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SUSTAINABLE FINANCE
FOR MARINE
PROTECTED AREAS
Katia Karousakis
Biodiversity Team Leader
OECD Environment Directorate
IDDR...
Overview
• Current and projected pressures on
marine ecosystems
• The role of Marine Protected Areas
• Sustainable financi...
Pressures on marine ecosystem
services and biodiversity
• Over-fishing
• Pollution
• Habitat degradation
• Climate change
...
The future of the Ocean Economy…
Total ocean industry value-added expected to double by 2030
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700...
Policy instruments for marine biodiversity
conservation and sustainable use
Regulatory (command-and-
control) instruments
...
Financing of marine protected areas
Financing
Domestic govt
budget
Often the main source of finance in many developed coun...
EU payments to Mauritania and Guinea Bissau for
MPAs under the Fisheries Partnership Agreement
• In Mauritania and Guinea ...
Key messages for more effective MPAs
(with focus on finance elements)
• Need to scale up finance but also need to make
exi...
Thank you!
OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems:
Biodiversity Indicators, Valuation and Assessment
Economic Instrume...
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OECD presentation - Katia Karousakis - Sustainable finance of marine protected areas

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Presentation by Katia Karousakis, OECD expert, on Sustainable finance of marine protected areas, at the IDDRI side-event, at CBD COP13, in Cancun, Mexico.

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OECD presentation - Katia Karousakis - Sustainable finance of marine protected areas

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE FINANCE FOR MARINE PROTECTED AREAS Katia Karousakis Biodiversity Team Leader OECD Environment Directorate IDDRI GIZ, IUCN-France side-event on Innovative financial mechanisms for biodiversity Wednesday 14 December 2016 CBD COP13
  2. 2. Overview • Current and projected pressures on marine ecosystems • The role of Marine Protected Areas • Sustainable financing of MPAs
  3. 3. Pressures on marine ecosystem services and biodiversity • Over-fishing • Pollution • Habitat degradation • Climate change • Invasive alien species
  4. 4. The future of the Ocean Economy… Total ocean industry value-added expected to double by 2030 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 USD billion Overview of industry-specific value-added in 2010 and 2030 2010 2030 Source: OECD (2016) The Ocean Economy to 2030
  5. 5. Policy instruments for marine biodiversity conservation and sustainable use Regulatory (command-and- control) instruments Economic instruments Information and voluntary approaches Marine protected areas Taxes, charges, user fees (e.g. entrance fees to marine parks) Certification, eco-labelling (e.g. MSC) Marine spatial planning Individually Transferable Quotas for fishing Negotiated voluntary agreements, such as public-private partnerships Spatial and temporal fishing closures; limits on number and size of vessels (input controls); other restrictions or prohibitions on use (e.g. CITES) Reform of harmful subsidies - and use of subsidies to promote marine conservation and sustainable use Catch limits or quotas (output controls) Payments for Ecosystem Services Standards (e.g. MARPOL for ships); bans (e.g. dynamite fishing) Marine biodiversity offsets Licenses e.g. aquaculture and offshore windfarms Non-compliance penalties Planning requirements e.g. EIA and SEA Fines on damages
  6. 6. Financing of marine protected areas Financing Domestic govt budget Often the main source of finance in many developed countries External devt finance Often a substantial source of finance in many developing countries Trust funds Several trust funds have been established e.g., Belize, Mexico and Mauritania User fees (e.g., entrance fees) Often a substantial source of MPA finance in a number of MPAs. Entrance fees used in Australia, Mexico, Belize, Thailand and the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador Taxes and fines France (1995 Barnier Act). Tax on maritime passenger ships protected areas – with earmarked revenue Subsidies MPAs can enhance fisheries by protecting nursing grounds PES A few examples in marine context – e.g., sea turtles in Tanzania, grey whale habitat protection Mexico Source: OECD (2017) Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes.
  7. 7. EU payments to Mauritania and Guinea Bissau for MPAs under the Fisheries Partnership Agreement • In Mauritania and Guinea Bissau, conservation trust funds (CTFs) created to provide sustainable financing to MPAs, including from the EU through Fisheries Partnership Agreements • Lobbying efforts by environmental NGOs to link the economic benefits to fisheries of well-functioning ecosystem services helped mobilise finance for conservation trust funds for MPAs Source: OECD (forthcoming 2017), Overcoming Barriers to Effective Biodiversity Policy Reform. OECD Publishing, Paris. [Policy Highlights available] • Challenge: In the case of Mauritania, wavering political support threatens long-term stability of the CTF. Early momentum to establish financing arrangements has dissipated due to competition for scarce financial resources and shifting government priorities
  8. 8. Key messages for more effective MPAs (with focus on finance elements) • Need to scale up finance but also need to make existing finance more cost-effective  Better understanding of costs and benefits  Effective siting of MPAs to address pressures MPA management plans to include MPA financing strategy  More robust monitoring and reporting (including on finance)  Enhanced compliance and enforcement Source: OECD (forthcoming, 2017) Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes.
  9. 9. Thank you! OECD work on biodiversity and ecosystems: Biodiversity Indicators, Valuation and Assessment Economic Instruments, Incentives and Policies for Biodiversity Biodiversity Finance, Development and Distributional Issues Other relevant OECD reports: • Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes (OECD, forthcoming 2017) [Policy Highlights available] • Overcoming Barriers to Effective Biodiversity Policy Reform (OECD, forthcoming 2017) • The Ocean Economy in 2030 (OECD, 2016) • Green Growth in Fisheries and Aquaculture (OECD, 2015) • Biodiversity Policy Response Indicators (OECD ENV WP No. 90, 2015) • Scaling Up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity (OECD, 2013) Visit: www.oecd.org/env/biodiversity http://www.oecd.org/environment/resources/mainstream-biodiversity/

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