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Module 1: Agriculture in the UNFCCC process and NDCs

The document provides background on the UNFCCC and key climate agreements and processes related to agriculture and nationally determined contributions (NDCs). It discusses the establishment of the UNFCCC and IPCC in the 1980s-1990s, the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, and the Paris Agreement in 2015. It outlines requirements for NDCs and highlights that agriculture is reflected in many initial NDCs submitted, with priorities including adaptation and mitigation measures in the sector. The document emphasizes that agriculture is important for climate adaptation, mitigation and food security, and that support is needed for NDC implementation.

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Module 1:
Agriculture in the UNFCCC process and the
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)
Organized by
With support from
Learning Objectives
Be familiar with the basic background of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto
Protocol and the Paris Agreement
Understand the UNFCCC relation to creation of national climate
change policies
Gain insight into how other policies/strategies relate to mainstreaming
climate change concerns into national planning and budgeting
Understand the NDC formulation process
Be familiar with the NDC reporting requirements
1988
Establishment of IPCC
1992
Adoption of UNFCCC
at the UNCED in Rio
1995
First Conference
of Parties (COP1)
1997
Adoption of
Kyoto Protocol
2009
No agreement reached
for after Kyoto
2015
Adoption of
Paris Agreement
2020
Updating of NDCs and
communication of LTS
UNFCCC Background
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
• Established in 1988 to provide a scientific view on
climate change and its potential impacts
• Latest report is AR5 (Fifth Assessment Report)
• AR6 under preparation for release in 2021-2022
• In 2018, Special Report on Global Warming of
1.5°C released
• In 2019:
• Special Report on Land and Climate Change
• Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere
in a changing climate
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992
• Adopted in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
• Objective: “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level
that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system …
ensure that food production is not threatened…”
• Adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and came into force in 2005
• Objective: “reduce the emission of gases that contribute to global warming in 41
countries and the European Union to 5.2 percent below 1990 levels during the first
commitment period 2008–12.”
• Target GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O),
perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
• Flexible mechanisms: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI)
and Emissions Trading (ET).
• Doha Amendments to KP - second commitment period 2012-20 reduce their GHG
emissions by at least 18% by 2020 below 1990 levels” was adopted in 2012 in Doha,
Qatar. Not in force as not ratified by requisite 144 countries.
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention On Climate
Change, 1997

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Module 1: Agriculture in the UNFCCC process and NDCs

  • 1. Module 1: Agriculture in the UNFCCC process and the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) Organized by With support from
  • 2. Learning Objectives Be familiar with the basic background of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement Understand the UNFCCC relation to creation of national climate change policies Gain insight into how other policies/strategies relate to mainstreaming climate change concerns into national planning and budgeting Understand the NDC formulation process Be familiar with the NDC reporting requirements
  • 3. 1988 Establishment of IPCC 1992 Adoption of UNFCCC at the UNCED in Rio 1995 First Conference of Parties (COP1) 1997 Adoption of Kyoto Protocol 2009 No agreement reached for after Kyoto 2015 Adoption of Paris Agreement 2020 Updating of NDCs and communication of LTS UNFCCC Background
  • 4. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) • Established in 1988 to provide a scientific view on climate change and its potential impacts • Latest report is AR5 (Fifth Assessment Report) • AR6 under preparation for release in 2021-2022 • In 2018, Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C released • In 2019: • Special Report on Land and Climate Change • Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a changing climate
  • 5. UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992 • Adopted in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. • Objective: “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system … ensure that food production is not threatened…”
  • 6. • Adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and came into force in 2005 • Objective: “reduce the emission of gases that contribute to global warming in 41 countries and the European Union to 5.2 percent below 1990 levels during the first commitment period 2008–12.” • Target GHGs: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). • Flexible mechanisms: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and Emissions Trading (ET). • Doha Amendments to KP - second commitment period 2012-20 reduce their GHG emissions by at least 18% by 2020 below 1990 levels” was adopted in 2012 in Doha, Qatar. Not in force as not ratified by requisite 144 countries. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change, 1997
  • 7. Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 2015 • Adopted: in 2015 in Paris, France • Objective: Collective global response that “limit temperature increase to well below 2oC above pre-industrial levels and work towards limiting temperature to 1.5°C”; enhance adaptation and climate resilience; and make climate finance flows aligned to low emission, climate resilient development pathway. • All Countries submit long term strategy (LTS) by 2020; Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) every five years; and global stocktake (GST) in 2023 and every five years thereafter. • Developed countries to mobilize $100 billion per year till 2025 to support developing countries.
  • 8. • Advises COP/CMA on science and technology (assessments, methodologies, R&D etc) • Meets twice per year (May/June) and (November/December) • In 2011 requested by the COP to consider: “issues relating to agriculture” • In 2017, requested by the COP to jointly work with SBSTA on Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA) Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
  • 9. • Advises COP/CMA on implementation (assessment and review of implementation) • Assists in the preparation and implementation of COP and CMA decisions • Reports regularly to the COP/CMA on all its work • Works with SBSTA on cross-cutting issues • In 2017, requested by the COP to jointly work with SBSTA on Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA) Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI)
  • 10. • GHG inventory requirements: by developed countries in annual GHG inventory submissions. by developing countries in national communications. • GHG inventory is critical to inform the NDCs. National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
  • 11. But where is agriculture in all of this? Photo credit: World Bank
  • 12. History of SBSTA and Agriculture 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Requested to consider agriculture 53 submissions with views on agriculture Workshop on agricultural adaptation Call for submissions and workshops Workshops on early warning systems and risk Workshops on adaptation and productivity Decision on agriculture adopted (Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture)
  • 13. • Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture (KJWA) brings together SBSTA (science) and SBI (implementation) and to be realized through submissions and workshops • KJWA topics: Modalities for Implementation of the outcomes of past workshops and KJWA topics Methods to assess adaptation, co-benefits and resilience Improved soil carbon and fertility Improved nutrient management Improved livestock systems Socioeconomic and food security dimensions Sustainable land and water management to ensure food security Strategies and Modalities for Scaling Up Implementation of Best Practices • KJWA to report progress at COP26 (2021). UNFCCC Decision on Agriculture (decision 4/CP.23), 2017
  • 14. • Established in 2010 as part of Cancun Adaptation Framework to facilitate developing countries to: identify medium– and long–term adaptation needs, informed by the latest climate science develop and implement adaptation actions • Climate finance or support from, e.g.: Global Environment Facility (GEF) Green Climate Fund (GCF) Adaptation Fund (AF) NAP Global Support Programme • Agriculture central in many NAPs National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) (PA, Art. 7.9)
  • 15. • Agreed at COP 18 in Doha for developing countries to contribute to GHG emission reduction • NAMA registry online: depository of NAMAs seeking international support facilitate the matching of finance, technology and capacity building for support • Agricultural NAMAs can be a pathway for green growth/low emissions dev. • NAMAs can be building blocks for implementation of NDCs. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) ILRI/PaulKaraimu
  • 16. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) (PA, Art.4)/1 • The Paris Agreement requires all Parties to put forward their best efforts to contribute to global response to climate change through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) • Formulation is a bottom-up process in which countries contextualise and self- differentiate their targets and contributions based on their national circumstances and priorities • Successive NDCs to be more ambitious than the previous one (no back sliding) • All countries strive to move towards economy-wide emission reduction hence link with the long term strategy (LTS) • NDCs public registry maintained by the secretariat
  • 17. • NDCs allow for: Scrutiny of actions Global evaluation of targets and progress Adjustment of existing NDC in course of its life to raise ambition • Part of the NDCs can be conditional on: Provision of means of implementation (finance, technology transfer and capacity building); International flexibility mechanisms (Cooperative Approaches, Article 6 Mechanism and Non Market Approaches) • Agriculture is reflected in many submitted NDCs Nationally Determined Contributions/2
  • 18. Key characteristics of NDCs Ambitious Transparent Equitable Reduction
  • 19. • NDCs will be reviewed every 5 years during the Global Stocktake (GST) NDCs and Global Stocktake
  • 20. 2020 NDC tracker (as of July 2020) https://www.climatewatchdata.org/2020-ndc-tracker
  • 21. Agriculture in the first submitted NDCs
  • 22. Agriculture in first submitted NDCs - adaptation priorities
  • 23. Agriculture in the first submitted NDCs - mitigation targets
  • 24. • NDCs underline countries’ priorities on agricultural adaptation and mitigation. • Vast majority of countries recognize the significant role of agriculture in supporting a secure sustainable development pathway, food security and poverty reduction. • Developed countries focus primarily on mitigation, and developing countries on adaptation with some including synergies between adaptation and mitigation. • Social inclusion and human rights are not receiving high levels of attention in climate change policy either at national or global levels. Highlights of agriculture in submitted NDCs
  • 25. Countries can decide the methods used for setting NDC targets. Some differences between developed countries and developing countries: Developed countries Historical data as a baseline Often detailed by type of GHGs Developing countries Lack of historical data Projected BAU emissions NDC targets and ambitions
  • 26. NDC targets and ambitions: Quantification of mitigation targets
  • 27. Prevalence is on BAU and policy & action targets. NDC targets and ambitions: Types of targets
  • 28. NDC targets and ambitions: Types of targets
  • 29. Type of target Business as usual Costs of mitigation/ investment needs No (partial) costs mentioned Mitigation focus areas: agriculture Considered Considered: climate- smart agriculture Considered: sustainable agriculture management Mitigation focus areas: land use and forestry Focus area: afforestation, sustainable management of forests Considered: afforestation Considered Reducing non-CO2 gases Considered (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6) Considered (CH4, N2O) Considered (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6) Colombia Kenya Vietnam Target Reduction of 20% of GHG emissions relative to projected BAU scenario by 2030 Reduction of 30% GHG emissions by 2030 relative to the BAU scenario Reduction of 8% of GHG emissions by 2030 relative to BAU scenario NDC targets and ambitions: Some examples
  • 30. Mitigation targets every 5 years increasing the ambition level Low emissions development strategies Mandatory Voluntary All parties Mitigation • Financial technological and capacity strengthening support (quantitative and qualitative) • Projected levels of public funding • Received support • Progress on training plans, policies, actions and measures to implement the agreement. Mandatory Voluntary Support Developed countries Other countries Voluntary Developing countries Reporting on adaptation is optional The Enhanced Transparency Framework (PA, Art. 13)
  • 31. Paris agreement provides a framework for a collective global response to reduce climate change impacts, however climate action happens at the national, subnational and local levels. Agriculture is key for both adaptation and mitigation of climate change and food security in which means of implementation (finance, technology transfer and capacity building) is required. Research and technical support is crucial for formulation and implementation of NDCs and to establish a robust M&E and MRV frameworks in which capacity building is essential. Key messages
  • 32. The evolving role of agriculture in climate change negotiations: Progress and players Webinar: Synthesis report on the aggregate effect of INDCs NDC Explorer Click on the image to access the document or video Further resources