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OFFSHC gets briefed on IEDs

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On September 11, Corporal Robert Tye, Oklahoma County Sheriff’s Office, provided the OFFSHC a presentation about improvised explosive devices (IED). He discussed the components of and how to recognize an IED. Corporal Tye also displayed examples of inert IEDs that the Oklahoma County Sheriff may have recognized in Oklahoma.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit

OFFSHC gets briefed on IEDs

  1. 1. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 1 Office for Bombing Prevention Improvised Explosive Device Awareness prepared for: Bomb Making Materials Awareness Program
  2. 2. Madrid, Spain Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 2
  3. 3. IED Awareness You represent the first line of defense! You may be the first one to identify the presence of an IED. Your vigilance can make a difference! Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 3
  4. 4. What is an IED? Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 4 Improvised Explosive Device U.S. Federal Statutes define an IED as:  A modified explosive device built with available materials to achieve specific results, to destroy, kill, incapacitate, harass or distract.  A “Destructive Device” means any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge more than four ounces, missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, mine or similar device The federal term for IED is “Destructive Device (DD)” and can be found in 26 USC section 5845(f).
  5. 5. What are we up against? IED attacks remain the primary tactic for bombers, terrorists and criminals seeking relatively uncomplicated, inexpensive means for inflicting mass casualties and maximum damage. The use of IED’s represents the most likely domestic threat to the United States, our citizens, and our way of life. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 5
  6. 6. Explosives Probability of Threat Industrial Chemicals Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Biological Radioactive / Nuclear
  7. 7. 2005 London Subway Plot Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Developments AQ-AP Hasan Zindani al islah-Political Movement Anwar al-Awlaki Lindh Radical Cleric Mubin Shaikh, 2006 Tronoto Bomb Plot 2007, Ft. Dix Plot Al Qaeda
  8. 8. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 Surveillance Citicorp Bank Plot • Financial Sector targeted • Duration 1 year + • Hidden amongst the population ˉ Dhiren Barot (Issa al Britani) Known Associates • Khalid Shaikh Mohammed •(AQ #2, 911Mastermind) • Qaisar Shaffi (WMD Conspirator) • Hambali (JI Operations Chief)
  9. 9. The Threat: Progression of IED Sophistication Home Made Explosives (HME) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 9 Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device (VBIED) Simple Mechanical Devices Sophisticated Devices: Radio/Remote Controlled/DTMF Digital circuitry Anti-Disturbance Features Internet search engine: Suicide Bombers Results 1-10 of about 6,980,000 for bomb making. (0.17 seconds) Terrorist’s tactics are progressing as well!
  10. 10. The IED as a Weapons System Ahmed, age 14, calls on cell phone F-16 Delivery Platform Mohammed’s Truck AGM-65 Maverick Warhead IED Pilot Key Enabler The Bombmaker $$$,$$$,$$$ Cost $$$ Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 LANTIRN Pod, Radar Target Acquisition Jamal, age 18, records convoy movements and patterns in notebook JSTARS & AWACS Target Movements Mansour, age 12, checks trucks Target Identification Intelligence, Surveillance, & Reconnaissance Assets Wafik, coordinates attacks Command and Control Military Chain of Command
  11. 11. Types of Explosives What’s the Difference? High Explosives (HE): Detonating – Above 3300 fps. A High Explosive is a compound or mixture of compounds which, when subject to heat, shock, friction or impact undergoes a very rapid self propagating, heat producing decomposition. Examples include TNT, C-4, Tetryl, Composition B, ANFO and many more. Low Explosives (LE): Deflagrating – Below 3300 fps. Low Explosives create a subsonic explosion and lack HE’s overpressure wave. Examples include gun powders (black powder, smokeless powder), propellants and most pyrotechnic materials . Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  12. 12. The Fire Triangle! Elements to support combustion Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  13. 13. Deflagration vs. Detonation Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  14. 14. Types of Explosions Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 1. Mechanical 2. Chemical 3. Fuel Air 4. Nuclear
  15. 15. Mechanical Explosion Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 15
  16. 16. Flash Powder Pipe Bomb Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 16
  17. 17. Fuel Air Explosive (FAE) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  18. 18. Fuel Air Explosive (FAE) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  19. 19. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 19
  20. 20. Types of Detonations Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 20  High Order  Low Order
  21. 21. The Explosive Train Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 A Three Stage Explosive Train
  22. 22. Explosive Effects There are three effects associated with a detonation of an explosive device. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 22 1. Thermal 2. Blast 3. Fragmentation
  23. 23. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 23 Thermal Temperatures reach thousands of degrees High explosives – short duration Low explosives – long duration
  24. 24. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 24 Blast
  25. 25. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 25 Blast Shock front
  26. 26. Blast ReflectionBl a&st Re fAlectimon &p Amlpilifficiactioan tion Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 26
  27. 27. Positive & Negative Phase Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  28. 28. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 28 Fragmentation Primary (1000’s fps) Container Munitions case Shrapnel Secondary (100’s fps) Includes the above Any debris located near the seat of the blast
  29. 29. Combination of Blast & Frag Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 29
  30. 30. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 30
  31. 31. Critical Components Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 31 Power Source Initiator Explosive Container Switch
  32. 32. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 32 Electrical Mechanical Chemical Power Source
  33. 33. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 33 Initiator
  34. 34. Explosive Main Charge “…there is enough uncontrolled SEMTEX to support terrorism throughout the world for 150 years.” President Vaclav Havel, Czech Republic, 1990 TNT Equivalent: 1.35 (Semtex-H) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 34
  35. 35. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 35 Switch Arming Firing
  36. 36. Switches/Sensors Biostatic Microwave Ultrasonic Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 AIR Passive Infrared (PIR)
  37. 37. Switches/Sensors Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 PIR IMAGES
  38. 38. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 38 Container •Used to conceal •Transport •Increase lethality
  39. 39. Type by Function Three typical type by function categories of IED Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 39 are most commonly used. 1.Time fired 2.Victim operated 3.Command initiated
  40. 40. IED detonates after pre-set time delay. Mechanical, analog, igniferous, digital or electronic timing mechanisms can be utilized. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 40 Time Fired 1. Clock 4. Timers 2. Watches 5. Burning fuse 3. Integrated circuits
  41. 41. Victim Operated IED detonates by actions of unsuspecting individuals 1. Disturbance 6. Light 2. Pressure 7. Acoustic 3. Pressure release 8. Magnetic 4. Tension/Pull 9. Passive infra red (PIR) 5. Tension release/Push 10. Active infra red (AIR) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 41
  42. 42. Command Initiated Bomber to choose optimum moment to detonate IED 1. Cell phones 6.Any combination of 2. Radios transmitter/receiver 3. Doorbells 7. Mechanical (Pull/Release) 4. Keyless entry system 8. Car Alarms 5. Pagers 9. Command wire Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 42
  43. 43. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 43 Command Initiated device
  44. 44. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 44
  45. 45. IED Threats Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 46 1. Vehicle Borne IED (VBIED) 2. Suicide Bombs (PBIED) 3. Remote Controlled (RCIED) 4. Maritime (WBIED) 5. Multiple/Simultaneous Incidents 6. Soft Target/High Risk Re-Capture 7. Secondary Device
  46. 46. IED Standoff Distance (Front) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  47. 47. IED Standoff Distance (Back) Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  48. 48. VBIED being counter-charged. If you can see it, It can see you! Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 49
  49. 49. Safety precautions! 1. Do not touch or move suspicious items 2. Move away to a safe distance 3. Prevent others from approaching 4. Communicate safely to staff, visitors and the public 5. Don’t use radios/cell phones in the immediate vicinity of a Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 50 suspect item 6. Notify proper authorities 7. Ensure that whoever found the item or witnessed the incident remains on hand to brief the police 8. Always be aware of secondary devices ALWAYS SUSPECT THE DEVICE IS ARMED AND READY TO FIRE
  50. 50. Secondary Devices Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 51 Eric Rudolph Beslan IRA
  51. 51. Things NOT to do with a suspect IED! Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 52
  52. 52. Another example of what NOT to do with a suspect IED Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 53
  53. 53. Are there any questions? Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003
  54. 54. Presenter’s Name June 17, 2003 55 Improvised Explosive Device Awareness For more information on IED security programs and initiatives contact: DHS Office for Bombing Prevention (703) 235-5723 OBP@dhs.gov

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