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Green talk Live: Moving towards mainstreaming biodiversity


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Presentation by Katia Karousakis, OECD expert.

Published in: Environment
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Green talk Live: Moving towards mainstreaming biodiversity

  1. 1. MOVING TOWARDS MAINSTREAMING OECD perspectives on biodiversity ahead of CBD COP13 Katia Karousakis OECD Environment Directorate Green Talk, 29 November 2016
  2. 2. • Why is biodiversity important? • CBD COP13 – and mainstreaming biodiversity • Insights and perspectives from the OECD Overview
  3. 3. • Biodiversity is life on earth  species  ecosystems  and the interactions between these What is biodiversity ?
  4. 4. Biodiversity is on the decline… 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1970 2010 2050 Global terrestrial mean species abundance Source: OECD (2012), OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction
  5. 5. Global trends in the state of world marine fish stocks, 1974-2013 Source: FAO (2016) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture.
  6. 6. • Biodiversity and associated ecosystems provide services that are crucial for human wellbeing  Pollination  Water and nutrient cycling  Natural hazard protection  Soil stabilisation  Climate regulation  others… Why is biodiversity important?
  7. 7. What are the pressures on biodiversity? Terrestrial biodiversity Marine biodiversity Land-use change and Overfishing management Habitat destruction Over-exploitation of natural resources Pollution Climate change Invasive alien species
  8. 8. • Strategic Goal A: Address underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society • Strategic Goal B: Reduce direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use • Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity • Strategic Goal D: Enhance benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services • Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building 8 Convention on Biological Diversity and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: 5 Goals, 20 Targets
  9. 9. 9 Examples of Aichi Biodiversity Targets 3. By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied… 20. By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, … should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties. 11. By 2020, at least 17 % of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 % of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area- based conservation measures… 5. By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced
  10. 10. Regulatory (command and control) approaches Economic instruments Information and voluntary approaches Restrictions or prohibitions on use (e.g. CITES) Price-based instruments - taxes, charges/fees, subsidies Eco-labelling & certification Access restrictions or prohibitions (e.g. protected areas) Reform of environmentally harmful subsidies Green public procurement Permits & quotas (e.g. logging/fishing) Payments for Ecosystem Services Voluntary approaches (negotiated agreements) Quality, quantity, and design standards Biodiversity offsets/biobanking Corporate environmental accounting Spatial planning (land use and marine) Tradable permits (fishing) Liability instruments Policy instruments for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use Source: OECD (2013), Scaling-up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity
  11. 11. • Policy Instruments for the Environment database – including on biodiversity (e.g. taxes, charges, fees; tradable permits; and more) • Government support to agriculture (PSE/CSE database) • Government support to fisheries • Biodiversity related development finance via the DAC Rio markers (CRS database) (Some of the) Things we collect information on…which help to track trends
  12. 12. Revenues from environmentally related taxes in % GDP and % total tax revenue, 2014 USD 2.04 billion per year = revenue from biodiversity-relevant taxes in OECD countries (only 0.5% of the total revenue from environmentally relevant taxes)
  13. 13. Agricultural support Source: OECD Secretariat calculations based on OECD PSE/CSE database, 2016. See OECD (2013) Policy Instruments to Support Green Growth in Agriculture. OECD agricultural support to farmers by potential environmental impact 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 USD mn Most harmful Least harmful Other Potentially most environmentally harmful
  14. 14. Most fisheries support is for general services, mainly management Transfers to Individual Fishers USD 618 million General Services, USD 2 953 million Cost Recovery USD -166 mn ReportedFSE USD3405million *19 countries reporting, excludes fuel tax concessions (2012 data)
  15. 15. Bilateral biodiversity-related Official Development Assistance (ODA) Two-year averages and shares of total bilateral ODA Source: OECD DAC CRS statistics, updated November 2016. Data for 2015 is provisional 2.3 1.6 2.8 2.0 4.0 1.3 2.3 3.5 4.0 4.7 3% 3% 5% 5% 6% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2006-2007 2008-2009 2010-2011 2012-2013 2014-2015 USDbillion,commitments,constant2014prices Significant Principal Biodiversity as % of total bilateral ODA
  16. 16. • Yes, but slowly • In some countries more than others • Need more ambitious policies - and more cost-effective policies Are we moving towards mainstreaming?
  17. 17. • Read more: Join the discussion: #MainstreamBiodiversity Thank you!