Swedish International Biodiversity Programme (SwedBio)


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On Thursday November 4th, 2010 SIANI convened a public seminar to discuss the complex issue of climate change and the linkage between the process behind the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) and the preparations for the next round of UNFCCC negotiations on climate change impact in Cancun.

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Swedish International Biodiversity Programme (SwedBio)

  1. 1. Swedish International BiodiversityProgramme (SwedBio)Maria SchultzObjective: Contribute to poverty alleviation,sustainable livelihoods, equity and human wellbeingthrough development towards resilient ecosystemsand societies, especially taking into account theneed for adaptation and mitigation to ecosystemschange such as climate change
  2. 2. CulturalNon-materialbenefits obtainedfrom ecosystemsProvisioningGoods producedor provided byecosystemsRegulatingBenefits obtainedfrom control ofnatural processesby ecosystemsEcosystem services
  3. 3. Biodiversity is crucial for food security
  4. 4. 1900 1950 2000CO2, N2O, CH4concentrationsOverfishingLand degradationLoss of BiodiversityWater DepletionUnsustainableconsumption…..Planetary Response to global change
  5. 5. “Highlighting the role ofecosystems in adaptation suggestsa number of possible win-winoptions. These are related toincreasing the flow of ecosystemsservices and helpingdisadvantaged groups deal withfuture impacts of climate change.These strategies can lead to riskreduction and can also contributeto attempts to promote a transitionto sustainable poverty alleviation inrural communities.”Closing the Gaps p.17; Commission onClimate Change and Development2009Investing in restoration andmaintenance of the Earth’s multi-trillion dollar ecosystems - fromforests and mangroves to wetlandsand river basins - can have a keyrole in countering climate changeand climate-proofing vulnerableeconomies.Climate issues update TEEB, 2009Synergies – climate – biodiversity - developmentCLIMATE CHANGE(UNFCCC and IPCC)ECOSYSTEM SERVICESand Biodiversity(CBD and IPBES)DEVELOPMENT(UN MDGs)Resilience!
  6. 6. • Ecosystem carbonmanagemnet can be acost-effective approach -not only reduce carbonemissions but also removeCO2 from atmosphere, exreducing deforestation,restoration and protectionof peatlands and climatesmart agriculture.• Crucial that voice of ruralpoor and indigenouspeople are respected, e.grelated to tenure issues.
  7. 7. Example Agriculture• Maintaining diversity of local varieties, crops andagricultural systems contributes to risk distribution,decreased vulnerability, and increases the ability of theagricultural system to adapt. Agroforestry goodexample. Biomass store carbon. Increased levels oforganic matter in soil contribute to increased carbonsequestration.
  8. 8. UNDPMeaningful Access toInformation andParticipationRepresentation ofLocal Needs andPrioritiesResource Rights/Land TenureGovernance is Key……in determining the benefits for poor people
  9. 9. CBD financial commitments• “The developed country Parties shall provide new and additional financialresources to enable developing country Parties to meet the agreed fullincremental costs to them of implementing measures which fulfil theobligations of this Convention…” Article 20 CBD• “There shall be a mechanism for the provision of financial resources todeveloping country Parties for purposes of this Convention …” Thecontributions shall be such as to take into account the need forpredictability, adequacy and timely flow of funds …” Article 21 CBD
  10. 10. COP 10 CBD Nagoya outcomePackage deal:• ABS protocol - the Nagoya Protocol on Access to GeneticResources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of BenefitsArising from their Utilization, which, after seven years ofnegotiations, sets out rules and procedures forimplementing the Convention’s third objective• Strategic Plan - with 20 goals for the period 2011- 2020,including a mission, and strategic goals and targets aimingto inspire broad-based action by parties and stakeholders• The Strategy for Resource Mobilization - a decision onactivities and indicators for the implementation of theStrategy for Resource Mobilization adopted at COP 9, anda process for setting targets at COP 11 year 2012
  11. 11. Work programme on Climate Change:1. For climate change adaptation and mitigation important to addressbiodiversity and for halting loss of biodiversity need to address climatechange2. Ecosystem based approaches gives ecological, social, cultural andeconomic benefits for climate change mitigation and adaptation3. A decision amounting to a de facto moratorium on geo-engineering4. Synergies and cooperation among Rio conventions:• A joint preparatory meeting between the three Rio conventions prior toRio+20 and possibly a joint high level session• Joint activities through the Joint Liaison Group on climate change,biodiversity, land degradation and ecosystem based approaches toclimate change mitigation and adaptation;• Affirmed the role of CBD in reducing emissions from deforestation andforest degradation in developing countries, and forest conservation,sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbonstocks (REDD+)• Safeguards: 9 (h) … for approval by the COP11, … relevant safeguardsfor biodiversity, without pre-empting any future decisions taken under theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change…,
  12. 12. Financial mechanism - Nagoya• Review of guidance to GEF: List of priorities, and an outcomeoriented framework, taking into account the strategic plan• Assessment of amounts needed in sixth replenishment: Termsof Reference for an assessment of the amount of funds thatare necessary to assist developing country parties in fulfillingtheir commitments under the Convention for the sixth GEFreplenishment• The Fourth Review of effectiveness of GEF: decision on a ToRincluding objectives, methodology, criteria and procedures forimplementation, including that the effectiveness is assessedagainst guidance from COP; and the number of developingcountry parties that receive timely, adequate and predictablefunds to meet the agreed full incremental cost to them ofimplementing measures that fulfill the CBD obligations.• Additional guidance … climate change:- Improve synergies between Rio conventions- Evaluate and reduce negative impacts of adaptation andmitigation activities, i a safeguards in place
  13. 13. CBD guidelines of help to climate work …• Ecosystem Approach• Akwé con guidelines• Addis Ababa Guidelines on Sustainableuse• etc…CBD publicationsNo 41 Connecting biodiversity and climatechange mitigation and adaptionNo 42 Review of the literature on the linksbetween biodiversity and climate changeNo 43 Forest resilience, biodiversity andclimate change.
  14. 14. REDD: Reducing Emissionsfrom Deforestation andDegradation in developingcountriesPolicy and incentives for reducingemissions from deforestation andforest degradation, and the role ofconservation, sustainablemanagement of forests andenhancement of forest carbonstocksThe Safeguards are (negotiation text at the moment under UNFCCC):• Transparent and effective national forest governance structures,• Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of localcommunities,• Full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders and local communitiesincluding, in particular, indigenous peoples• Actions that are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biologicaldiversity, ensuring that actions are not used for the conversion of natural forests intoplantations, but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of naturalforests and their ecosystem services, and to enhance other social and environmentalbenefits.
  15. 15. Conclusions and recommendations• Biodiversity functions as insurance, contributes both to adaptation andmitigation to climate change. By maintaining ecosystem services will we beable to adapt to coming global changes. Need to be addressed better inUNFCCC.• Synergies between the Rio conventions need to be enhanced, and IPBESand IPCC synergies need to be explored. Prevent Conventions egoism,which is not resource effective – synergies country level planning andreporting, synergies between NAPAs, NAMAs, NBSAPs, PRSPs etc. Have touse the most appropriate implementing agencies.• Financial contributions for climate and biodiversity are one part of thesolutions. Questions how to avoid double counting, e.g. statistics Riomarkers, country level want to secure funding for both biodiversity andclimate.• Reorienting harmful subsidies into biodiversity and climate smartdevelopment. Policy options for e.g. avoided deforestation can includeeliminating perverse subsidies by changing input subsidies, land titlingsystems, forest governance arrangements and taxation regimes and usinggreen incentives for a biodiversity and climate smart development. Searchfor win – win solutions.• Innovative financial mechanisms – Tobin tax etc same sources to someextent, synergies needed also here. Regarding both possibilities and risks,and development of appropriate safeguards.• Questions for Rio + 20?
  16. 16. Thank you!SwedBioContributing to resilience!www.swedbio.org