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Youth, decent employment and the caadp


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Youth, decent employment and the caadp

  1. 1. Youth, Decent Employmentand the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) FAO-ILO4NEPAD Francesca Dalla Valle, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) 1 and Andreas Klemmer, International Labour Organization of the UN (ILO)2 in collaboration with Estherine Fotabong (NEPAD)3 September 12, 2011 Draft for discussion1 Francesca Dalla Valle, Youth Employment Specialist, FAO ( Andreas Klemmer, Senior Enterprise Development Specialist, ILO ( Estherine Fotabong, Director for Policy Implementation and Coordination, NEPAD (
  2. 2. ‗‘Youth should be given a chance to take an active part in the decision-making of local, national and global levels‘‘ United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon 2
  3. 3. Table of contentsAcknowledgments 4Executive summary 5Introduction 6 1. Rural youth situation analysis 8 2. Towards more decent and green jobs for the youth – FAO-ILO4NEPAD 13 partnership and technical cooperation 3. Institutional aspects – The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development 18 Programme (CAADP) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) 4. Youth and gender sensitive capacity development approaches 20 FAO – Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS) 20 ILO – Start Your Business (SYB) 21 UNIDO – Salima Agricultural Technology Trainings (SATECH) 22 The Songhai Model 22 5. Next steps 23 Objectives 24 Partnership activities 24 Participating countries 24 Implementation 25 6. Conclusions 26Useful websites 26Data of interest 26BoxesBox 1 – Incidence of poverty among youth (15-24) in % in sub-Saharan Africa 9Box 2 – Typical African youth 10Box 3 – NEPAD, FAO & ILO shared vision 13Box 4 – Decent and green jobs 14Box 5 – Sustainable businesses 15Box 6 – Market system and web of interactions 16Box 7 – Market systems development process 17Box 8 – CAADP pillars 19Box 9 – Youth and decent work integration in the CAADP process 23Useful definition in footnotes Decent work agenda 6 Youth 8 Employment, persons in employment 8 Child labour 9 Gender equality 10 Informal sector 11 Smallholder 12 Livelihoods 13 Rural employment 14 3
  4. 4. Acknowledgments This issue paper has been developed by Francesca Dalla Valle, Youth EmploymentSpecialist of the Rural Employment Team within the Gender, Equity and RuralEmployment Division in FAO and Andreas Klemmer, Senior Enterprise DevelopmentSpecialist of the ILO Pretoria Decent Work Team, in collaboration with EstherineFotabong, Director for Policy Implementation and Coordination of the NEPAD. Special thanks for guidance and support in the development process of the issuepaper are given to Peter Wobst, Senior Economist and Rural Employment Team Leaderwithin FAO‘s Gender, Equity and Rural Employment Division; Martin Bwalya, Head ofCAADP in NEPAD and Tobias Takavarasha, Senior Agricultural Policy and InvestmentOfficer of the NEPAD. Further acknowledgments for support and contributions go to the belowinstitutions and individuals. In the African Union (AU), Vera Brenda Ngosi, Director of Director of theDepartment in charge of the Human Resources, Science and Technology Department;Raymonde A. Agossou, Head of the Human Resources & Youth Development Division andAbebe Haile Gabriel, Director of the Rural Economy and Agriculture Department. In the ACP–EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA),Isolina Boto, Head of CTA Brussels office. In FAO, David Phiri, Chief, Weldeghaber Kidane, Senior Agricultural Policy Officerand Yasmeen Khwaja, Policy Officer of FAO‘s Policy Support Service (TCSP); Garry Smith,Principal Adviser and Wadzanai Katsande, Economist of FAO‘s Investment Centre Division(TCI); Elisenda Estruch, Economist from FAO‘s Gender, Equity and Rural EmploymentDivision; Maria Helena Semedo, Assistant Director-General and Diana Tempelman, SeniorOfficer of FAO‘s Regional Office for Africa (FAORAF); Castro Camarada, Coordinator,Maria Rizzo, Senior Policy Advisor (Agriculture) and Emmanuelle Guerne Bleich, LivestockOfficer of FAO‘s Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa (FAOSFE). In ILO, Jürgen Schwettmann, Deputy Regional Director and Judica Amri-Lawson,Senior Advisor External Relations and Partnerships from the ILO Regional Office for Africain Addis Ababa and Martin Clemensson, Director of ILOs Country Office for Zambia,Malawi and Mozambique. In NEPAD, Dr. Ibrahim Assane Mayaki Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the NEPADPlanning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA). 4
  5. 5. Executive summary In Africa, 200 million people are aged between 15 and 24 years, comprising morethan 20% of the population and finding productive employment for this cohort is one ofthe continent‘s major challenges. At present, three out of every four youth live on lessthan US$ 2 per day—lacking the resources and skills to be competitive. Agriculture in Africa is one of the largest contributors to national GDPs and thesector has the potential to provide employment for the growing numbers of unemployedyouth while increasing food security and rural income levels. Given the support and theopportunity for employment, young people have the potential to play a significant role inrural development. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union (AU)declared, during its last Executive Council held in January 2009 in Addis Ababa, the years2009-2019 as the Decade of Youth Development in Africa. Consultations with rural youthand their organizations have been undertaken by the Food and Agriculture Organizationof the UN (FAO) in the past couple of years while designing rural employmentprogrammes for them and taken forward jointly by FAO and International LabourOrganization of the UN (ILO) during the pre-AU Summit events held in Addis Ababa (1-6April 2011)4. Youth representatives expressed their views and requests, as well as theirwishes to be actively involved in the contribution to the rural development of theircountries and to be formally involved and included through the Comprehensive AfricaAgriculture Development Programme (CAADP) implementation programmes in thegrowth of their countries. It is to answer to those requests that FAO and ILO with the New Partnership forAfricas Development (NEPAD) are partnering within the Rural Futures programme, in aninnovative pilot initiative using approaches and mechanisms that aims at leverage theforces of globalization for the benefit of rural youth populations. The aim of this paper is to analyse the rural youth situation in Africa and outliningthe joint cooperation in a coherent and integrated innovative mechanism and approachbased around the application of a people-centered market systems developmentapproach using youth and gender sensitive angles towards the promotion and green anddecent jobs. While at the same time, taking into account that the transformation of ruralareas in Africa is slowly happening but in a context of rapid globalization making anychange in an individual national economy potentially, if given the appropriate support,interactive with the rest of the world opening new markets and therefore country-specifictransformation policies should be tailored to respond to both the domestic andinternational trends while looking at their youth cohorts.4 5
  6. 6. Introduction The numbers of young people are growing fast in developing countries. This isespecially evident in sub-Saharan Africa where, in some countries, more than 60 per centof the population is less than 25 years old5. A large and increasing youth cohort posessignificant pressure on the labour market. The consequences of failing to provide jobopportunities for young men and women can be far-reaching. Under-employed ruralyoung people, particularly those who are frustrated and idle because they have failed tofind decent jobs after migrating to urban centres, potentially contribute to social unrest,crime and even armed conflicts. Initiatives that improve the opportunities for youngpeople to take part in decent agricultural and non-agricultural work provide large benefitsfor social harmony, as well as for poverty reduction and food security. Indeed with theright policies the influx of young job seekers can become a key asset in the developmentprocess as rising labour supply provides anopportunity for enhanced long-term growth. Moreover, since 2005, the first MillenniumDevelopment Goal to “eradicate extreme poverty MDG Targetand hunger” includes target 1.B that encourages 1.Bthe achievement of full and productiveemployment and decent work 6 for all includingwomen and young people7. This target ―Achieving full and productiveacknowledges the centrality of employment employment and decent work for all including women and young people‖promotion for the achievement of food securityand poverty reduction. Today, some 300 million Target 1B indicators:young people worldwide work for less than US$ 2a day8. 1.4 Growth rate of GDP (gross domestic product) per person employed (labour productivity) The Food and Agriculture Organization of 1.5 Employment-to-populationthe United Nations (FAO)9 leads international ratioefforts to alleviate hunger and mitigate poverty. 1.6 Proportion of employed peopleFAO serves developed, transitioning, and living below (US) $1 (PPP) per day (working poor)developing countries. Achieving food security for 1.7 Proportion of own-account andall is at the heart of FAOs efforts, that is, to make contributing family workers insure people have sustained access to enough total employment (vulnerable employment rate)high-quality nutritive food to lead active, healthylives. To this end, agriculture plays a pivotal rolein the rural economy of most developing countries. Support to rural youth and youngfarmers has been part of FAO‘s work for the last four decades. This has occurred in theform of strengthening and expanding young people‘s capacities, knowledge, and skillsthrough education and training. FAO recognizes that the multidimensional issues facingyoung people in rural areas are interwoven but also recognizes that young people arewell suited and keen to contribute to national economic development. In order to enable5 UNDESA World Population Prospects – 2010 Revision The ILO Decent Work Agenda is the balanced and integrated programmatic approach to pursue6the objectives of full and productive employment and decent work for all at global, regional,national, sectoral and local levels. It has four pillars: standards and rights at work, employmentcreation and enterprise development, social protection and social dialogue.( World Bank 20099 6
  7. 7. the rural youth to become active partners in the achievement of economic and socialgoals they must receive adequate support and access to resources that allow them toreach their full potentials. FAO is supporting the implementation of the ComprehensiveAfrica Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP)10, the strategic agriculturalframework of the African Union (AU)11 and the New Partnership for Africa‘s Development(NEPAD)12. CAADP is an African-owned programme that strives to increase economicgrowth in Africa through agriculture-led development and agricultural reform. With theobjective of increasing public investment in agriculture to a minimum of 10 percent ofnational budgets, CAADP aims at achieving an annual agricultural growth rate of 6percent by 2015. A key principle of the CAADP framework is the emphasis on Africanownership, which calls for national capacity building. The national CAADP implementationprocesses and the Agriculture Investment Plans (AIPs) present an important instrumentand opportunity to practically and concretely integrate objective and evidence-basedmechanisms and programmes to address youth and decent employment in a gendersensitive manner. The International Labour Organization (ILO) 13 is the UN specialized agency whichseeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labourrights. The ILO formulates international labour standards in the form of Conventions andRecommendations setting minimum standards of basic labour rights: freedom ofassociation, the right to organize, collective bargaining, abolition of forced labour,equality of opportunity and treatment, and other standards regulating conditions acrossthe entire spectrum of work related issues. It provides technical assistance primarily inthe fields of vocational training and vocational rehabilitation; employment policy; labouradministration; labour law and industrial relations; working conditions; managementdevelopment; cooperatives; social security; labour statistics and occupational safety andhealth. It promotes the development of independent employers and workersorganizations and provides training and advisory services to those organizations. Withinthe UN system, the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and employersparticipating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing organs. Consultations with rural youth and their organizations have been undertaken byFAO in the past couple of years while designing rural employment programmes for themand during the pre-AU Summit events held in Addis Ababa (1-6 April 2011)14 in whichboth FAO and ILO were part of the steering committee members. Youth representativesexpressed their views and requests, as well as their wishes to be actively involved in thecontribution to the rural development of their countries and to be formally involved andincluded through the CAADP implementation programmes in the growth of theircountries. It is further to the youth organizations and representatives requests that theFAO and ILO are partnering with the NEPAD under the Rural Futures Programme15 andwithin the CAADP process. The partnership focuses on one major key challenge, namelyhow rural youth can access and benefit from decent and productive employmentopportunities and access markets. Furthermore, the Assembly of Heads of State andGovernment of the African Union (AU) declared, during its last Executive Council held inJanuary 2009 in Addis Ababa, the years 2009-2019 as the Decade of Youth Development10 7
  8. 8. in Africa16. The decade is an opportunity to advance the agenda of youth development inall member states across the AU, to ensure effective and more ambitious investment inyouth development programmes and increased support to the development andimplementation of national youth policies and programmes and facilitate theimplementation of the African Youth Charter (AYC)17. 1. Rural youth situation analysis Youth18 is a time of transition: from childhood to adulthood; from dependency onothers to independence through paid employment19. In poor rural settings, this transitionseems particularly problematic, as evidenced by extensive periods of job search. Severalfactors can be identified for this situation, including insufficient or inadequate educationand vocational training; a lack of access to productive resources; and limited supportfrom networks, such as producer organizationsand cooperatives. Young people also typically findit harder than older adults to gain access to credit,due both to missing collateral and reliability in the MDG 2eyes of potential lenders. This limits their abilityto invest in their economic activities or start a newbusiness. For those wishing to stay in theagricultural sector, the lack of new arable land Achieve Universal Primaryoften results in marginal and unsuitable land Educationbeing used for cultivation. Insufficient access tosupport networks is a common obstacle for rural Target 2a: Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primaryyouth to establish or expand a business and schoolingaccess markets. Support from producerorganisations and cooperatives can also help Target 2A indicators:improve the bargaining position in more vertically 2.1 - Net enrolment ratio in primaryintegrated production and distribution processes. education 2.2 - Proportion of pupils starting Although improving, educational grade 1 who reach last grade of primaryattainment still lags behind internationally agreed 2.3 - Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds,objectives such as Millennium Development Goal women and men220. Many countries in Africa have not yetreached universal primary schooling, and literacy16 The United Nations defines youth, as those persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years, (without prejudiceto other definitions by Member States). Children are those persons under the age of 14. It is worth noting thatArticle 1 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines ‗children‘ as persons up to the ageof 18, the age overlap was intentional, as it was hoped that the Convention would provide protection and rightsto as large an age-group as possible and because there is no similar United Nations Convention on the Rights ofYouth. Employment must comply with the Minimum Age Convention adopted by the ILO in 1973. Theconvention has adopted minimum ages varying from 14 to 16 and requires ratifying states to pursue a nationalpolicy designed to ensure the effective abolition of child labour and to raise progressively the minimum age foradmission to employment or work ( Persons in employment comprise all persons above a specified age who during a specified brief period,either one week or one day, were in the following categories: i) paid employment, ii) self employment. Context:persons who during a specified brief period such as one week or one day, (a) performed some work for wage orsalary in cash or in kind, (b) had a formal attachment to their job but were temporarily not at work during thereference period, (c) performed some work for profit or family gain in cash or in kind, (d) were with anenterprise such as a business, farm or service but who were temporarily not at work during the referenceperiod for any specific reason. (ILO Resolutions Concerning Economically Active Population, Employment,Unemployment and Underemployment Adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians,October 1982, para. 9).20 8
  9. 9. rates remain alarmingly low in many rural areas, especially among young girls. Ruralyouth are among the most disadvantaged groups as they often have limited access toeducational programmes that address their specific situations and needs. This results inhigh dropout rates at an early age. Curricula are often geared more toward academicaccomplishments and to urban-focused studies than to (learning) useful skills thatenhance rural livelihoods. The resulting low enrollmentrates, coupled with low completion rates, have Box 1 - Incidence ofcontributed to the difficult transition into quality poverty among youth (15-employment. As a compounding factor, education can 24) in % in Sub-Saharan Africabe cost prohibitive and sometimes viewed asunnecessary in an agricultural society that is Uganda 93.8dependent upon farm work. Therefore, most rural Nigeria 92.9 Zambia 86.3youth remain poor—three out of every four live on less Burundi 85.7than US$ 2 per day—lacking the resources and skills to Mozambique 75.4be competitive (Box 1 - Incidence of poverty among Ethiopia 70.7youth - 15-24 - in % in Sub-Saharan Africa). Sierra Leone 68.0 Ghana 66.5 21 Malawi 66.3 Child labour also poses an additional Kenya 54.5challenge. Apart from harming the physical and mental Côte d‘Ivoire 46.5development of children, excessive work in generally Source: World Bank survey-low quality and sometimes even hazardous activities is based harmonized indicatorsoften associated with premature school leaving orindeed with never going to school. Worldwide, 60percent of child labour can be found in agriculture22.The ILO estimates that there are globally 215 million child labourers between 5 and 17year old, just over half of these children, 115 million, are estimated to work in the worstforms of child labour, in sub-Saharan Africa, one quarter of all children aged 5-15 areestimated to be working. Almost 50 percent of all employed youth in the age-group 15-17 are involved in the worst forms of child labour, often in the agricultural sector 23. As a way to escape poverty, many youth look for better opportunities throughmigration. Urban and rural poverty are very much interlinked and urban work orprospects of work often encourage migration from the rural areas to the cities. Ittherefore seems intuitive to address rural poverty in order to make sustainable progressalso as regards urban poverty. Today, the needs and challenges of rural young peopleare greater than ever, but, at the same time, the demand and opportunities for talentedprofessionals are numerous. Several studies have highlighted the importance ofagricultural and rural development for economic growth and poverty reduction 24. Rural21 The term child labour is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential andtheir dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. It refers to work that: 1) is mentally,physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and 2) interferes with their schooling by: i)depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; ii) obliging them to leave school prematurely; or iii)requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work. In its mostextreme forms, child labour involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serioushazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities – often at a very early age.Whether or not particular forms of ―work‖ can be called ―child labour‖ depends on the child‘s age, the type andhours of work performed, the conditions under which it is performed and the objectives pursued by individualcountries. The answer varies from country to country, as well as among sectors within countries (ILOdefinition).22 ILO 201023 ILO 201024 Among others: 9
  10. 10. youth can play a central role in this process. For one, they are open to new andinnovative production techniques that will help raise agricultural productivity. They alsotend to be more flexible when adjusting to new income generating activities that continueto become increasingly important in rural settings. Despite their potential, young peopleface several challenges in finding employment. Those who find a job usually work in theinformal sector with bad pay, low job security and insufficient social protection.Underemployment, i.e. working below ones capacities in terms of time and skills orability to generate a living wage, is also widespread among rural youth. Many jobs in theagricultural sector, for example, have a strong seasonal component, hence work mightonly be needed during certain times of the year. The challenge of youth employment has also an important gender dimension 25.The vast majority ofrural poor in Africa are Box 2 - Typical African Youthsmallholders and themajority of these Country Location Gender Agesmallholders are young Burundi Rural 93.9% Female 54.9% 18girls and women (Box 2 Côte Urban 46.8% Female 51.9% 19– Typical African d‘Ivoireyouth). African farmers Cameroon Rural 56.4% Female 52.5% 19struggle with many Kenya Rural 81.0% Female 51.9% 19 Mozambique Rural 76.9% Female 52.3% 19constraints. Among Uganda Rural 82.8% Female 51.3% 18them are lack of access Zambia Rural 59.8% Female 52.8% 19to modern technologies, Malawi Rural 87.4% Female 52.7% 19capital investments and Sierra Rural 51.9% Female 52.4% 18 Leonesupportive research;lack of participation in Median African Youthdecision making; and Poor Rural Female Little Little jobvulnerability to educated opportunitiesecological shocks.Farmers who are young Source: World Bank survey-based harmonized indicatorswomen face the addedburden of jugglingmultiple responsibilities and systematic prejudice in land rights and politicalrepresentation. To boost the agricultural sector and reduce poverty requires tounderstand the specific issues facing young women farmers (and smallholder farmers ingeneral) and develop policies that enhance their rights and meet their needs. Young ruralwomen are generally the last to be hired and the first to be fired; they areWorld Bank Agriculture, Rural Development, and Pro-poor Growth and;DFID Agriculture, growth and poverty reduction;OECD - Agricultural Transformation, Growth and Poverty Reduction - Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Rural Investment and Enabling Policy - SOFA 2010-2011 Gender equality means that women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights andfor contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality istherefore the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the rolesthey play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society.Gender equality starts with equal valuing of girls and boys. (ABC of Women Worker‘s Rights and GenderEquality, ILO, 2000 and 10
  11. 11. overrepresented in the share of informally and/or temporarily employed; and often facethe harshest and most hazardous working conditions. While the global gender gap inyouth unemployment is relatively small (at 0.3 percent)26, it might disguises the truelevel of labour market discrimination. Inequalities are also particularly striking in areaswhere cultural traditions push women into unpaid family work. Closing the gender gap inagriculture could reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12-17 percent,thereby reducing the number of hungry by at least 100 million people, according toFAO27. Official statistics indicate that youth unemployment is about three times higherthan in other age groups, the true number of young people without a job might even behigher as the dire situation on the labour market will discourage many to even look foremployment. Those that find a job usually work in the informal sector28 with bad pay, low jobsecurity and insufficient social protection. In sub-Saharan Africa an estimated threequarters of jobs held by people aged 15 and above are considered vulnerableemployment29. Evidence suggest that the resulting underemployment is particularlyprevalent among young people. As a result, many young people seek employmentopportunities out of rural areas (in cities or abroad). More than one third of all migrantsin developing countries are between 15 to 24 years old, and rural youth are 40 percentmore likely to move to urban areas than other age groups30. Many rural communities areageing precisely because, in the absence of incentives to remain there, young womenand men are leaving rural areas to seek opportunities elsewhere. Rural-urban migrationcan have positive effects – e.g. through remittances, a potential skill transfer, and anincrease of human and financial capacities when the migrants return home. Today‘s generation of young people is the largest in history. In developingcountries, young people make up on average 20 percent of the population31, and as suchthey represent a huge potential resource to those countries. Yet ironically, rural areas arenot benefiting fully from this resource. Young women and men who live in rural areas arethe world‘s future farmers, entrepreneurs and leaders. The challenges of meeting futurefood demand, developing vibrant rural centres and promoting broad-based economicgrowth in developing countries depend on them. These are compelling reasons to placerural young people and smallholder agriculture at the forefront of global strategies forfood security, poverty reduction and income growth. Consequently, the main objective ofa sustainable development strategy should be to integrate qualified young people intorural labour markets where youth can contribute to building the foundations of long-termeconomic growth. Responding to the challenges of enhanced agricultural productivity andrural economic growth demands at least the following: i) investment in social andeconomic infrastructure in rural areas; ii) the provision of expanded opportunities foryoung men and women to build the capacity and skills that they need to take advantageof these opportunities, especially if rural-urban linkages are leveraged; and, iii) the26 World Bank 201027 FAO - The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA) 2010-2011, Women in Agriculture – Closing the Gender Gap The term informal sector describe the activities of the workers who are working but not recognized,recorded, protected or regulated by the public authorities (ILO International Labour Conference 90 th Session2002, Report VI – Decent Work and the Informal Economy). ILO Global Employment Trends, 201130 UNDESA 201031 UNDESA 2010 11
  12. 12. creation of remunerative economic opportunities for young people in agriculture and inthe rural non-farm economy. The global population is projected to increase from the current 6.9 billion to 9.2billion by 205032. Projections show that global food production will have to increase by 70percent to sustain this growing population. Agriculture in developing countries will needto play a much greater role than it does today in contributing to global food security (anddistribution). Smallholder agriculture is not only vital in helping to feed a growing globalpopulation, it also forms the basis of rural economic development and can promote pro-poor growth, which benefits both the non-rural economy and the rural one. If smallholderagriculture in developing countries is to thrive in the coming years, it will have to dealwith a number of important challenges. Smallholder farmers33 will need to increase their productivity, exploit new tradeopportunities, and link up better to national and global markets. They will need tocommercialize their production systems using the most appropriate farming methods andtechnologies and, increasingly, farm ‗as a business‘. However, the resources on whichtheir livelihoods depend have become degraded due to population growth, unsustainablepatterns of use (such as inappropriate use of agrochemicals, overexploitation of watersources, deforestation, overgrazing and overfishing), and ineffective policies andinstitutions. While smallholder farming must become more productive, it must alsobecome more environmentally sustainable. Moreover, natural resource degradation iscompounded by climate change, and smallholder farmers will face growing climaticuncertainty and stress. Agriculture has to become more resilient to the shocks that arealready becoming ever-more frequent. Food price volatility a major threat to foodsecurity34 is another major challenge smallholders are facing, among the root causes ofvolatility identified by experts, there are, insufficient information on crop supply anddemand, poor market transparency, unexpected changes triggered by national foodsecurity situations, panic buying and hoarding, as well as a decline in nationalinvestments in agriculture35. In order for smallholder agriculture to respond to thesemultiple challenges, it will need to be more innovative and knowledge-intensive than it istoday. The next generation of farmers will be at the forefront of this knowledge-intensiveagriculture: substantial and sustained investments in that generation are essential if theirenergies and ambitions are to be harnessed. In the past years several training programmes have started to adopt holisticapproaches, confirming the benefits of combining support to school and vocationaltraining with employment promotion. Programmes seem particularly successful if they32 UN DESA33 The concept of small farms can be approached from a variety of angles. Small-scale agriculture is often,albeit not always appropriately, used interchangeably with smallholder, family, subsistence, resource-poor,low-income, low-input, or low-technology farming (Heidhues and Brüntrup 2003). Examples of definitions: i)The World Bank‘s Rural Strategy defines smallholders as those with a low asset base, operating less than 2hectares of cropland (World Bank 2003);ii) FAO defines smallholders as farmers with ―limited resourceendowments, relative to other farmers in the sector‖ (Dixon, Taniguchi, and Wattenbach 2003); iii) Narayananand Gulati characterize a smallholder ―as a farmer (crop or livestock) practicing a mix of commercial andsubsistence production or either, where the family provides the majority of labour and the farm provides theprincipal source of income‖ (2002).34 Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient,safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life( 2011 - Committee on World Food Security – High Level Panel of Experts 12
  13. 13. are tailored to the local situation, address the specific needs of young women, and aretargeted to low income/poorly educated young people. Improving labour marketinformation systems, building on community involvement, and promoting thedevelopment of youth associations are other factors that determine the success ofinterventions. 2. Towards more decent and green jobs for the youth FAO-ILO4NEPAD partnership and technical cooperation Despite tangible economic progress over the past 20 years, Africa needs to liftover 400 million people out of poverty while employing the additional 215 million youngmen and women expected to join the labour force in sub-Sahara Africa over the nextdecade – 130 million in rural areas. With 70 percent of Africans that still will continue torely on the ruralsector for their Box 3 – NEPAD, FAO & ILO shared visionlivelihoods36, ruraldevelopment must berecognized as a criticalcomponent to thedevelopment agenda. The frameworkof technicalcooperation proposedin the followingresponds to this callfrom the African Unionwhile addressing alsothe requests of ruralyouth organizations. Itoutlines an innovativeapproach for ruraleconomicdevelopment jointlydeveloped by the ILOand the FAO, with a roadmap for piloting its first application in selected African countries(Box 3 – NEPAD, FAO and ILO shared vision). The challenge to be addressed through the technical cooperation between NEPAD,FAO and ILO is the promotion of decent and green jobs for youth in African ruraleconomies through the development of sustainable businesses. The Rural Futures Initiative37 launched by the AU and the NEPAD seeks topromote this debate on rural economic development by way of exploring alternativedevelopment models that ―promote broad-based rural economic development and36 Humans inherently develop and implement strategies to ensure their survival. A livelihood comprises thecapabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. Alivelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stress and shocks and maintain or enhance itscapabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base. (Chambers& Conway, 1991)37 13
  14. 14. reduction of poverty and inequality including securing decent jobs and sustainablelivelihoods‖; these models should reflect an ―inclusive multi-dimensional approach tosocioeconomic transformation‖ that ―encompasses micro-, meso and macro-level policiesand interventions.‖38 The rural economy39, here, is defined as a distinct economic sub-system wherepeople seek to generate value added from the exchange of goods and services typicallyrelated to the production of food and/or harvesting of raw materials like wood. 40 Decent work is defined as gainful and productive employment in conditions offreedom, equity, security and dignity. Green jobs are defined as jobs that contributesubstantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality, including jobs that help toprotect ecosystems and biodiversity, reduce energy, material and water consumptionthrough high-efficiency strategies, de-carbonize the economy and minimize or altogetheravoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution (Box 4 – Decent and Green Jobs).41 Box 4 - Decent and Green jobs38 Quoted from the Final Communiqué of the Rural Futures Strategic Briefing Meeting held in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia, 25-26 May 2011, p239 While, Rural Employment refers to any activity, occupation, work, business or service performed by ruralpeople for remuneration, profit, social or family gain, or by force, in cash or kind, including under a contract ofhire, written or oral, expressed or implied, and regardless if the activity is performed on a self-directed, part-time, full-time or casual basis. Rural employment is comprised of agricultural employment, which includes bothon-farm self-employment and wage employment in the agricultural sector, as well as non-agriculturalemployment, which includes non-farm self-employment and wage employment.40 The borderlines delineating this space from the non-rural economy are typically diffuse and the mainparameter for what constitutes value added (like satisfaction of physiological needs, social status and self-actualization) are thought to be generic for both rural and urban folk, but the weight attributed to eachparameter by rural people is thought to differ – accordingly, the distinction between rural and non-ruraleconomy would need to be drawn along the benchmarks for at least satisfactory value added attributed by thepeople interacting in the market place.41 For more information on the terms and definitions underpinning green and decent work and sustainableenterprises refer to ILO-UNEP 2007 Green Jobs report. 14
  15. 15. Sustainable businesses (Box 5 – Sustainable businesses) are social systems thatseek critical balance between the interests of people (people dimension) and their naturalenvironment (environment dimension).42 Businesses are considered sustainable if theymeet or surpass minimum thresholds set for a catalogue of dimension-specific keyperformance measures (pressure points) that can consequently translate into keyperformance indicators for private sector development. Box 5 – Sustainable businesses The proposed technical cooperation centers around the application of a people-centered market systems development approach using youth and gender sensitiveangles. In this approach, businesses are treated as small systems being part of largereconomic sub systems that again are part of an economic system inextricably connected42 In the people dimension, if the interests of people relate to the value added that each of them generatesfrom economic interaction, then the financial performance of a business (as an expression of the value addedfor its owners) must be balanced with the financial performance of all other system stakeholders – in this view,social equity and economic performance are flipsides of the same coin. 15
  16. 16. to both other social systems in the people dimension (like the education system and thepolitical system) and to its natural environment. Any economic sub-system - in theoryeven the global economic system as such - can become the reference point for a marketsystems development effort. In practice, though, fast escalating complexity at highersystem levels and resource constraints will tend to limit the scope of the developmenteffort to a local economic territory, a single sector, an industry, a value chain, a clusteror other ‗smaller‘ sub-systems. The market system is constituted by people interacting togenerate economic value added from the exchange of goods and services, and peoplerepresenting the interests of the environment dimension and its non-human stakeholdersalong the transaction process. In the model, these people are typically representedthrough organizations (like unions, business associations, environmental pressuregroups, youth associations, farmers‘ federation, producers‘ associations, governmentagencies etc.) butpending the size of Box 6 - Market system and web of interactionsthe chosen sub-systems - or the roleplayed by a givenperson - they mightalso be depicted asindividuals. Theseorganizations aregrouped according totheir core functionacross three systemlevels (Box 6 – Marketsystem and web ofinteractions). The web ofinteraction betweenorganizations(representing thepeople making up thesocial system) istypically complex; theconnections betweenthese organizationsare multiple, someorganizations aremore connected thanothers (they formnetwork hubs),circular and therelationships often cutacross system levels. The aim of theapproach, therefore,is not to mirror the actual complexity of the system, but to depict the principal actors andthe cause-effect relationships linking them across system levels. It thus paves the way 16
  17. 17. for analyzing the current system dynamics and next to foster, where necessary alsorewire or newly create connections between stakeholders for improved interaction. In theprocess, and mindful of circular feedback loops linking people in any complex socialsystem, the web of economic interaction is considered as a closed sphere whereeverything that ‗goes around eventually comes around‘ to stakeholders, includingexternalized environmental costs and lack of regard for fundamental rights at work. To develop the market system in practice, the sequence of steps visualized in Box8 is advocated (Box 7 – Market systems development process). As indicated in thegraph, key emphasis is laid on the facilitation of dialogue among stakeholders in thevalue chain, and collective action in support of doing sustainable business. Change is notenforced top down by way of asymmetric power relations but facilitated throughcollective action, ensuring in the process that all stakeholder are able to generatesufficient value added to be willing to continue interacting. Box 7 - Market systems development process 17
  18. 18. The proposed framework differs in a number of ways from the traditionalapproach to private sector development. Traditional approach to private sector Market systems development development framework advocated by FAO-ILO I. Sustainability equals profitability I. Sustainability equals critical balance between the interests of the people dimension and the environment dimension II. Product centered II. People centered III. People are cost drivers III. People are the constituents of the system IV. The natural environment is IV. The natural environment ‗has a regarded mainly as a source of voice‘ in the way business is done production inputs – access is – access is finite infinite V. Assumes linear and mechanistic V. Assumes circular cause effect cause effect relationships between relationships among people / businesses stakeholders representing them VI. Change is imposed in often VI. Change is facilitated by way of asymmetric power relationships social dialogue / communication between people VII. Pipeline view of transactions VII. Transactions are treated as closed (input-throughput-output) loops (―what goes around comes around‖) VIII. Modular view (focus on a single VIII. Systemic view (―connect the dot) dots‖) 3. Institutional aspects - The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) and the New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) In order to foster focused agricultural development in Africa, the African Union(AU) and NEPAD have launched the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture DevelopmentProgramme (CAADP). Established by the AU assembly in 2003, CAADP focuses onimproving food security, nutrition, and increasing incomes in Africas largely farmingbased economies. It aims to achieve this by raising agricultural productivity by at least 6 percent peryear and increasing public investment in agriculture to 10 percent of national budgetsper year. This has been endorsed by all Heads of State who have agreed to significantlyincrease the share of national budgets allocated for agriculture and rural development. 18
  19. 19. To achieve this goal, CAADP aims to stimulate agriculture-led development thateliminates hunger and reduces poverty and food insecurity. More specifically, the NEPAD vision for Africa holds that, by 2015, Africa should: I. Attain food security; II. Improve agricultural productivity to attain a 6 percent annual growth rate;III. Develop dynamic regional and sub-regional agricultural markets; IV. Integrate farmers into a market economy; and V. Achieve a more equitable distribution of wealth. The CAADP initiative takes a continent-wide view, but builds on national andregional plans for the development of agriculture, it is entirely African-led and African-owned and represents African leaders collective vision for agriculture in Africa. It contains a set of key principles and targets, in order to: I. Guide country strategies and investment programmes; Box 8 – CAADP Pillars II. Enable regional peer learning and review; and Pillar 1 Pillar 1 aims to extend the area under Land & sustainable land management and water reliable water control systemsIII. Facilitate greater management alignment and 1.php harmonization of development efforts. Pillar 2 Pillar 2 aims to increase market access Market through improved rural infrastructure CAADP works on four access and other trade-related interventions „pillars‟ (Box 8 – 2.phpCAADP pillars) that serve aspolicy frameworks for national Pillar 3 Pillar 3 aims to improve riskand regional programmes for Food supply management, increase food supply, and hunger improve incomes for the poor andinvestment and action in reduce hunger and malnutritionpursuing increased and productivity in 3.phpagriculture, forestry, fisheries Pillar 4 Pillar 4 aims to improve agriculturaland livestock management. Agricultural research, technology disseminationThese programmes at the research and adoption through strengthenednational and regional levels agricultural knowledge systems tofollow a specific process in a deliver profitable and sustainable technologies that are widely adopted‗round table‘ format that result by farmers resulting in sustainedin country and regional ‗CAADP agricultural growthCompacts‘43. During the CAADP 4.phpcountry round tables key playerscome together to assess the43 CAADP Compacts 19
  20. 20. realities of their own particular situation and develop a road map for going forward. Thisprocess leads to the identification of priority areas covering policy reforms and guidingpublic and private investments and interventions through the CAADP Compact. FAO actively supports NEPADs goals and has assisted in writing the FAO/NEPADjoint CAADP report, the adoption of which is an important step towards ensuringagricultural stability and economic development in the region. The CAADP, drafted withthe participation of African Ministers of Agriculture, Regional Economic Organizations andFinancing Institutions, the UN Economic Commission for Africa and other regional andsub-regional stakeholders, and with the technical collaboration of FAO, seeks to respondto the immediate crisis situation facing African agriculture while building upon the long-term conditions for development. 4. Youth and gender sensitive capacity development approaches Successfully addressing the youth employment challenge requires a coherent andintegrated response that recognizes the particularities of Africa, especially the very largeshare of rural youth population. In many countries interventions have focused on programs that are narrow inscope, limited in time, and tailored more to urban areas. There is also a throughoutrecognition of the need to work in partnership, in a transparent multi-stakeholdingmechanism hence coherence, coordination and cooperation are needed across differentnational government institutions and agencies, at central and local levels and UNagencies. As mentioned in chapter 2, dialogue is key for a good multi-stakeholding processand all types of stakeholders need to be involved in the decision process. There are manyforms of stakeholder engagement although certain basic principles and dimensionsshould be adopted44:o Inclusion – All the stakeholders should be included in the dialogue process.o Openness – Dialogue should be open so that all stakeholders have a chance to say their opinions.o Tolerance – One opinion should not take precedence over others.o Empowerment – Stakeholders should feel that they have the ability to affect the structure, process, and outcomes of the process.o Transparency – All the stakeholders involved should be given the information needed to make sound decisions. Initiatives/programmes to be included in the aforementioned partnership underthe Rural Futures and potentially for inclusiveness in the AIPs of the nationalGovernments should be selected for their adaptability to multi-stakeholding as well as fortheir integrated and holistic approach, here below some youth friendly and gendersensitive ones, tested and implemented either jointly or individually by UN agencies andcivil society.44 Pedersen 2006 20
  21. 21. FAO - Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS) To address the specific challengesfaced by youth in rural areas, FAO initiated More info: Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools youth/fao-ilo-jffls/en/(JFFLS) approach in 2004 which to date has Junior Farmer Field and Life Schools (JFFLS)been expanded to 16 countries in Africa, Facebook groupAsia and the Middle East.!/groups/1650238 83567084/ The JFFLS took inspiration from theFarmer Field Schools (FFS)45 and has been adapted in a gender sensitive and youthfriendly way to young people and their needs combining support to vocationaleducational training opportunities with employment promotion and access to marketsthrough the facilitation of inclusion in Farmers‘ Organizations and Federations whilebenchmarking the creation of rural decent jobs in national employment programmes.They are a concrete manifestation of the important linkages that exist between ruralemployment, poverty reduction and food security. The high adaptability of the learning approach to different countries‘ needs makesit suitable to address different contexts (conflict, post-conflict, in transition, highincidence of unemployment, food insecurity, poverty or HIV) and populations. It has beenincluded as one of the main activities in various United Nations Joint Programmes (UNJP)for Youth Employment and Migration as well as emergency projects and TechnicalCooperation Programmes (TCPs) sponsored bilaterally by FAO and national Governments.Field evaluations have shown that the approach has supported the development ofentrepreneurial and agricultural skills of the youth as well as their self-esteem, helpingthem become healthy and positive young adults. Further, it strengthened nationalinstitutions capacities to address rural youth employment at both operational/programmeand policy levels. Main partners in the countries involved in the JFFLS are: Ministries of Agriculture,Education, Labour, Youth, and Trade, Producers‘ and Farmers‘ Organizations and Unions,Trade Unions, Fair Trade and Youth Organizations as well as UN agencies such as ILO,UNEP and UNIDO. To date, approximately 20,000 young girls and boys have graduatedfrom the schools and 2,000 facilitators have been trained in the methodology. ILO – Start Your Business (SYB) The ILO‘s Start Your Business (SYB)programme is a system of inter-related More info: packages and supporting materials SYBfs0307.pdffor small-scale entrepreneurs in developingcountries and economies in transition. SYB has been developed by the ILO in response to requests from member Statesfor a relevant, low-cost and effective business creation and management trainingpackage that is suitable for the environment of developing countries. It assists inmeeting the employment challenge by contributing to the creation of quality jobs in thesmall-scale enterprise sector through improved business performance. SYB is essentiallya training instrument, with integrated components for counseling, networking, promotion45 21
  22. 22. of service institutions and policy dialogue. This very interactive training can be organizedflexibly according to clients‘ needs, takes approximately 5 days and is taught usingadvanced adult training methodologies. The objective of SYB training is to enablepotential entrepreneurs to develop concrete, feasible and bankable business ideas tostart their own small business. By the end of the training course, these potentialentrepreneurs will have completed a basic business plan. The business plan will serve asa blue print for the entrepreneur in starting up the business. SYB training is customizedfor potential entrepreneurs who want to start micro- or small-scale businesses. To benefitfully from SYB training, the potential entrepreneurs should be able to read and write.Furthermore, they should have developed a concrete and feasible business idea prior toSYB training. SYB training is equally suitable for men and women in rural and urban areas, bothyoung and old. A standard SYB training course takes five days of classroom basedtraining plus at least one group counselling session after training. The counselling sessionis preferably delivered within four weeks after training. After the counselling session, theSYB trainer will link their clients to other relevant business development services and,where applicable, to IYB business management training to consolidate the businessoperations after the start-up. The SIYB programme has been implemented in over 90countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The SYB component was added in 1991 andan outreach study conducted in 2002 showed that SYB was the main training productused in the SYB portfolio throughout the world. UNIDO – Salima Agricultural Technology Trainings (SATECH) For securing the socio-economicfoundation necessary for livelihood recovery More info: rural communities, UNIDO has developed malawi_FactsheetGC.pdfthe Salima Agricultural Technology(SATECH) programme activities training incollaboration with Malawi‘s Ministry ofAgriculture. Workshops are conducted to identify economic interest groups in the targetvillages, this allows stakeholders to determine some suitable labour-saving and income-generating technologies that will help to support livelihood recovery. These include thosefor agricultural productivity enhancing, animal draught implements, small-scale trades,agricultural-related hand tools, and postharvest and food processing equipment. UNIDOuses participatory project planning to identify existing traditional village structures andorganizations as key stakeholders for activities ownership. SATECH disseminates gender-responsive technologies, reducing the labour burdenon female villagers. For example, village boreholes contributed to reducing timeconsumed in fetching water and ensured access to clean and safe drinking. SATECH alsostrengthens the participatory capacity of community-level grassroots organizations. Skillsand knowledge training sessions are creating trades people who are critical to communityreconstruction and development. The technical capacities of local artisans and theirassociations are also assessed to identify potential for local manufacturing of the labour-saving technologies provided. Local blacksmiths were subcontracted to make and repairtools, further contributing to strengthen local economies. The SATECH trainings havebeen successful in putting income generating resources and assets on the ground in 22
  23. 23. vulnerable communities, and enabling poor, female headed households, orphan guardianfamilies, and the youth to use technology, to diversify and to increase agricultural andnon-agricultural income creating activities. UNIDO‘s efforts to promote such labour saving implements in targetedcommunities have helped to relieve the exhausting tasks in agricultural production andas a result, communities and households are expanding the land under cultivation andare directly addressing food security in the villages. The Songhai Model The Songhai model (and centre) wasfounded in 1985 in Porto Novo, Benin More info:, by Dr Godfrey N‘Zamujo, a n=com_content&view=article&id=70:songhai-Dominican Father from Nigeria. model&catid=47:songhai-model Songhai‘s main objective is to trainyoung agricultural entrepreneurs. Beside its training activities, Songhai aims to develop asustainable agricultural production system based on agrobiology. The main achievements of the last two decades can be summarized as: i) Morethan 200 students at any time attending 18-month training programmes in the sites ofPorto-Novo, Savalou, Parakou and Kinwédji, ii) More than 500 farms established andmanaged by young people trained in Songhai centers, iii) More than 300 participantsfrom various backgrounds and countries taking part in different training courses eachyear, iv) More than 40 partners from public and private institutions, NGOs andinternational institutions (FAO and ILO with support from UNIDO will partner with theirtraining approaches within the Songhai Centre in Sierra Leone under the umbrella of theUNJP for youth employment and empowerment). The Songhai model has developed new approaches and farming system that relyheavily on the combined inputs from local experiences, indigenous knowledge base onone hand and business communities and research institutions on the other hand. Today,the result is a robust, zero waste, integrated agro allied model promoting rural growththrough training, technology adoption and strong business and commercial strategy. 23
  24. 24. 5. Next Steps FAO and ILO with the NEPAD are presently screening potential AIPs to start implementing activities under the Rural Futures initiative and the inclusiveness of youth and decent employment in the CAADP process could follow the path visualized in the below graph (Box 9 – Youth and decent work integration in the CAADP process). The strategic partnership under the Rural Futures programme focuses on one key challenge, namely how rural youth can access and benefit from decent employment opportunities and access markets. Box 9 – Youth and decent work integration in the CAADP ProcessRE – Rural EmploymentDW – Decent Work Objectives The partnership aims to: o Strengthen the capacity of stakeholders in participating countries to analyze and address youth and decent employment policy issues with a gender sensitive and climate smart persective; and, 24
  25. 25. o Identify, test, and evaluate innovative policy, institutional, and programmes options to improve rural youth employment opportunities and access markets. Partnership Activities The activities of the partnership will center on reviewing potential AgricultureInvestment Plans (AIPs) formulated under the CAADP process and identify jointcollaboration activities to be supported in capacity development, knowledgemanagement, development of innovation networks, and communications for rural youthwhile strengthening their access to markets. The partnership will:o Undertake an assessment of policies and regulations that affect rural youth employment and access to markets that can support the sustainable improvement of agricultural practices;o Test innovative multi-stakeholding approaches and other institutional mechanisms for increasing rural youth participation in agro-value chains;o Develop and test best practices for evaluating the impact of rural youth inclusiveness in market and government(s) failures and devising innovative approaches to reduce their incidence;o Identify demand constraints on given commodities and assess the governance factors that influence market access for rural youth;o Develop a scaling-up methodology based on agro-climatic and labour friendly and market accesso Disseminate the identified options for improving market access for rural youth so that they become incorporated into national policies and investment programso Synthesize the knowledge gained in a manual of best practices and an accessible knowledge management system to facilitate access by AU national government for replication in the various AIPs Participating Countries Participating countries for the implementing activities will be selected in atransparent manner based on the following criteria aimed at maximizing the probabilityof success:o Status of CAADP compact in the country and status of AIPo National priorities of the government towards rural employment and youtho Presence of a supportive policy environment; ando Ownership and engagement of national institutions, and various stakeholders 25
  26. 26. Implementation Once the countries are selected, a round of consultations will take place to shapethe programme activities agenda and identify project sites and beneficiaries. Theagreements reached in each participating country will later be consolidated under anumbrella memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the programme and theconcerned national institutions. During the program implementation period, otherpotential stakeholders with ongoing field programmes in the participating countries maybe brought into the initiative. 6. Conclusions As mentioned above, successfully addressing the youth employment challengerequires a coherent and integrated response that recognizes the particularities of Africa,especially the very large share of rural youth population. In many countries interventions have focused on programs that are narrow inscope, limited in time, and tailored more to urban areas. There is also a throughoutrecognition of the need to work in partnership, in a transparent multi-stakeholdingmechanism hence coherence, coordination and cooperation are needed across differentnational government institutions and agencies, at central and local levels and UNagencies. In the past few years, the political priority linked to youth employment hasbrought policy-makers to recognize that achieving productive employment and work foryoung people entails long-term action covering a range of economic and social policiesfocusing on labor demand and supply while addressing both quantitative and qualitativeelements of youth employment. Governments, the social partners, civil society, theinternational community, as well as the youth themselves, all have an importantcontribution to give in order to address youth employment challenges. Finally, youthspecific policies need to be issued or revised to align them with other national policiesand priorities taking into account the national socio-economic contexts. The national CAADP implementation process and the AIPs present therefore animportant instrument and opportunity to practically and concretely integrate objectiveand evidence-based mechanisms and programmes to address youth and decentemployment in a gender sensitive manner. 26
  27. 27. Useful WebsitesAfrican Union working together and Agriculture Organization of the UN Labour Organization of the UN Movement of Agricultural Rural Youth (MIJARC) Bank Youthink of Interest46Agriculture & Rural DevelopmentAgricultural irrigated land (% of total agricultural land)Agricultural land (% of land area)Agricultural machinery, tractors per 100 sq. km of arable landAgriculture, value added (% of GDP)Agriculture value added per worker (constant 2000 US$)Arable land (hectares per person)Arable land (% of land area)Cereal yield (kg per hectare)Crop production index (1999-2001 = 100)Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)Fertilizer consumption (kilograms per hectare of arable land)Food production index (1999-2001 = 100)Forest area (% of land area)Forest area (sq. km)Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)Land area (sq. km)Land under cereal production (hectares)Livestock production index (1999-2001 = 100)Permanent cropland (% of land area)Poverty gap at rural poverty line (%)Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% of rural population)Rural populationRural population (% of total population)Labor & Social ProtectionEmployees, agriculture, female (% of female employment)Employees, agriculture, male (% of male employment)Employees, industry, female (% of female employment)Employees, industry, male (% of male employment)Employees, services, female (% of female employment)Employees, services, male (% of male employment)Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%)46 World Bank Open Data 27
  28. 28. GDP per person employed (constant 1990 PPP $)Labor force, totalLabor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)Labor participation rate, male (% of male population ages 15+)Labor participation rate, total (% of total population ages 15+)Long-term unemployment, female (% of female unemployment)Long-term unemployment, male (% of male unemployment)Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment)Unemployment, female (% of female labor force)Unemployment, male (% of male labor force)Unemployment, total (% of total labor force)Unemployment, youth female (% of female labor force ages 15-24)Unemployment, youth male (% of male labor force ages 15-24)Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment)Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment)Vulnerable employment, total (% of total employment)PovertyIncome share held by fourth 20%Income share held by highest 10%Income share held by highest 20%Income share held by lowest 10%Income share held by lowest 20%Income share held by second 20%Income share held by third 20%Poverty gap at $1.25 a day (PPP) (%)Poverty gap at $2 a day (PPP) (%)Poverty gap at national poverty line (%)Poverty gap at rural poverty line (%)Poverty gap at urban poverty line (%)Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population)Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population)Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population)Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% of rural population)Poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty line (% of urban population)EducationChildren out of school, primary, femaleChildren out of school, primary, maleLiteracy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24)Primary completion rate, female (% of relevant age group)Primary completion rate, male (% of relevant age group)Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)Progression to secondary school, female (%)Progression to secondary school, male (%)Public spending on education, total (% of GDP)Public spending on education, total (% of government expenditure)Ratio of female to male primary enrollment (%)Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%)Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)School enrollment, primary (% gross)School enrollment, primary (% net)School enrollment, secondary (% gross)School enrollment, secondary (% net)School enrollment, tertiary (% gross)EnvironmentAgricultural methane emissions (% of total)Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions (% of total)Fish species, threatened 28
  29. 29. Forest area (% of land area)Forest area (sq. km)GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum)Mammal species, threatenedMarine protected areas (% of territorial waters)Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)Nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day)Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker)Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)Plant species (higher), threatenedWater pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions)Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions)Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions)Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions)Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions)Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions)Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions)Social DevelopmentAdolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)Economically active children, female (% of female children ages 7-14)Economically active children, male (% of male children ages 7-14)Economically active children, study and work, female (% of female economically active children,ages 7-14)Economically active children, study and work, male (% of male economically active children, ages7-14)Economically active children, total (% of children ages 7-14)Economically active children, work only, female (% of female economically active children, ages 7-14)Economically active children, work only, male (% of male economically active children, ages 7-14)Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)Labor participation rate, male (% of male population ages 15+)Life expectancy at birth, female (years)Life expectancy at birth, male (years)Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)Prevalence of HIV, male (% ages 15-24)Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%)Ratio of female to male primary enrollment (%)Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%)Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)Refugee population by country or territory of asylumRefugee population by country or territory of originShare of women employed in the nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)Unemployment, female (% of female labor force)Unemployment, male (% of male labor force)Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment)Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment) 29