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ROLE OF HEADMASTER IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Najma Kazi
najmakazi@gmail.com
ROLE OF HEADMASTER IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
▪ ‘The Headmaster’ being the Head of the organization plays an especially important role in
formulation and execution of any task or project including crisis management.
▪ No task is as important as creating a safe & secure learning environment for our Children.
▪ Any disaster/ crisis in a school must be taken seriously as the safety and security
of many children and staff on campus during the school hours is the ultimate responsibility of
the school management of which the H.M. is the most important member.
▪ Considering the cost and consequences of any emergency, no H.M. can afford to ignore or
evade a sound disaster management plan.
▪ It is extremely necessary for every school to have a proper and well-defined school specific
disaster management system in place.
▪ The formulation of such plan and its implementation calls for minute care and detailed planning
and hence the H.M. should take special interest and should possess sound managerial skills
for the effectiveness of the project.
What is a Disaster?
▪ ‘Disasters’, are defined as “a serious disruption of the functioning of a
community or a society causing widespread human, material,
economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected
community or society to cope using its own resources.”
▪ World Health Organisation (W.H.O.) “A disaster can be defined as any
occurrence that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life,
deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant
an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area.”
▪ American Red Cross (ARC) “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence
either nature or manmade that causes human suffering and creates
human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance.”
Types of Disasters
▪ Natural: Earthquake, Floods, Cyclone, Drought, Thunderstorm,
Heatwaves, Volcano, Landslides, Medical Emergencies, Cold wave, Pest
Infestation, etc.
▪ Man-Made: Fire, Short Circuit, Power Failure, Gas Leak,
Blast, Stampede, Road Accidents, Riots, War, Epidemic, Terror
Attack, Bomb Threat, Hostage/ Kidnapping, Pollution, Food poisoning,
Suicides etc.
Regulatory Provisions
▪ Constitution of India: As per the Indian Constitution, access to education is a fundamental
right of each child in the country.
▪ National Policy on Children -2013: The Policy has identified survival, health, nutrition,
education, development, protection (including from emergencies/disasters) and participation
as the undeniable rights of every child and has also declared these as key priority areas.
▪ National Disaster Management Act – 2005: The Act envisages promotion of safety
awareness among school stakeholders including teachers and students.
▪ National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM), 2009: The National Policy on Disaster
Management 2009 highlights the need for structural as well as non- structural safety in
schools and educational institutions.
▪ The National Disaster Management Guidelines- School Safety Policy (February 2016): It
applies to all schools in the country – whether government, aided or private, irrespective of
their location in rural or urban areas.
▪ The National School Safety Policy Guidelines stand for a vision of India where all children and
their teachers, and other stakeholders in the school community are safe from any kind of risks
due to natural hazards & ‘School Safety’ has been defined as the creation of safe
environments for children starting from their homes to their schools and back.
What is Disaster Management?
▪ Disaster Management is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks
that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster
response (emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination,
etc.) as well as supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human-
made disasters have occurred.
▪ It is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and
communities manage hazards to avoid or amend the impact of disasters
resulting from the hazard.
Objectives of a Disaster Management Plan
▪ Ensuring the creation of safe learning environment for children.
▪ Preparing & establishing an emergency response system.
▪ Highlighting the specific actions towards school safety that can be undertaken by
different stakeholders within the existing framework for delivery of education.
▪ Collating all the information needed for effective management of disasters in Schools.
▪ Creating awareness and building the capacity of school community.
▪ Defining the roles and responsibilities for effective response.
▪ Identifying and managing the hazards in the school.
▪ Minimizing the loss & mitigating the effect of disasters based on technology,
traditional wisdom, and environmental sustainability.
▪ Promoting partnership among the various stakeholders.
▪ Developing a culture of prevention, preparedness, and resilience at all levels through
knowledge, innovation, and education.
Essentials of a Disaster Management Plan
▪ Clarity of aims and objectives
▪ Effective communication / information.
▪ Flexible
▪ Makes co-ordination simple and practical.
▪ Realistic / workable plan
▪ Responsibilities are well defined.
▪ Result oriented.
▪ Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Response, Disaster
Mitigation, Rehabilitation, & Reconstruction.
School Disaster Management Plan
▪ Every school should set up a School Disaster Management Committee
(SDMC).
▪ The SDMC will have a two-tier structure.
▪ Policy / Decision makers: Consisting of five members. H.M, Asst. H.M,
Supervisor, Management Representative and Parent Representative
▪ Executors: Consisting of H.M., Asst. H.M., Supervisors, and
appropriate number of Teaching staff, Clerical staff, Support Staff,
and Students (Class representatives)
▪ The SDMC should ideally meet once in 3 months.
▪ The main responsibility of the SDMC is to formulate and implement a school
specific Disaster Management Plan.
▪ The three stages of a Disaster Management Plan are as under: -
[A] Preventions and Precautions
[B] Action plan / Execution
[C] Follow up / Review
"By failing to prepare, you are
preparing to fail."
Benjamin Franklin
[A] - Preventions and Precautions
(School Preparedness Plan)
▪ Determine major risk areas (Hazard Assessment or Safety Audit) of School
Building, classrooms, and neighborhood. – (Appendix – 1)
▪ Form School Disaster Management Teams, display their names, designation, contact details &
introduce them well so that their instructions are followed in crises. (Appendix - 2)
▪ Prepare a formal document that set out the sequence of activities and role and responsibilities of each
team member. (Appendix - 3)
▪ Train identified staff with latest technology and information. (Appendix - 4)
▪ Develop and maintain a list of needed emergency supplies and tools necessary to respond and
implement the plan (Appendix - 5).
▪ Identify the strategic placement of resources to be used. (Appendix – 5)
▪ Draw a map of the school premises, where in the entry and exist points are numbered according to
their priority. (Appendix -6)
▪ Examine and prepare the possible responses in the event of a disaster. (Appendix – 7)
▪ Make special provisions for disabled Children. (Appendix – 8)
[A] - Preventions and Precautions
(School Preparedness Plan)
(Contd.)
▪ Prepare the procedure for lock down, evacuation, and shelter in place.
▪ Conduct mock drills of the above procedures from time to time.
▪ Maintain close liaison with the Fire Department, Law enforcement agencies, local
emergency department and Health officials.
▪ Establish proper backup communication network and back up communication plan in
case of failure of the main system.
▪ Conduct class wise workshops for improving response capabilities of staff and
students by providing information, education, and consciousness to deal with a crisis.
▪ Review and update the plan regularly.
• Display phone numbers and address of local
[B] - Execution / Action plan
▪ In case of an emergency / crisis event the H.M. is expected to work as a Commander
in Chief.
▪ Alert the external agencies like Fire, Police, Hospitals and Municipal Health
Department etc.
▪ Approach with speed but be clam and controlled.
▪ Control the rumors and boost the morale by making announcements on the public
address system.
▪ Make accurate assessment of the situation
▪ Decide and prioritize the plan of action.
▪ Put the pre-planned strategy in action.
▪ Inform and direct the Team members to take their respective positions.
▪ Keep the alternate back up plan ready.
[C] - Follow up / Review
▪ After the crisis, the SDMC team members who are trained to handle the post crisis
trauma should take their positions.
▪ Copies of the report should be sent to all the stakeholders like Management, P.T.A.,
Education Department etc.
▪ Organize a review meeting with the SDMC teams to find out the strength and
weaknesses of the prevention action taken plan to make it more realistic, effective,
and practical in future.
▪ Report of the entire event should be prepared and documented.
▪ The relief operation should be put into action.
▪ Through the communication network the message should be sent that the crisis is
over, and the situation is under control.
Steps in School Disaster Management planning
▪ Meeting for awareness amongst Teachers/ School Management.
▪ Formation of the School Disaster Management Committee (SDMC).
▪ Awareness activities & Dissemination of the plan to everybody in the school.
▪ Formation and Training of the School Disaster Management Teams.
▪ Preparation of the School Disaster Management Plan (SDMP) document.
▪ Hazard identification and safety assessment.
▪ Conduct regular mock drill and report to SDMC.
▪ Evaluation of the Plan to improve effectiveness.
▪ Display of evacuation plan on each floor
▪ Training of teachers and students through workshops by experts
▪ Mock Drills by the fire safety department and police department
▪ Proper provision of escort teachers for the transport.
▪ Contingency plan for earthquake and other related disaster are displayed on each
floor.
▪ School gate keeper is well trained and showing of I card is mandatory for all the
visitors.
Steps in School Disaster Management planning
(Contd.)
▪ Special committee of parent community is involved in disaster related issues.
▪ Emergency contact numbers are displayed for immediate action, like Police, Fire
brigade, Ambulance, and municipal corporation.
▪ Distinct and loud sound of the hooter to easily identify the disaster.
▪ Special club for disaster management to acquaint the children for safety measures.
▪ Special assemblies are conducted for regular updating.
▪ Allocate time for weekly knowledge and life-skill building activities.
▪ Incorporate school safety issues in the school development plan.
▪ Ensure that teachers and non-teaching staff receive appropriate training in disaster risk reduction.
▪ Ensure that relevant norms and standards for school safety are applied in the school building and
functions.
▪ Deploy appropriate strategies to encourage and support children to participate in spreading disaster
risk reduction knowledge to families and communities.
▪ Teach children about natural disasters (e.g., what causes a hurricane/tornado/etc., how experts track
them) and basic emergency preparedness skills to help them gain mastery over the event.
CONCLUSION
▪ Disasters are often unpredictable, intense situations, requiring program
leaders to respond quickly and effectively to help keep children safe.
▪ It’s normal for even the most experienced caretakers to feel overwhelmed
when an emergency arises.
▪ But it’s important to keep calm and rely on the emergency plan.
▪ Enthusiasm in disaster preparedness generally fades once an emergency
phase is over, which needs reviving measures.
▪ School and media play a prominent role in efficient disaster management
system which is vital for a suitable future of life on earth.
Safety Audit – (Appendix – 1)
Safety Audit is an important aspect of mitigation measure. It determines how safe
the school is from physical threat. Periodic safety audits must be done to assess
the vulnerability of school from potential threat.
▪ Building Audit – It can be done with the help of PWD/R&B, Municipal Engineer,
Local Engineering College.
▪ Fire Safety Audit – It can be done with the help of Local Fire Department.
▪ Inspection of Mid-Day Meal Food – It can be done through Mid-Day
Meal inspector/Health Official of that region.
▪ Inspection of Drinking Water – It can be done through Municipal
corporation/Municipality.
▪ Washroom Inspection – It can be done by School Administration/ PTA.
▪ Electrical Safety Audit – It can be done with the help of Electricity Department,
Local Engineering College.
Constitution of SDMC – Teams (Appendix - 2)
The following teams must be created and shall work under SDMC.
▪ 1. Awareness generation and communication team
▪ 2. First aid team
▪ 3. Search and rescue team
▪ 4. Evacuation team
▪ 5. Site security team
▪ 6. Transport management team
▪ 7. Fire safety team
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
1. Awareness and Communication Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students)
Before Disaster
▪ Acquire school map, evacuation plan, building plan, information on number of
students, teachers and other staff, No. of Classrooms, Labs, and contact information
of nearest Fire Station, Hospital, Police Station, etc.
▪ Collect and develop material like posters, booklets, leaflets, paintings, pamphlets,
charts etc in coordination with Local & district administration.
▪ Organize activities like painting, debate, essay, skit, slogans etc related to disaster
management in coordination with school management for students, teachers, and
other staff.
▪ Conduct awareness generation programmes for school staff in coordination with
local representatives, fire station and police department, rotary club etc.
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
(Contd.)
▪ Organize health camps for students and teachers on first aid techniques.
▪ Support other teams in carrying out their regular mock drills.
▪ Keep school up to date with information on daily weather, reports on earthquake,
floods, or any other disaster.
▪ Prepare a list of contact details of parents of all the students and inform the parents
about the contact details of team members for better communication & coordination
during emergencies.
• During Disaster
▪ Alert the school and authorities with appropriate alarming methods.
▪ Assist other teams to carry out their duties in emergency.
• After Disaster
▪ Monitor the situation & communicate with emergency responders for
post disaster activities such as medical first aid, search & rescue etc.
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
2. First Aid Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students)
Before Disaster
▪ First aid kit should be kept in school (at a place which is easily accessible & known to all) and
its stock must be up to date.
▪ All the members of the team must be trained in basic first aid techniques through local health
department/fire brigade/NGO’s working in health sectors.
▪ The refresher training must be provided regularly to every member of this team.
▪ Conduct regular drills to improve the effectiveness and capability.
During Disaster
▪ Establish emergency first aid post at appropriate place in the school.
▪ Provide first aid facilities based on the extent of injuries.
After Disaster
▪ Call 108 or help from nearby health centre/hospital depending on the extent of injuries.
▪ Find an appropriate place to establish centre for catering the injured people.
▪ Record all the cases and treatment provided.
▪ For seriously injured people, send them to nearby health hospital in coordination with 108
with help from the transport team.
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
3.Search and Rescue Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students)
Before Disaster
▪ Acquire map of school, building plan with indication of entries, exits, staircases, corridors, gates, door, windows
etc, and a copy of school evacuation plan.
▪ Get information on number of students in each class, teachers, other staff, classrooms, labs.
▪ All the keys of classrooms, labs, school gates must be kept at appropriate place so that it can be
easily accessed, and the entire team members should be aware about it.
▪ Vital equipment such as whistle, rescue helmets, torches, lanterns, ropes, and ladder (In case of two or more
storey building) and equipment’s required to rescue disabled people must be kept ready.
▪ The team member should be trained in basic search and rescue techniques through local fire department.
▪ Mock drills must be organized regularly to ensure effectiveness and better coordination.
During Disaster
▪ Carry out search and rescue operation as per the situation.
▪ Rescue people as per their vulnerability i.e. disable people must be given preference over the others. The rescued
people must be move out to safer place.
After Disaster
▪ All rooms should be checked so that no one is left in any of the room.
▪ For seriously injured people, injured people should be handed over to first aid team for medical assistance.
▪ Update rescue procedures as learned during rescue operations, if any.
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
4.Evacuation Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students)
Before Disaster
▪ Acquire map of school, building plan with indication of entries, exits, staircases, corridors, gates, door, windows
etc, and prepare an evacuation plan for the school.
▪ Get information on number of students in each class, teachers, other staff, classrooms, labs.
▪ All the keys of classrooms, labs, school gates must be kept in appropriate place so that it can be easily accessed.
Also, the entire team member should be aware about it.
▪ Signposts should be put on walls by assessing hazard so that people from every room can get guidance for easy
and early evacuation.
▪ Make arrangement for necessary supplies for evacuation giving importance to the needs of disabled people.
▪ Regular evacuation drills must be practiced in coordination with other teams for different hazards.
During Disaster
▪ Evacuate people as per the procedure confirmed in practice drills.
▪ Students must be guided till the last student is out of risk.
After Disaster
▪ Take a roll call of all the evacuated people, note, and match it with the actual number mentioned in the school
records.
▪ If any discrepancy arises in the number, report it to search and rescue team.
▪ Monitor the evacuation process and note special points which were missed in practiced drills.
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
5. Site Security Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students)
Before Disaster
▪ Acquire map of school, building plan with indication of entries, exits, staircases, corridors, gates, door, windows
etc, and evacuation plan document.
▪ Get information on number of students in each class, teachers, other staff, classrooms, labs.
▪ All the keys of classrooms, labs, school gates must be kept in appropriate place so that it can be easily accessed.
Also, the team members should be aware about it.
▪ Prepare guidelines for releasing students in case of emergency involving Transport Management Team and same
must be shared with parents and guardians.
▪ Preparing a list of contact details of parents of all the students & also provide the contact details of site security
team members to the parents for better coordination during emergency.
During Disaster
▪ Restrict the entry and exit in school premises and make it available for only emergency services.
▪ Get help from local police or fire brigade to manage crowd, if required.
After Disaster
▪ Secure the building premises by restricting entry and exit.
▪ Keep 2 members of the team at the gates to deal with parents and guardians and coordinate with fire brigade,
police personnel and other related agencies to help them reach the affected areas.
•
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
6.Transport Management Team (Teacher/s & 2 students in each Bus)
Before Disaster
▪ Prepare a contact list of all nearby hospitals, health centres, police stations, fire station, bus depot, parents of all
school children etc and establish a linkage between them.
▪ A route map should be prepared for all the vehicles available at school and their destination point must be marked
on the map. An alternate route may also be marked on map in case of cordon.
▪ All the vehicle personnel must be involved in the route map making as they can get acquainted with nearby
routes.
▪ All members must get basic first aid training from local health department.
▪ The team must be aware about the releasing guidelines of students for effective management.
▪ A separate strategy must be developed for disabled children.
During Disaster
▪ Guide the vehicle personnel to move out of school safely to the destination point.
▪ All the students must be positioned safely in designated vehicle. Special care should be taken for disabled
children.
After Disaster
▪ Coordinate with other teams for further requirement of vehicles for transportation.
▪ Instruct people to remain calm and guide them to reach their respective vehicle in coordination with vehicle
personnel.
▪ Provide first aid help to injured people in coordination with members of first aid team.
Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3)
7.Fire Safety Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students)
Before Disaster
▪ Ensure that the school has enough fire extinguishers installed and the same are in working condition.
▪ All the team members must know how to operate the fire extinguisher.
▪ Ensure that the periodic fire safety assessment is done by local fire department in consultation with district
administration.
▪ Team members must participate in the mock drill regularly.
▪ Keep an eye on nearby hazardous areas such as industries, factories etc and update local administration about any latest
activity related to them.
▪ Ensure that the electric wires and switches including main switches must be covered and if found open report to the
school management to get it repaired in consultation with electricity department.
During Disaster
▪ Switch off the main switch if possible and cut down the supply of electricity for the entire school.
▪ If any student catches fire, order him to do STOP, DROP and ROLL.
▪ Use fire extinguishers and try to extinguish the fire wherever seen.
▪ If fire is taking huge magnitude, then get out of the school building.
▪ Inform local fire brigade as early as possible.
After Disaster
▪ Ensure that all students are present in the school ground. If found missing in the head count, must report to search and
rescue team.
▪ Assist search and rescue team and first aid team to carry out their operations.
▪ Prepare updates and report to school management/local district administration for better coordination.
Capacity Building and Training – (Appendix – 4)
▪ Capacity Building and Training of Teachers, Students, and other Staff is an important aspect.
▪ For responding to any emergency school community must be trained in basic disaster management
skills.
▪ It is crucial to choose the most appropriate group of teachers & students for training.
▪ School administration must arrange training programs for students, teachers, and other staff in
consultation with local fire brigade, health centre, police station and civil defence.
▪ Special attention should be paid to selecting those teachers with outstanding experience in teaching
lessons related to disaster issues.
▪ Spending adequate preparation time and utilizing all available resources before a disaster occurs, is of
high importance.
▪ Teachers should be prepared to allocate a certain period of their routine work to be trained on disaster
issues.
▪ The SDMC must have the basic understanding of disaster management.
▪ The Teams under SDMC must be trained in their respective fields for effective management of disaster
situations.
• Training Methods: Group Discussion, Demonstration, Excursion, Conference, Role Play, Learning by
Doing, Mock Drills etc.
Resource inventory – (Appendix – 5)
a) List of resources available in the school campus
S.NO. Resource - Number - Physical Position
▪ First aid box
▪ Fire extinguishers
▪ Torch
▪ Thick ropes
▪ Sand buckets
▪ Computer lab
▪ Physics lab
▪ Chemistry lab
▪ Biology lab
▪ Canteen
▪ Drinking water facility
▪ Toilets
▪ School playground
▪ Library
▪ Rooms in school (Class, Staff, Principal, Admin)
▪ Stretcher
▪ Ladders
▪ Temporary Shelters (Tents and Tarpaulins)
Resource inventory – (Appendix – 5)
b) List of resources available outside school campus within a vicinity of 5km
S.NO. Resource- Contact details - Location/ Address
▪ Hospital
▪ Police station
▪ Fire station
▪ Blood bank
▪ Pharmacy
▪ NGO
▪ Civil defence
▪ Grocery shop
▪ Restaurant
▪ Trained/Certified Swimmer
▪ Collector’s Office
▪ Religious place (temple, mosque, church, etc)
School Maps - Appendix – 6
▪ The school map is the essential part of the plan. It requires elemental
situational analysis of whole School and its nearby premises. There should
be 3 types of maps which need to be prepared under School Disaster
Management Plan.
1. School Physical Map
▪ The School Physical Map must include the following features:
▪ Number of classrooms in the school
▪ Number of Staff rooms
▪ Principal’s and Vice principal’s room
▪ Toilets and other rooms
▪ Various labs such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Computer
▪ Playground and open spaces.
School Maps - Appendix – 6
Model Physical Map of School:
School Maps - Appendix – 6
2. School Resource Map:
The Resource Map must include the following features:
▪ Material resources such as Fire extinguisher, rope, first Aid box etc
available within the School Premises.
▪ Nearest available resources such as Fire station, Hospital/PHC, Police
Station, Civil defence office, EOC etc
▪ Nearest Bus stand, Railway Stations, auto stand.
▪ Geographical characteristics such as lake, rivers, higher/lower grounds,
beach etc located near to school premises.
School Maps - Appendix – 6
3. School Evacuation Map:
The Evacuation Map must include the following features:
▪ The evacuation map must show all the stairs, door, and windows.
▪ The exits shall be clearly demarcated in the map.
▪ It must show the various exit routes from the Classroom, Staffroom, etc
by arrows on the map.
▪ The map must be kept at various locations in school, so that the user will
have an idea of the nearest exits, and the evacuation route.
▪ Also mark the alternative routes if possible.
School Maps - Appendix – 6
Model School Evacuation Map:
Disaster Response Activities – (Appendix – 7)
▪ Warning
▪ Evacuation/Mitigation
▪ Search and Rescue
▪ Assessment
▪ Emergency Relief
▪ Logistics and Supply
▪ Communication and information Management
▪ Survivor Response and coping
▪ Security
▪ Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Provisions for Special-Need People – (Appendix – 8)
▪ The disables are the most vulnerable people in disaster situation. Therefore, to avoid
further disability cases and to secure the existing, special provisions must be included
for disabled people in any disaster management plan.
▪ The school building must be designed keeping in view the accessibility and
movement of the disabled people.
▪ Special provision must be provided in the school building for hurdle free entry and
exit of disabled people and free movement in and around school campus.
▪ The drinking water facility and washroom facility must be accessible to them.
▪ Always use the buddy system to facilitate disability in every situation.
▪ Sensitize school community and other stakeholders about mainstreaming disability.
▪ Training programs must be organized to strengthen their capacity.
▪ Awareness generation programs must be organized for parents, students, and local
community about disability.
REFRENCES
In addition to original material, this presentation draws upon the following key
resources:
▪ National Disaster Management Guidelines – School Safety Policy – Government of
India – February 2016
▪ School Safety – Ministry of Home Affairs – National Disaster management Division –
Govt. of India – December 2004
▪ School Disaster Management Plan - Directorate of Fire & Emergency Services -
Government of Goa
▪ “How Safe is My School” NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
(Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India)
THANK YOU

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Role of Headmaster in Disaster Management - Najma Kazi

  • 1. ROLE OF HEADMASTER IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Najma Kazi najmakazi@gmail.com
  • 2. ROLE OF HEADMASTER IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT ▪ ‘The Headmaster’ being the Head of the organization plays an especially important role in formulation and execution of any task or project including crisis management. ▪ No task is as important as creating a safe & secure learning environment for our Children. ▪ Any disaster/ crisis in a school must be taken seriously as the safety and security of many children and staff on campus during the school hours is the ultimate responsibility of the school management of which the H.M. is the most important member. ▪ Considering the cost and consequences of any emergency, no H.M. can afford to ignore or evade a sound disaster management plan. ▪ It is extremely necessary for every school to have a proper and well-defined school specific disaster management system in place. ▪ The formulation of such plan and its implementation calls for minute care and detailed planning and hence the H.M. should take special interest and should possess sound managerial skills for the effectiveness of the project.
  • 3. What is a Disaster? ▪ ‘Disasters’, are defined as “a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.” ▪ World Health Organisation (W.H.O.) “A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area.” ▪ American Red Cross (ARC) “A disaster can be defined as an occurrence either nature or manmade that causes human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without assistance.”
  • 4. Types of Disasters ▪ Natural: Earthquake, Floods, Cyclone, Drought, Thunderstorm, Heatwaves, Volcano, Landslides, Medical Emergencies, Cold wave, Pest Infestation, etc. ▪ Man-Made: Fire, Short Circuit, Power Failure, Gas Leak, Blast, Stampede, Road Accidents, Riots, War, Epidemic, Terror Attack, Bomb Threat, Hostage/ Kidnapping, Pollution, Food poisoning, Suicides etc.
  • 5. Regulatory Provisions ▪ Constitution of India: As per the Indian Constitution, access to education is a fundamental right of each child in the country. ▪ National Policy on Children -2013: The Policy has identified survival, health, nutrition, education, development, protection (including from emergencies/disasters) and participation as the undeniable rights of every child and has also declared these as key priority areas. ▪ National Disaster Management Act – 2005: The Act envisages promotion of safety awareness among school stakeholders including teachers and students. ▪ National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM), 2009: The National Policy on Disaster Management 2009 highlights the need for structural as well as non- structural safety in schools and educational institutions. ▪ The National Disaster Management Guidelines- School Safety Policy (February 2016): It applies to all schools in the country – whether government, aided or private, irrespective of their location in rural or urban areas. ▪ The National School Safety Policy Guidelines stand for a vision of India where all children and their teachers, and other stakeholders in the school community are safe from any kind of risks due to natural hazards & ‘School Safety’ has been defined as the creation of safe environments for children starting from their homes to their schools and back.
  • 6. What is Disaster Management? ▪ Disaster Management is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster response (emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.) as well as supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human- made disasters have occurred. ▪ It is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards to avoid or amend the impact of disasters resulting from the hazard.
  • 7. Objectives of a Disaster Management Plan ▪ Ensuring the creation of safe learning environment for children. ▪ Preparing & establishing an emergency response system. ▪ Highlighting the specific actions towards school safety that can be undertaken by different stakeholders within the existing framework for delivery of education. ▪ Collating all the information needed for effective management of disasters in Schools. ▪ Creating awareness and building the capacity of school community. ▪ Defining the roles and responsibilities for effective response. ▪ Identifying and managing the hazards in the school. ▪ Minimizing the loss & mitigating the effect of disasters based on technology, traditional wisdom, and environmental sustainability. ▪ Promoting partnership among the various stakeholders. ▪ Developing a culture of prevention, preparedness, and resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation, and education.
  • 8. Essentials of a Disaster Management Plan ▪ Clarity of aims and objectives ▪ Effective communication / information. ▪ Flexible ▪ Makes co-ordination simple and practical. ▪ Realistic / workable plan ▪ Responsibilities are well defined. ▪ Result oriented. ▪ Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Response, Disaster Mitigation, Rehabilitation, & Reconstruction.
  • 9. School Disaster Management Plan ▪ Every school should set up a School Disaster Management Committee (SDMC). ▪ The SDMC will have a two-tier structure. ▪ Policy / Decision makers: Consisting of five members. H.M, Asst. H.M, Supervisor, Management Representative and Parent Representative ▪ Executors: Consisting of H.M., Asst. H.M., Supervisors, and appropriate number of Teaching staff, Clerical staff, Support Staff, and Students (Class representatives) ▪ The SDMC should ideally meet once in 3 months. ▪ The main responsibility of the SDMC is to formulate and implement a school specific Disaster Management Plan. ▪ The three stages of a Disaster Management Plan are as under: - [A] Preventions and Precautions [B] Action plan / Execution [C] Follow up / Review
  • 10. "By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail." Benjamin Franklin
  • 11. [A] - Preventions and Precautions (School Preparedness Plan) ▪ Determine major risk areas (Hazard Assessment or Safety Audit) of School Building, classrooms, and neighborhood. – (Appendix – 1) ▪ Form School Disaster Management Teams, display their names, designation, contact details & introduce them well so that their instructions are followed in crises. (Appendix - 2) ▪ Prepare a formal document that set out the sequence of activities and role and responsibilities of each team member. (Appendix - 3) ▪ Train identified staff with latest technology and information. (Appendix - 4) ▪ Develop and maintain a list of needed emergency supplies and tools necessary to respond and implement the plan (Appendix - 5). ▪ Identify the strategic placement of resources to be used. (Appendix – 5) ▪ Draw a map of the school premises, where in the entry and exist points are numbered according to their priority. (Appendix -6) ▪ Examine and prepare the possible responses in the event of a disaster. (Appendix – 7) ▪ Make special provisions for disabled Children. (Appendix – 8)
  • 12. [A] - Preventions and Precautions (School Preparedness Plan) (Contd.) ▪ Prepare the procedure for lock down, evacuation, and shelter in place. ▪ Conduct mock drills of the above procedures from time to time. ▪ Maintain close liaison with the Fire Department, Law enforcement agencies, local emergency department and Health officials. ▪ Establish proper backup communication network and back up communication plan in case of failure of the main system. ▪ Conduct class wise workshops for improving response capabilities of staff and students by providing information, education, and consciousness to deal with a crisis. ▪ Review and update the plan regularly. • Display phone numbers and address of local
  • 13. [B] - Execution / Action plan ▪ In case of an emergency / crisis event the H.M. is expected to work as a Commander in Chief. ▪ Alert the external agencies like Fire, Police, Hospitals and Municipal Health Department etc. ▪ Approach with speed but be clam and controlled. ▪ Control the rumors and boost the morale by making announcements on the public address system. ▪ Make accurate assessment of the situation ▪ Decide and prioritize the plan of action. ▪ Put the pre-planned strategy in action. ▪ Inform and direct the Team members to take their respective positions. ▪ Keep the alternate back up plan ready.
  • 14. [C] - Follow up / Review ▪ After the crisis, the SDMC team members who are trained to handle the post crisis trauma should take their positions. ▪ Copies of the report should be sent to all the stakeholders like Management, P.T.A., Education Department etc. ▪ Organize a review meeting with the SDMC teams to find out the strength and weaknesses of the prevention action taken plan to make it more realistic, effective, and practical in future. ▪ Report of the entire event should be prepared and documented. ▪ The relief operation should be put into action. ▪ Through the communication network the message should be sent that the crisis is over, and the situation is under control.
  • 15. Steps in School Disaster Management planning ▪ Meeting for awareness amongst Teachers/ School Management. ▪ Formation of the School Disaster Management Committee (SDMC). ▪ Awareness activities & Dissemination of the plan to everybody in the school. ▪ Formation and Training of the School Disaster Management Teams. ▪ Preparation of the School Disaster Management Plan (SDMP) document. ▪ Hazard identification and safety assessment. ▪ Conduct regular mock drill and report to SDMC. ▪ Evaluation of the Plan to improve effectiveness. ▪ Display of evacuation plan on each floor ▪ Training of teachers and students through workshops by experts ▪ Mock Drills by the fire safety department and police department ▪ Proper provision of escort teachers for the transport. ▪ Contingency plan for earthquake and other related disaster are displayed on each floor. ▪ School gate keeper is well trained and showing of I card is mandatory for all the visitors.
  • 16. Steps in School Disaster Management planning (Contd.) ▪ Special committee of parent community is involved in disaster related issues. ▪ Emergency contact numbers are displayed for immediate action, like Police, Fire brigade, Ambulance, and municipal corporation. ▪ Distinct and loud sound of the hooter to easily identify the disaster. ▪ Special club for disaster management to acquaint the children for safety measures. ▪ Special assemblies are conducted for regular updating. ▪ Allocate time for weekly knowledge and life-skill building activities. ▪ Incorporate school safety issues in the school development plan. ▪ Ensure that teachers and non-teaching staff receive appropriate training in disaster risk reduction. ▪ Ensure that relevant norms and standards for school safety are applied in the school building and functions. ▪ Deploy appropriate strategies to encourage and support children to participate in spreading disaster risk reduction knowledge to families and communities. ▪ Teach children about natural disasters (e.g., what causes a hurricane/tornado/etc., how experts track them) and basic emergency preparedness skills to help them gain mastery over the event.
  • 17. CONCLUSION ▪ Disasters are often unpredictable, intense situations, requiring program leaders to respond quickly and effectively to help keep children safe. ▪ It’s normal for even the most experienced caretakers to feel overwhelmed when an emergency arises. ▪ But it’s important to keep calm and rely on the emergency plan. ▪ Enthusiasm in disaster preparedness generally fades once an emergency phase is over, which needs reviving measures. ▪ School and media play a prominent role in efficient disaster management system which is vital for a suitable future of life on earth.
  • 18. Safety Audit – (Appendix – 1) Safety Audit is an important aspect of mitigation measure. It determines how safe the school is from physical threat. Periodic safety audits must be done to assess the vulnerability of school from potential threat. ▪ Building Audit – It can be done with the help of PWD/R&B, Municipal Engineer, Local Engineering College. ▪ Fire Safety Audit – It can be done with the help of Local Fire Department. ▪ Inspection of Mid-Day Meal Food – It can be done through Mid-Day Meal inspector/Health Official of that region. ▪ Inspection of Drinking Water – It can be done through Municipal corporation/Municipality. ▪ Washroom Inspection – It can be done by School Administration/ PTA. ▪ Electrical Safety Audit – It can be done with the help of Electricity Department, Local Engineering College.
  • 19. Constitution of SDMC – Teams (Appendix - 2) The following teams must be created and shall work under SDMC. ▪ 1. Awareness generation and communication team ▪ 2. First aid team ▪ 3. Search and rescue team ▪ 4. Evacuation team ▪ 5. Site security team ▪ 6. Transport management team ▪ 7. Fire safety team
  • 20. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 1. Awareness and Communication Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students) Before Disaster ▪ Acquire school map, evacuation plan, building plan, information on number of students, teachers and other staff, No. of Classrooms, Labs, and contact information of nearest Fire Station, Hospital, Police Station, etc. ▪ Collect and develop material like posters, booklets, leaflets, paintings, pamphlets, charts etc in coordination with Local & district administration. ▪ Organize activities like painting, debate, essay, skit, slogans etc related to disaster management in coordination with school management for students, teachers, and other staff. ▪ Conduct awareness generation programmes for school staff in coordination with local representatives, fire station and police department, rotary club etc.
  • 21. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) (Contd.) ▪ Organize health camps for students and teachers on first aid techniques. ▪ Support other teams in carrying out their regular mock drills. ▪ Keep school up to date with information on daily weather, reports on earthquake, floods, or any other disaster. ▪ Prepare a list of contact details of parents of all the students and inform the parents about the contact details of team members for better communication & coordination during emergencies. • During Disaster ▪ Alert the school and authorities with appropriate alarming methods. ▪ Assist other teams to carry out their duties in emergency. • After Disaster ▪ Monitor the situation & communicate with emergency responders for post disaster activities such as medical first aid, search & rescue etc.
  • 22. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 2. First Aid Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students) Before Disaster ▪ First aid kit should be kept in school (at a place which is easily accessible & known to all) and its stock must be up to date. ▪ All the members of the team must be trained in basic first aid techniques through local health department/fire brigade/NGO’s working in health sectors. ▪ The refresher training must be provided regularly to every member of this team. ▪ Conduct regular drills to improve the effectiveness and capability. During Disaster ▪ Establish emergency first aid post at appropriate place in the school. ▪ Provide first aid facilities based on the extent of injuries. After Disaster ▪ Call 108 or help from nearby health centre/hospital depending on the extent of injuries. ▪ Find an appropriate place to establish centre for catering the injured people. ▪ Record all the cases and treatment provided. ▪ For seriously injured people, send them to nearby health hospital in coordination with 108 with help from the transport team.
  • 23. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 3.Search and Rescue Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students) Before Disaster ▪ Acquire map of school, building plan with indication of entries, exits, staircases, corridors, gates, door, windows etc, and a copy of school evacuation plan. ▪ Get information on number of students in each class, teachers, other staff, classrooms, labs. ▪ All the keys of classrooms, labs, school gates must be kept at appropriate place so that it can be easily accessed, and the entire team members should be aware about it. ▪ Vital equipment such as whistle, rescue helmets, torches, lanterns, ropes, and ladder (In case of two or more storey building) and equipment’s required to rescue disabled people must be kept ready. ▪ The team member should be trained in basic search and rescue techniques through local fire department. ▪ Mock drills must be organized regularly to ensure effectiveness and better coordination. During Disaster ▪ Carry out search and rescue operation as per the situation. ▪ Rescue people as per their vulnerability i.e. disable people must be given preference over the others. The rescued people must be move out to safer place. After Disaster ▪ All rooms should be checked so that no one is left in any of the room. ▪ For seriously injured people, injured people should be handed over to first aid team for medical assistance. ▪ Update rescue procedures as learned during rescue operations, if any.
  • 24. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 4.Evacuation Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students) Before Disaster ▪ Acquire map of school, building plan with indication of entries, exits, staircases, corridors, gates, door, windows etc, and prepare an evacuation plan for the school. ▪ Get information on number of students in each class, teachers, other staff, classrooms, labs. ▪ All the keys of classrooms, labs, school gates must be kept in appropriate place so that it can be easily accessed. Also, the entire team member should be aware about it. ▪ Signposts should be put on walls by assessing hazard so that people from every room can get guidance for easy and early evacuation. ▪ Make arrangement for necessary supplies for evacuation giving importance to the needs of disabled people. ▪ Regular evacuation drills must be practiced in coordination with other teams for different hazards. During Disaster ▪ Evacuate people as per the procedure confirmed in practice drills. ▪ Students must be guided till the last student is out of risk. After Disaster ▪ Take a roll call of all the evacuated people, note, and match it with the actual number mentioned in the school records. ▪ If any discrepancy arises in the number, report it to search and rescue team. ▪ Monitor the evacuation process and note special points which were missed in practiced drills.
  • 25. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 5. Site Security Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students) Before Disaster ▪ Acquire map of school, building plan with indication of entries, exits, staircases, corridors, gates, door, windows etc, and evacuation plan document. ▪ Get information on number of students in each class, teachers, other staff, classrooms, labs. ▪ All the keys of classrooms, labs, school gates must be kept in appropriate place so that it can be easily accessed. Also, the team members should be aware about it. ▪ Prepare guidelines for releasing students in case of emergency involving Transport Management Team and same must be shared with parents and guardians. ▪ Preparing a list of contact details of parents of all the students & also provide the contact details of site security team members to the parents for better coordination during emergency. During Disaster ▪ Restrict the entry and exit in school premises and make it available for only emergency services. ▪ Get help from local police or fire brigade to manage crowd, if required. After Disaster ▪ Secure the building premises by restricting entry and exit. ▪ Keep 2 members of the team at the gates to deal with parents and guardians and coordinate with fire brigade, police personnel and other related agencies to help them reach the affected areas. •
  • 26. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 6.Transport Management Team (Teacher/s & 2 students in each Bus) Before Disaster ▪ Prepare a contact list of all nearby hospitals, health centres, police stations, fire station, bus depot, parents of all school children etc and establish a linkage between them. ▪ A route map should be prepared for all the vehicles available at school and their destination point must be marked on the map. An alternate route may also be marked on map in case of cordon. ▪ All the vehicle personnel must be involved in the route map making as they can get acquainted with nearby routes. ▪ All members must get basic first aid training from local health department. ▪ The team must be aware about the releasing guidelines of students for effective management. ▪ A separate strategy must be developed for disabled children. During Disaster ▪ Guide the vehicle personnel to move out of school safely to the destination point. ▪ All the students must be positioned safely in designated vehicle. Special care should be taken for disabled children. After Disaster ▪ Coordinate with other teams for further requirement of vehicles for transportation. ▪ Instruct people to remain calm and guide them to reach their respective vehicle in coordination with vehicle personnel. ▪ Provide first aid help to injured people in coordination with members of first aid team.
  • 27. Roles and Responsibilities of SDMC Teams - (Appendix – 3) 7.Fire Safety Team (Teacher/s & 5-6 Students) Before Disaster ▪ Ensure that the school has enough fire extinguishers installed and the same are in working condition. ▪ All the team members must know how to operate the fire extinguisher. ▪ Ensure that the periodic fire safety assessment is done by local fire department in consultation with district administration. ▪ Team members must participate in the mock drill regularly. ▪ Keep an eye on nearby hazardous areas such as industries, factories etc and update local administration about any latest activity related to them. ▪ Ensure that the electric wires and switches including main switches must be covered and if found open report to the school management to get it repaired in consultation with electricity department. During Disaster ▪ Switch off the main switch if possible and cut down the supply of electricity for the entire school. ▪ If any student catches fire, order him to do STOP, DROP and ROLL. ▪ Use fire extinguishers and try to extinguish the fire wherever seen. ▪ If fire is taking huge magnitude, then get out of the school building. ▪ Inform local fire brigade as early as possible. After Disaster ▪ Ensure that all students are present in the school ground. If found missing in the head count, must report to search and rescue team. ▪ Assist search and rescue team and first aid team to carry out their operations. ▪ Prepare updates and report to school management/local district administration for better coordination.
  • 28. Capacity Building and Training – (Appendix – 4) ▪ Capacity Building and Training of Teachers, Students, and other Staff is an important aspect. ▪ For responding to any emergency school community must be trained in basic disaster management skills. ▪ It is crucial to choose the most appropriate group of teachers & students for training. ▪ School administration must arrange training programs for students, teachers, and other staff in consultation with local fire brigade, health centre, police station and civil defence. ▪ Special attention should be paid to selecting those teachers with outstanding experience in teaching lessons related to disaster issues. ▪ Spending adequate preparation time and utilizing all available resources before a disaster occurs, is of high importance. ▪ Teachers should be prepared to allocate a certain period of their routine work to be trained on disaster issues. ▪ The SDMC must have the basic understanding of disaster management. ▪ The Teams under SDMC must be trained in their respective fields for effective management of disaster situations. • Training Methods: Group Discussion, Demonstration, Excursion, Conference, Role Play, Learning by Doing, Mock Drills etc.
  • 29. Resource inventory – (Appendix – 5) a) List of resources available in the school campus S.NO. Resource - Number - Physical Position ▪ First aid box ▪ Fire extinguishers ▪ Torch ▪ Thick ropes ▪ Sand buckets ▪ Computer lab ▪ Physics lab ▪ Chemistry lab ▪ Biology lab ▪ Canteen ▪ Drinking water facility ▪ Toilets ▪ School playground ▪ Library ▪ Rooms in school (Class, Staff, Principal, Admin) ▪ Stretcher ▪ Ladders ▪ Temporary Shelters (Tents and Tarpaulins)
  • 30. Resource inventory – (Appendix – 5) b) List of resources available outside school campus within a vicinity of 5km S.NO. Resource- Contact details - Location/ Address ▪ Hospital ▪ Police station ▪ Fire station ▪ Blood bank ▪ Pharmacy ▪ NGO ▪ Civil defence ▪ Grocery shop ▪ Restaurant ▪ Trained/Certified Swimmer ▪ Collector’s Office ▪ Religious place (temple, mosque, church, etc)
  • 31. School Maps - Appendix – 6 ▪ The school map is the essential part of the plan. It requires elemental situational analysis of whole School and its nearby premises. There should be 3 types of maps which need to be prepared under School Disaster Management Plan. 1. School Physical Map ▪ The School Physical Map must include the following features: ▪ Number of classrooms in the school ▪ Number of Staff rooms ▪ Principal’s and Vice principal’s room ▪ Toilets and other rooms ▪ Various labs such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Computer ▪ Playground and open spaces.
  • 32. School Maps - Appendix – 6 Model Physical Map of School:
  • 33. School Maps - Appendix – 6 2. School Resource Map: The Resource Map must include the following features: ▪ Material resources such as Fire extinguisher, rope, first Aid box etc available within the School Premises. ▪ Nearest available resources such as Fire station, Hospital/PHC, Police Station, Civil defence office, EOC etc ▪ Nearest Bus stand, Railway Stations, auto stand. ▪ Geographical characteristics such as lake, rivers, higher/lower grounds, beach etc located near to school premises.
  • 34. School Maps - Appendix – 6 3. School Evacuation Map: The Evacuation Map must include the following features: ▪ The evacuation map must show all the stairs, door, and windows. ▪ The exits shall be clearly demarcated in the map. ▪ It must show the various exit routes from the Classroom, Staffroom, etc by arrows on the map. ▪ The map must be kept at various locations in school, so that the user will have an idea of the nearest exits, and the evacuation route. ▪ Also mark the alternative routes if possible.
  • 35. School Maps - Appendix – 6 Model School Evacuation Map:
  • 36. Disaster Response Activities – (Appendix – 7) ▪ Warning ▪ Evacuation/Mitigation ▪ Search and Rescue ▪ Assessment ▪ Emergency Relief ▪ Logistics and Supply ▪ Communication and information Management ▪ Survivor Response and coping ▪ Security ▪ Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  • 37. Provisions for Special-Need People – (Appendix – 8) ▪ The disables are the most vulnerable people in disaster situation. Therefore, to avoid further disability cases and to secure the existing, special provisions must be included for disabled people in any disaster management plan. ▪ The school building must be designed keeping in view the accessibility and movement of the disabled people. ▪ Special provision must be provided in the school building for hurdle free entry and exit of disabled people and free movement in and around school campus. ▪ The drinking water facility and washroom facility must be accessible to them. ▪ Always use the buddy system to facilitate disability in every situation. ▪ Sensitize school community and other stakeholders about mainstreaming disability. ▪ Training programs must be organized to strengthen their capacity. ▪ Awareness generation programs must be organized for parents, students, and local community about disability.
  • 38. REFRENCES In addition to original material, this presentation draws upon the following key resources: ▪ National Disaster Management Guidelines – School Safety Policy – Government of India – February 2016 ▪ School Safety – Ministry of Home Affairs – National Disaster management Division – Govt. of India – December 2004 ▪ School Disaster Management Plan - Directorate of Fire & Emergency Services - Government of Goa ▪ “How Safe is My School” NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India)
  • 39.