Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

PEB OECD conference auckland august 2008(smaller size)


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

PEB OECD conference auckland august 2008(smaller size)

  1. 1. Exploring Implications of Adolescents Identity Formation Theory for School Design Neda Abbasi PhD Candidate, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning University of Melbourne, Australia Under supervision of Dr. Greg Missingham Associate Professor Kenn Fisher
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Identity Formation as the core developmental task of adolescence determines much of individuals’ social and personal well-being . </li></ul><ul><li>School Environment is an influential context for the formation of students’ identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical spaces within which schooling take places have significant impacts on different dimensions of students’ and teachers’ lives . </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to study the ways that school physical spaces might influence students’ psychological development and well-being . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Main Research Question <ul><li>What might be the implications of adolescents identity formation for design of school spaces? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What adolescents identity formation is … <ul><li>Different terms used for describing it...‘self’, ‘ego’, ‘identity’, ‘I’ and ‘me’ </li></ul><ul><li>A subjective feeling of self-sameness and continuity over time, in different places and social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Being shaped by confluence of three elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s biological characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His/Her psychological needs, interests and defences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social and cultural context within which he/she resides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Essentiality of experience of ‘Psychosocial Moratorium’ in identity formation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why Identity Formation Matters… <ul><li>A linkage between person’s past, present and future -> sense of continuity and consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Support for ‘Socialisation’ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Individuality’ or ‘Self’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Collectivity’ or ‘Others’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfying both Needs </li></ul>Human social & personal well-being
  6. 6. Why Identity formation Matters at School… <ul><li>A main purpose of schooling as developing the whole individual </li></ul><ul><li>The role that questions of identity has in much of students’ successes and failures-academically, socially and personally- in school </li></ul><ul><li>Significant portion of adolescents’ time spent in middle and high schools </li></ul>
  7. 7. How to explore implications of identity formation for school design <ul><li>Studying factors that determine an optimal identity achievement by the passage through adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Defining objectives for a school responsive to adolescents’ identity formation experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring the implications of those objectives for school design </li></ul>
  8. 8. In search of objectives for a school environment responsive to identity formation… Literature Review in Developmental & Educational Psychology Adolescents Identity Formation Schooling for identity development Objectives for a school responsive to adolescents’ identity formation experiences
  9. 9. Objective 1. <ul><li>Providing for both Individuation & Social Integration </li></ul>
  10. 10. Objective 2. <ul><li>Creating Possibilities for Developmental Exploration </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>What might be the implications of the two objectives for a school to be responsive to adolescents identity formation for school design? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>How might school design provide for and support both individuation and social integration ? </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Personalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Social spaces </li></ul><ul><li>School/Classroom size </li></ul>
  13. 13. Maintaining Privacy Needs <ul><li>Defined as having control over & choice of being alone or integrating with people (Altman 1975, Proshanskey et al 1970) </li></ul><ul><li>A factor in children’s growth & development (Proshansky & Wolf 1974,Proshansky & Fabian 1987), Particularly important in design of built-environments for adolescents (Ittelson1974) </li></ul><ul><li>An interior design feature that can be achieved through the arrangement and design of furniture (Tanner 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Spaces to which students feel ownership </li></ul>
  14. 14. Indoor nooks with soft seating for independent study, learning with ICTs & group meetings Canning Vale High School , Perth Scotch Oakburn College , Launceston Space that provides opportunity for independent study, retreat or reflection ASMS, Adelaide
  15. 15. Personalization of Spaces <ul><li>‘ The ability to put one’s individual imprint on one’ surrounding’ ( Sommer 1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Personalisation can be encouraged by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home base or individual workstation (Fisher 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display of students’ works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of spaces to connect school experiences to that of home and wider community -> Homelike surrounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Crumpacker, 1995; Tanner & Lackney,2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places which bear special meanings (Sanoff 1994) & Favourite places (Sommer 1990; Korpela and Hartig 1996; Korpela, Hartig et al. 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. A Courtyard, one of the popular and meaningful places among adolescent students in Reece Community High School , Devonport Students’ homebases can be organized in various configuration to meet students’ social and study group needs ASMS , Adelaide
  17. 17. Encouraging Cooperative learning <ul><li>Positive influences on factors such as quality of interpersonal relationships, social perspective taking, students’ attitude toward classmates & feeling of being liked (Slavin1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Support identity formation due to the component of social interactions & exploration in real life experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive Design features (Wolff 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning group size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional spaces for learning activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnishings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological and physiological support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural aspects </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Social spaces <ul><li>Social spaces serve as formal and informal gathering as well as informal and social learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture & Arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentialities of circulation spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. Moore & Lackney1995; Perkins1957; Tanner & Lackney2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central hub or ‘A point of reference’ for school (Tanner 2000) </li></ul>Outdoor spaces for formal & informal gathering…Café style dining space encourages social interaction, Mindarie Senior college, Perth
  19. 19. A ‘point of reference’ for learning activities, social interaction & community activities Central common, ASMS (Australian Science and Math School), Adelaide A place where students and staff social interaction outside of formal learning times is supported Senior school quadrangle, Carey Baptist Grammar School , Melbourne
  20. 20. Smaller Schools/Classrooms <ul><li>Schools-within-a school: Subdividing a large school into smaller schools each with its own identity </li></ul><ul><li>(Brubaker et al. 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Using the benefits of small schools where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive influence on students’ social experiences (personalisation, participation, responsibility & competence) and adolescent development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. Barker & Gump 1964; Garbino 1980) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in social interactions (Wasley et. al. 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger & closer relationships among students & teachers (Sanoff 1994) and hence likeliness of fostering sense of community </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Two small learning communities that share common areas like multi purpose project work studio Canning Vale High School , Perth Learning Community/neighbourhood Learning Community/neighbourhood Shared Facilities Learning street Site Plan of Canning Vale College , Perth
  22. 22. <ul><li>How might school design increase and enhance possibilities for developmental exploration ? </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Participation & Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Community Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating ICTs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Diversity <ul><li>A variety of learning settings( spaces to accommodate different group learning sizes as well as individual study) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A main instructional area with various adjoining spaces inside and outside it (Tanner & Lackney 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A partially open space with adjacent smaller enclosed spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Taylor & Vlastos 1983; Sanoff & Sanoff 1988) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Potentialities of outdoor spaces (DfES 2002, 2006) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Can be achieved by means of spatial elements like moveable walls on track </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates various configuration of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodates various learning modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Offer adolescent students ‘freedom of choice’ in dealing with spaces </li></ul>Canning Vale High School, Perth Spaces that accommodate a variety of activities & different size collaborative work Williamstown High School, Melbourne
  25. 25. Opportunities for adolescents’ participation & involvement <ul><li>Using students’ creativity in design phase help developing a sense of ownership & identity within the school community (OECD2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Design that offer users possibilities for manipulating & modifying physical spaces based on their changing needs -> Freedom of choice & Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>(Proshanky, Ittelson et al. 1970; Ittelson 1974) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Developing Community Connection <ul><li>Opportunities of ‘Community connection’ helps students to develop strong bonds with their community while enriching and broadening their learning experiences by participating in activities within it (Nair & Fielding 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Special explorational potentialities in multicultural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for design of school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of school site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of spaces shared with community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping of school spaces </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into schools <ul><li>Integration rather than mere adding of technologies </li></ul><ul><li>(American Architectural Foundation 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>If introduced improperly, technologies can lead to isolation of students (Jamieson, Fisher et al. 2000) as well as limiting activities and learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Design with possible negative effects of technologies in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of school spaces that can support integration of ICTs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural elements and furniture </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Design of furniture facilitates integration of Technology into schools without isolating adolescent students or hindering collaborative activities ASMS (Australian Science and Math School)
  29. 29. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>