1. Individuality: The unique features, abilities and talents
that differentiates each individual.
2. Personality: This is the some total of an individual’s
characters, attitudes (feelings), believes, expressions
3. Adolescents: These are individuals or persons who fall
under ages 9-19. Therefore, for the purpose of this talk,
teenagers will also be referred to as adolescents .
Self esteem can be defined as an individual’s overall
evaluation of him/herself, including feelings of general
happiness and satisfaction (Harter, 1999). Self esteem
encompasses beliefs, perceptions, and emotions (feelings).
Therefore, self esteem can be said to be the amount of
value/ worth one places on him/her self based on his/her
beliefs, perceptions, and emotions.
Self esteem involves liking, accepting and believing in
one’s individuality (uniqueness), abilities, talents,
strengths and weaknesses.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS
WITH HIGH SELF ESTEEM
They tend to act independently.
They are always ready to assume responsibility.
They always take pride in their accomplishments.
They are willing to attempt new tasks and
They can handle positive and negative emotions.
They are always willing to help others.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS
WITH LOW SELF ESTEEM
They tend to avoid new experiences.
They tend to feel unwanted and unloved.
They usually blame others for their shortcomings i.e. their
They tend to feel or pretend to feel, emotionally
indifferent to the activities happening around them.
They cant handle normal levels of frustration.
They tend to under value themselves by looking down on
their talents and abilities.
They are easily influenced.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF
HIGH SELF ESTEEM IN
TRANSITION FROM PRIMARY
SCHOOL TO SECONDARY SCHOOL
Adolescents find themselves moving from being the
oldest, most popular and most intelligent student to
being the youngest, unknown and average student when
they start secondary school, move to a new school and
when they move from junior secondary school to senior
secondary school, i.e. from JSS3-SS1.
ADVICE: Keep working to get better, study people who
are doing better than you, find out what they do
differently from you and try it. Never be ashamed or
afraid to ask for help, jealousy is a killer of happiness.
Those who are doing very well should be willing to help
HORMONES AND PUBERTY
Puberty: This is the period of increased physical, biological
and mental growth and development. Individuals, begin
puberty at different ages, they are; the early age/bloomers (9-
11yrs), the expected age/bloomers (11-13yrs), and the
delayed/late age/bloomers (13-15yrs).
Hormones: These are chemical substances released by the
body to facilitate the development and growth of various
organs. During puberty, two hormones are released,
Testosterone (males, produced in the testes) and Oestrogen
(female, produced in the ovaries) which are responsible for the
development and growth of secondary sexual characters.
HORMONES AND PUBERTY
Hormonal levels in each individual differs based on
nature, eating patterns, nutrition, physical fitness, etc and
these levels play a large role in our abilities to control our
emotions, our actions and behaviours.
During puberty, there is an imbalance in the hormonal
levels of adolescents which mostly leaves them sad,
depressed, moody and crappy leading to a fluctuation in
their personality which leads to low levels of esteem.
Females are more affected by this than males especially
during their menstrual period which is why they are
usually, irritated ,sad, angry and moody.
You are fearfully and wonderfully made irrespective of
what you, others and the media says, thinks or feels about
your height, size, weight, complexion and facial features.
Puberty begins the process of growth, it’s not the whole
process or the end point.
Yes, you may be dissatisfied with your body but, your
body is the only thing you own exclusively and how you
treat it determines how others will treat it also. So, if
exercising more, eating less, eating more is what it would
take, then do them because your satisfaction with your
appearance plays a large role in increasing your esteem.
FAMILY AND SOCIAL
Adolescence is a tricky stage for all individuals because
any slight insult, joke or attitude makes them feel unloved
and unwelcome. Puberty is a time whereby everyone
wants to be accepted both at home and among his/her
peers once this feeling is not returned, doubt of abilities
and isolation sets in.
ADVICE: Find a meaningful club and group of friends to
belong to, the club’s values must match at least, three of
yours. Avoid being friends with individuals who are
bullies, malicious and not academically inclined.
LACK OF ACADEMIC AND/OR
When the academic and/or athletic performance of an
adolescent falls below his/her expectation and that of
his/her parent’s expectation, dissatisfaction sets in,
leading to doubting of talents and abilities and hence,
low self esteem.
ADVICE: If you find yourself in this situation, get help
from teachers through lessons and from your class
mates who are doing better and from seniors who are
good in that subject or sport. A problem shared, is half
solved. Nothing good comes from being lazy, hard
work is the key to success.
LACK OF SOCIAL IDENTITY
Puberty is a time whereby individuals are expected to
define themselves based on their abilities and talents.
Problems arise when an individual goes through puberty
confused about what his/her talents and abilities are and
how to use them.
The trick to identity formation is to be willing to try out
new experiences in other to determine what you excel in,
enjoy, dislike, like, are willing to continue, stop, the type
of friends that make you better academically and as an
WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR
Find out things you enjoy doing and do them.
Never compare yourself with others, the only time you are
allowed to do so is with your last performance.
Comparism is a killer of joy.
Learn to do things for yourself mostly because it makes
you happy and not because it would make others notice or
Help others, nothing beats the joy helping brings.
Always give yourself a treat and plan your time well.
Accept your strengths and weaknesses and understand that
they are there to compliment each other, hence, you.
YOU MUST ALWAYS BELIEVE IN YOURSELF AT ALL
TIMES, AND IN YOUR ABILITIES.
FAILURE SIMPLY MEANS THAT YOU ARE ON THE
RIGHT PATH BUT MISSED SOME STEPS ALONG
THE WAY. FAILURE, IS PART OF THE PROCESS
THAT LEADS TO SUCCESS, EVERY SUCCESSFUL
PERSON, FAILED AT A POINT. THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN A SUCCESSFUL PERSON AND A
DEFEATED PERSON IS THAT THE DEFEATED
PERSON GAVE UP.