casing and Production Casing fill with Granular Bentonite (3 – 5)m. 20” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12” 12”
  69. 69. Washing • Using clear water (fresh water) and Liquid Soap. • By injection of fresh water and soup in the well by using pump. • Then connect Air compressor to starting the 1st development stage. • And we can add soup in stage of development using Air Compressor.
  70. 70. Groundwater Wells Development • After the well Casing, well Screen, and gravel pack have been installed, the well is developed to clean the borehole and casing of drilling fluid and to properly settle the gravel pack around the well screen. • Development Procedures: • Adding Chemicals as (Sodium Hexameta Phosphate - HCl). • Compressor Development. • Pump Development.
  71. 71. Development Procedures: • 1st Step Adding Chemicals as (Sodium Hexameta Phosphate): • Adding 1 sack from Hexameta for 1 m^3 of water according to the volume of filters e.g. ( Volume of mud in filters = 8 m^3, So; No. of Hexameta Sacks equal 8 sacks added to 8 m^3 of water). • Then still (24 hours) for complete reaction between Sodium Hexameta Phosphate and drilling mud in Aquifer and Gravel Pack. • Applications/Functions: • Can disperse mud, sediment and clay from the producing formation and gravel pack in the screened interval. • Can reduce viscosity and gel strength of drilling fluids. • Helps reduce development time. • Helps increase well yield and capacity.
  72. 72. Development Procedures: • 1st Step Adding Chemicals as (HCl): • Acidize : to treat formations with acid for the purpose of increasing production. • Acid Concentration: 10 % • Add HCl to Water with percentage 1 m^3 HCl : 2 m^3 water. • Pump this soln. in the well against the Filters. • Then still (24 hours) for complete reaction between HCl and Lime Stone FM. • Applications/Functions: • Open fractures in limestone formations. • Helps reduce development time. • Helps increase well yield and capacity.
  73. 73. Development Procedures: • 2nd Step Compressor Development: • Run In Hole Compressor Pipe String to certain depth then turn on compressor for certain duration as (1 hr.) then turn off compressor for (½ hr.) and repeat this step for several times until water be clear then reach to another depths and repeat the previous steps for each depths. • Note the pressure of Compressor as (20/18) bar; 20 mean the reading of compressor pressure on Starting Compressor, while 18 mean the reading of compressor pressure after constancy. • Note that: when the different between the two readings small the well will be have a small Draw Down because the good recharge. • Applications/Functions: • (A typical method for well development) to surge or jet air in and out of the well screen openings, This procedure may take several days or perhaps longer, depending on the size and depth of the well.
  74. 74. Development Procedures: • 3rd Step Pump Development: • Run In Hole Electrical or mechanical submersible pump, Then Starting Development by starting with small discharge then stop for several times until water be clear then progressively increasing the flow rate (Q) in intervals until reach the maximum discharge and reach clear water in each discharge. • Applications/Functions: • Clear water from residual mud and fine sand progressively. • Increase well yield and capacity.
  75. 75. Pumping Test Unit • This Unit composed of the following: • Generator. • Electrical or mechanical submersible pump. • Solar Tank. • Pipe size 4 ½”, 5 ½”, 7 ½”. • Check Valve “Non Return Valve”. • Measuring Discharge Tool with its components. • Water level Measurement Tool: water level rope (Deep Meter “Sounder”) and sounding tube. • Level Logger “Diver” (if available).
  76. 76. Discharge Measurement Tools • Manometer (Orifice Pipe) and Orifice Table. • Flow Meter (Normal – Digital) and stop watch. • Ultrasonic Flow Meter (Digital). • A Five Gallon Bucket (20 liters) and a stop watch can be used to estimate low pumping rates. • Oil Barrel and stop watch.
  77. 77. Water Level Measurement Tools • Manual Measurement: Using Water Level Probe (Deep Meter) and Sounding Tube. • Automatic Measurement: Pressure Transducer (Diver) by recording water level and temperature.
  78. 78. Water Level Probe (Deep Meter)
  79. 79. Pumping Test (Aquifer Test) • Pumping test is about discharging water using an electrical or mechanical submersible pump, this test provides results that are more representative of aquifer characteristics including hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, and specific capacity. • There are three types of pumping tests: • Step Draw Down Pumping Test. • Long Duration (continuous) Pumping Test. • Recovery Test.
  80. 80. Step Draw Down Pumping Test • To Provide certain parameters including the specific capacity, well loss and formation loss. • The test shall be performed by progressively increasing the flow rate (Q) in intervals with measuring the drawdown along with time of each step. • The pumping test data interpreted by using the Jacobi method by plotting specific drawdown (s/Q) versus flow rate (Q) to obtain well loss and formation loss parameters to calculate the specific capacity from the equation: • Δs = B Q + C Q2 • Where: • Δs: drawdown at any flow rate (m). • B: Formation loss (hr/m2) • C: Well loss (hr2/m5) • Q: Flow rate (m3/hr)
  81. 81. Long Duration Pumping Test & Recovery Test • Another type of pumping test is long duration or continuous test where the flow rate is constant and test time from 12 to 24 hours. • This test is followed by recovery test that measures the restoration of the static water level inside the well. • Purpose of Both of these tests provide a full data to calculate aquifer’s Transmissivity (T).
  82. 82. Pumping Phase & Recovery Phase • This Graph showing the different phases of constant rate pumping test – the pumping phase and the recovery phase.
  83. 83. Minimum Intervals for water level measurements for pumping testes
  84. 84. Pumping Tests Report Sheet
  85. 85. Development Report • R.I.H.E.S Pump: simply stands for Run In Hole Electric Submersible Pump. • Starting Development: S.W.L= ???m, Q=150m³/h – D.D= ???m Q=200m³/h – D.D= ???m Q=270m³/h – D.D= ???m • Continuous Development: S.W.L= ???m, Q=270m³/h – D.D= ???m • P.O.O.H.E.S Pump: simply stands for Pull Out Of Hole Electric Submersible Pump. • Moving to New Well Site: ????
  86. 86. Step Draw Down Test Report • Step Draw Down Test: S.W.L= ???m Q=150m³/h – D.D= ???m Q=200m³/h – D.D= ???m Q=270m³/h – D.D= ???m • Long Duration Pumping Test: S.W.L= ???m Duration= 24 Hours Q=270m³/h – D.D= ???m • Recovery Test: Collect Recovery Data S.W.L reach to the original Level after ??? Hours.
  87. 87. Mohamed M Elshora Mud Engineer @ National Egyption Drilling and Petroleum Services Co. (DASCO) Phone (+2)01024817020 Email : geomohamedelshora@yahoo.com

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