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KNOW THE DIFFERENCES
(Comparison of Terminologies)
Najma Kazi
najmakazi@gmail.com
WHAT & WHY
OF
“KNOW THE
DIFFERENCES”
Meanings, Examples & Images are used for better
comprehension & proper applications.
The Differences are expressed in the form of Comparison
Tables.
The consequent slides, show & explain the basic differences
between a few commonly used educational terminologies.
This Presentation is prepared with the sole intention of
bringing clarity in the different concepts used in Education.
DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN
1) Learning & Education
2) Vision, Mission, Goals & Objectives
3) Learning Goals, Learning Objectives & Learning Outcomes
4) Curriculum & Syllabus
5) Pedagogy, Andragogy & Heutagogy
6) Active Learning & Passive Learning
7) Assessment & Evaluation
8) Formative Assessment & Summative Assessment
9) Percentage & Percentile
10) Curricular, Co-curricular & Extra curricular Activities
11) Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Dyspraxia
12) Hearing & Listening
13) Discipline & Punishment
14) Training & Development
15) Seminar, Workshop, Conference, Symposium, Conclave, Summit
16) Hard Skills & Soft Skills
17) Intelligent Quotient & Emotional Quotient
18) Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom
19) Duties & Responsibilities
20) Authoritarian Boss, Manager, Leader
21) Bill, Ordinance, Act, Rules, GR.
22) Curriculum Vitae, Resume, Bio-data
23) Miscellaneous
Image Credit: 123RF
1 – LEARNING & EDUCATION
Dimensions Learning Education
Definition Learning refers to an intellectual process of
acquiring new skills and knowledge, through
experience, study, or teaching
Education is an enlightening process of receiving and
providing knowledge, through systematic instruction
Purpose To bring certain desirable changes in the behaviour To regulate future actions and develop new knowledge
Process Natural Deliberate
Design Learning is independent of Education Learning is a must for Education
Guidance/Source Both may or may not be required Require both Guidance & Source
Nature Informal, Unplanned & Unstructured Formal, Planned & Structured
Duration It is a lifelong ongoing process Education is that one gets at some point in the life
Progress Learning is something that evolves in the inner self Education is that an individual gets from an outside source
Ownership Learning is the basic instinct possessed by all
individuals
Education is intentionally acquired by individuals
Motivation Inherent Extraneous
Image Credit: SteemKR
2 - VISION, MISSION, GOAL, OBJECTIVE
Dimension Vision
(Create Vision)
Mission
(Develop Mission Statement)
Goals
(Identify Goals)
Objectives
(Set Objectives)
Concept A vision statement outlines an
organization’s aspirations and the
wider impact it aims to create.
A mission statement articulates the
purpose of an organization’s core
principle, focus, and aims.
Goals are an intermediate result or
specific target which an organization is
expected to achieve by a certain span of
time.
Objectives are precise quantifiable actions &
timelines that are necessary to achieve the
goal/s.
Purpose A Vision statement is the “why” of
the existence of the Organization
A Mission statement is the “what” and the
“how” of the Vision statement
A Goal is “what” & “when” of the Vision
& Mission statement
Objectives are “what”, “when”, & “How” of
the Goals identified
Features Inspiring, Original, Competitive, &
Realistic
Realistic, Achievable, Precise, Clear, &
Motivating
Well Constructed, Realistic, Quantitative,
Consistent & Prioritized
Specific, Flexible, Attainable, Measurable &
Challenging
Characteristic Forms the basis of formulating the
mission statement
Indicates the process of accomplishing the
objectives
Provides the basis of judging the
performance of the organization
Present quantitative statements of the end
result of the planned activities
Function Helps in creating a common identity
& a shared sense of purpose
Ensures unanimity of purpose & directions Assist in establishing the end result of
activities in general
Supports in enhancing the efficiency &
effectiveness of the organization
Process Define- where are you heading Define – The fundamental Principles Define: Specific measurable statements
aligned with vision & mission
Define – Action steps taken in order to meet
goals
Example
(Educational
Organization)
Vision: “To create a favorable
learning environment & implement
innovative educational approaches”
Mission Statement: “Our mission is to
develop & execute a teaching program which
is child centered, age appropriate & relevant
to the 21st century”
Goal: Our primary goal is to instill the
right values from an early age & prepare
them for the life ahead.
• Objectives:To inculcate in children, the
values of compassion, empathy and respect
towards others and the environment.
• To offer educational programmes that
support children’s academic, physical,
social, emotional & moral development.
Example
(Corporate)
Microsoft Vision: “A Computer on
every desk & in every home.”
Google: “To provide access to the
world’s information in one click”
Microsoft Mission Statement: “To empower
every person and every organization on the
planet to achieve more by creating
technology that transforms the way people
work, play, and communicate.”
The Primary Goals of Microsoft are: To
reinvent productivity and business
processes, build the intelligent cloud
platform and create more personal
computing.
Microsoft Objectives:
• Reinvent productivity and business
processes
• Build the intelligent cloud platform
• Create more personal computing
Image Credit:SAWF Educational Academy
3 – LEARNING GOALS, OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES
Dimension Learning Goals Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes
Definition A general statement that describes the
Competency & desired Knowledge, Skill & Ability
needed to successfully perform after an
Educational Session
A specific statement that describes exactly what is
intended to be able to perform after completing the
educational Session
An explicit statement that describes the learning that will
have achieved & can be demonstrated at the end of the
Educational Session
Objectives Learning Goals are general description of the
overall aim or purpose of Learning
Learning Objectives are brief description of how the
learning goals are to be fulfilled
Learning Outcomes are concise statements of how learners
will demonstrate the achieved learning
Direction Goals set the direction for the performance Objectives help determine what & how must be
accomplished to achieve the goal
Outcome provide measurable effects the program will
accomplish
Aim Goals are generally what is intended to learn Objectives are specifically what & how the content is
intended to be learnt
Outcomes are what the students will be able to do by the
end of the lesson
Focus Goals are syllabus centric (Prescribes) Objectives are Teacher centric (Describes) Outcomes are learner centric(Demonstrates)
Design Goals are planned result of the instruction Objectives are intended result of the instruction Outcomes are the achieved result of the instruction
Nature Goals are like vision statement Objectives are like mission statements Outcomes are expected result statement
Features Goals are specific & achievable, may not be
measurable
Objectives are specific, attainable, realistic & measurable Outcomes are observable & measurable (assessable)
Scope Goals are general & broad in scope Objectives are specific & narrow in scope Outcomes are specific & exact in scope
Example Std. X – History – Chapter 1 – Historiography
To understand the concept of ‘Historiography’
1-To introduce the term ‘Historiography’ & explain.
2-To highlight the importance of chronology of past events
and its interconnections
3- To acquaint the students with different sources used by
historians while writing History.
1- Students understand that “Historiography’ is a discipline
involving writing of history
2- Students are able to establish corelation between
happenings in the past & their current & future effects.
3- Students learn about various sources used by historians
for reference, research, & scrutiny of historical facts, to
prove their relevance & authenticity.
Image Credit: PNGitem
Image Credit: Dreamstime.com
Image Credit: Zaidlearn
4 – CURRICULUM & SYLLABUS
Dimensions Curriculum Syllabus
Definition
It is the focus of studies consists of various courses designed for a
particular proficiency or Qualification
It is an outline or summary of topics & subtopics to be covered in
a course or subject
Meaning
A curriculum is a more generalized or an overview of the subjects
or topics that the students are meant to learn
A syllabus is a more detailed overview of the subjects of study
Purpose Provides Objectives of the Course Provides Means to achieve the objectives
Nature Perspective Descriptive
Scope Broad Specific
Set of It is the superset of the course of study It is the subset of the curriculum
Term Till the Course Lasts For a fixed Term
Components
Concept format, Administrative Decisions, Syllabus Planning,
Material Design, Evaluation
Subjects, objectives of the subjects, Topics, Sub – topics,
Assessment design & Timeline
Designed At the National Level At the State Level
Example National Curriculum Framework (NCF) - By NCERT
Primary Syllabus – By SCERT
Secondary & Higher Secondary Syllabus - By the State Board
Teaching Program include,
Subject contents, Objectives
& Outcomes, Pedagogy,
Evaluation & Timeline
Image Credit: ResearchGate
5 – Pedagogy, Andragogy & Heutagogy
Dimension Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy
Origin Derived from the Greek word ‘paidi’
meaning child and ‘ago’ means guide.
Derived from the Greek word ‘andras’
meaning man and ‘ago’ means guide.
Derived from the Greek word ‘"heuriskein"
means "to discover“ and ‘ago’ meaning
guide.
Meaning It is the method of teaching Children. It is an adult focused teaching approach. It is the self determined Learning of any age.
Learning
resources
The institution and teacher decide
what the student will learn and how
they will learn it
The teaching of adults (which can be
pedagogical, heutagogical, or a blend
of both)
The student decides what to learn and
how, and is supported by outside
resources, including the teacher
Dependency Learners are dependent Learners are independent Learners are interdependent
Orientation Learning is curriculum & content
driven
Learning is goal oriented Learning is personal goal oriented
Motivation External Motivation Internal Motivation Self efficacy driven
Objective Gaining next level Drive to increase performance Learning potential, unplanned, non- linear
Focus Subject centered, Prescribed Task or problem centered Proactive & problem oriented
Teacher’s
Role
Controller Facilitator Capacity builder
Grades Grades are very important Grades are less important Grades are not important
Learning
Image Credit: The Idea Sensei
6 – ACTIVE LEARNING & PASSIVE LEARNING
Dimensions Active Learning Passive Learning
Meaning Active Learning is that form of learning wherein there is
active involvement of the students in the concerned
activities and discussions
Passive learning is when the learners acquire knowledge
without making any conscious efforts, in this regard.
Learning Student Centered Teacher Centered
Responsibility Learning responsibility is on the student Student’s learning is the responsibility of the Teacher
Role of Teacher Facilitator Master of subject matter
Usage To improve learning Presenting new Matter
Thinking Skills Higher order (HOTS) Low order (LOTS)
Initiates Divergent thinking Convergent thinking
Student’s
Involvement
High involvement Low involvement
Source of knowledge Hands-on observation, practical application, simulations
etc.
Teacher/Instructor, Books or Online Resources
Image Credit: Key Differences
7 – ASSESSMENT & EVALUATION
Dimensions Assessment Evaluation
Definition The process of collecting information or evidence of a
learner’s learning progress & achievement over a period
to improve Teaching & Learning (Bob Adamson)
A process of making overall judgement about one’s work or
performance on a set of standards (Cameron)
Primary Objective Formative (undertaken while an educational process is
ongoing)
Summative (taken at the conclusion of an
educational process)
Purpose To Improve the quality of future Performance To determine the quality of the present performance
Influence Provides feedback on performance and areas of
improvement
Determines the extent to which objectives are achieved
Nature Diagnostic (Identify areas for improvement) Judgemental (Arrive at an overall grade/score)
Focus Process Oriented (Indicates how learning is taking place) Product Oriented (Indicates what has been learned)
Process A process of documenting knowledge, Skills & Attitudes
in measurable terms
A process of making judgement based on criteria & evidence
Designed Designed & intended to be useful to make improvement Designed & intended to document the level of achievement
attained
Standard of
Measurement
Absolute but Flexible: Adjusts as Problems Are Clarified Comparable but Fixed: Rewards Success, Punish Failure
Example Teacher does assessment of students’ performance and
provides constructive feedback.
The evaluation of the skills of a candidate is done before hiring
him or her for the job.
Image Credit: Sergiy Prymachock
8 – FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Dimension Formative Assessment Summative Assessment
Goal The Assessment FOR learning The Assessment OF learning
Purpose To monitor & improve student learning (performance) To evaluate & prove student learning (performance)
Nature Diagnostic Evaluative
Frequency Occurs on a continuous basis (daily) during instruction Occurs at a particular point of time after instruction
Role of
Teachers
To improve learning, make decisions and monitor their instructions
based on students’ performance
To predict & judge students’ performance, give grades and
determine if the content being taught was retained
Role of
students
Active involvement Passive Involvement
Examples Observations, interviews, evidence from work samples, etc. Common assessments like tests and exams
Design Designed to adjust teaching and learning while they are still
occurring
Designed to provide information about the amount of learning
that has occurred at a particular time
Testing
methods
Quiz, interviews, conversations, visual and oral testing, projects,
practicals and assignments etc.
Assessment in the form of pen-paper test mostly
Evaluation Done to improve or change a program while it is in progress Focuses on the results or outcomes of a program
Grading Scored but not graded Scored & Graded
Image Credit : Teachers Pay Teachers Image Credit: Design + Teach + Engage
9 – PERCENTAGE & PERCENTILE
Dimensions Percentage Percentile
Definition The percentage refers to the unit of measurement
indicating, for every hundred.
Percentile represents that value in the distribution or level, at
or below which, a certain percentage of score lies.
Meaning The word ‘percentage’ is a combination of two words,
‘per’ ‘cent’, i.e. ‘per hundred’ or ‘/100’, signifying ‘out
of 100’
Percentile indicates the rank, position or standing based on the
appearance.
Represents The percentage is a means of comparing quantities. A percentile is used to display the position or rank.
Symbol
(If X is a number)
It is written as X% It is expressed as Xth
Form It can be written in the form of ratios & decimals Percentile cannot be written in ratio or decimal form
Based on Individual performance Relative performance
Comparison of Actual scores with the total scores. Individual's rank with the total number of students who appeared
the examination.
Objective To show fractional numbers as whole numbers. To show where the scores stand in relation to other scores.
Usage Percentages are mostly used in calculating interest
rates in the financial world & for calculating student’s
marks in Examination.
Percentiles are mostly used in standardized tests to establish a
ranking system of achievement.
Formula Percentage formula:
Percentage = (Value/Total value)×100
Percentile Formula : Percentile P = (n/N)X100..…where….
n = Number of values below the number
& N = Total number of values in the data set
Image Credit: Tricky Globe
10 – CURRICULAR, CO & EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
Dimension Curricular Activities Co-Curricular Activities Extra-Curricular Activities
Definition Curricular activities are those activities that are a
part of the curriculum
Co-curricular activities are those activities that are outside of
but usually complement & supplement the regular curriculum
& learning experiences.
Extracurricular activities are defined as those school-
based activities that are not tied to the curriculum
Design These are formal activities which are structured &
well organized.
These are less formal activities which are planned as per the
need.
They may be offered or coordinated by a school but
are informal & flexible.
Use The Academic activities are the fundamental part of
the school curriculum.
These activities are organised or designed to help the students
have a better understanding of the course.
These activities are essential for the all-round
development of the students.
Grades These activities could be assessed, marked or
graded
These activities may or may not be graded These activities are practical based & ungraded
Affects It affects Cognitive Domain It affects Affective Domain It affects Psychomotor Domain
Benefits Curricular activities impart practical & theoretical
knowledge of various subjects & prepares them for
better careers & opportunities. It develops
analytical, logical thinking & scientific temper.
Co-curricular activities are instrumental in drawing out the
best potentialities & Creativity. It improves communication,
Fosters time management skills, Inculcates moral values &
decision-making ability. Develops organisational skills.
Extra curricular activities improves the confidence &
self esteem of the students. Makes them physically &
mentally fit & strong. Encourage leadership, promotes
responsibility & collaborative abilities.
Example Examples are Classroom Teaching, Syllabus
Planning, Library Experience, Laboratory Activities,
Assignments, Assessments & Evaluations, Academic
Projects etc.
Some common examples are Elocution, Debate, Dramatics,
Quiz, Mental Mathematics, Spell Bee, School Newsletter,
Writing Competitions, Science events etc.
Some common examples are Games, Picnic,
Excursions, Music and Dance, Sports, Gym, Swimming,
Athletics, Internships, Photography etc.
TYPES OF ACTIVITIES
CURRICULAR CO- CURRICULAR EXTRA CURRICULAR
11 – LEARNING DISABILITIES
Dimension Dyslexia Dyscalculia Dysgraphia Dyspraxia
Definition Dyslexia is a language-based disability in
which a person has trouble understanding
words, sentences, or paragraphs.
Dyscalculia is a life-long learning disability that
affects the ability to grasp and solve math
concepts.
Dysgraphia is a writing disability where people
find it hard to form letters and write within a
defined space.
Dyspraxia is a neurological disorder
that affects the development of
motor skills.
Difficulty Area Problems with processing or
understanding what they read or hear.
Difficulty with reading, writing, spelling &
phonological processing.
Difficulty manipulating numbers and
remembering steps in formulas and
equations, calculations & number concepts.
Possess handwriting that is uneven and
illegible. Write very slowly or very small.
Inconsistent use of lower & upper case.
Impaired spelling.
Trouble planning and executing fine
motor tasks. Difficulties with
planning movements, co-ordination,
balance & poor spatial awareness.
Origin Dyslexia, literally means "difficulty with
words” (from the Greek “dys” meaning
problem, “lexis” meaning words or
language, & the suffix ‘ia’ refers to having
a condition).
Dyscalculia means ‘Counting badly’
(In Greek “dys” means badly, the root calculia
comes from Latin ‘Calculare’ which means to
count)
Dysgraphia in Greek means ‘disabled
handwriting ‘ (The prefix dys indicates
impairment, Graph refers to producing letter
forms & the suffix ia is having a condition)
Dyspraxia too is a taken from the
Greek word ‘ Duspraxia’ meaning
‘abnormal act’ ( Praxis means to act
& dys meaning impaired)
Symptoms Late talking, Learning new words slowly,
Problems forming words correctly,
mispronouncing words or confusing
words that sound alike, Problems
remembering or naming letters, numbers
and colors, Slow & labored intensive
reading, Problems writing & spelling, etc.
Difficulty counting backwards, Difficulty
remembering 'basic' facts, Slow to perform
calculations, Weak mental arithmetic skills,
Poor sense of numbers & estimation,
Difficulty in understanding place value,
Addition is often the default operation, High
levels of mathematics anxiety etc.
Trouble forming letters shapes, Tight,
awkward grip of pencil, Difficulty following a
line or staying within margins. Trouble with
sentence structure & grammar, Difficulty
organizing or articulating thoughts on paper,
Pronounced difference between spoken and
written understanding of a topic etc.
Poor Balance, Poor Posture, Fatigue,
Clumsiness, Differences in Speech,
Perception Problem, Poor Hand-Eye
Co-ordination etc.
Tips for
Teachers
Differentiated & inquiry-based Instruction,
Co-operative Learning, Utilizing
Technology, simplifying written directions,
highlighting essential information,
providing additional practice activities,
Incorporate visual elements & involve
body movements.
Draw out Diagrams & Flow Charts, Emphasize
Key Concepts, Concrete Instructions, Highlight
key words/Ideas, Step by Step Guide, Real
World Applications, Extra Time, Use of
Calculator.
Extended Time for writing, Ignore Spelling
Errors, Comfortable writing Environment,
Dictation, Allow Writer for Tests, Use audio
recordings, brainstorm Ideas before writing,
Provide special writing material and
paper, Consider alternatives to
activities requiring handwriting. Teach
& use touch-typing, Adjust seating
plans, Provide breaks, Give plenty of
extra time, Emphasize directions in
step-by-step form. Provide written,
visual & recorded Support.
Image Credit: Learning Assessment & Neurocare Centre
12 – HEARING & LISTENING
Dimensions Hearing Listening
Definition The natural ability or an inborn trait that allows us
to recognize sound through ears by catching
vibrations is called the hearing
Listening is defined as the learned skill, in which we can receive
sounds through ears, and transform them into meaningful
messages
What is it? It’s an individual’s ability to perceive sounds, by
receiving vibrations through ears.
It’s an individual’s skill which is done consciously for the analysis
and understanding of the sounds.
Nature Primary & Continuous Secondary & Temporary
Act Physiological Psychological
Occurs at Subconscious level Conscious level
Reason We are neither aware nor we have any control
over the sounds we hear.
We listen to acquire knowledge and receive information.
Requirement It is an involuntary process Requires concentration & attention
Use of Brain Hearing is a passive bodily process that does
not the involve use of the brain
listening is an active mental process, which involves the use of
brain to draw meaning from words and sentences.
Image Credit: HorrieM.com
13 – DISCIPLINE & PUNISHMENT
Dimension Discipline Punishment
Definition Discipline is the practice of training children how to make good
choices about the results of their behaviour
Punishment is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as
retribution for an offence.
Focus Discipline is teaching to behave in accordance with rules by
focusing on future behavior.
Punishment is inflicting fear & suffering for past behavior
hoping to change the future behavior.
Objective Making children learn from their mistakes Making children pay for their mistakes.
Control It teaches the child self control It causes the child to call for external control
Appeals Invoking the thinking brain to learn new behavior Invoking the emotional brain to fear a consequence
Demands Discipline presents a choice Punishment demands a compliance
Effects Positive self-esteem, Decreased power struggles, Confidence &
contended , Increased academic achievement.
Negative self-esteem, Increased power struggles, Fear and
resentment, Lowered academic achievement.
Outcome Discipline is a kind of training which corrects, shapes
strengthen or refines the behaviour or attitude of the child.
Punishment comprises of penalties and restrictions, which
makes a child fear for the consequences
Relationship Strengthened Weakened
Types The three types of discipline are preventative, supportive, and
corrective discipline
Corporal Punishment, Verbal reprimanding, Isolation,
withdrawing Privileges etc.
Image Credit: Dreamstime.com
14 – TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
Dimensions Training Development
Meaning Training is a learning process to develop
knowledge, skills & attitude as per the job
requirement
Development is an educational process for the
overall growth & maturity of the personality
Goal Specific Job related Conceptual & Managerial Knowledge
Purpose To improve the work performance To prepare for future challenges
Duration Short Term Continuous &/or Long Term
Focus Present Future
Scope Limited/ Narrow Wider
Orientation Job oriented Career oriented
Motivation Improved efficiency & productivity Promotion & Overall Growth
Number Many/ Large Individual/ Few
Methods Induction Training, Job Training, Apprenticeship
Training, Promotional Training, Internship
Training, Vestibule Training
Coaching, Mentoring, Counselling, Role-Play, Case
Study, Conference & Seminars, Special Project
Image Credit: UniTol Training Solutions
15 - SEMINAR, WORKSHOP, CONFERENCE, SYMPOSIUM,
CONCLAVE, SUMMIT
Seminar Workshop Conference Symposium Conclave Summit
Seminar is derived from the
Latin word ‘Seminarium’
means Seed Plot or Breeding
Ground
The English word ‘Workshop'
simply referred to a place
where goods were
manufactured or repaired
Conference is developed
from Latin ‘Conferentia or
Conferens’ means To bring
Together
Symposium is a Latin word
from ancient Greek
‘Symposion’ means Drinking
Party
Conclave is derived from
Latin ‘Con’ means With &
‘Clavis’ means Key. A place
which may be locked
The root of ‘Summit’ are in
the Latin word’ Summum’
means ‘The Highest’
Seminar is a gathering of
large group of people for
the purpose of discussing
the stated topic/s.
Workshop is an assembled
group of people to improve
their skill of a subject
through intensive study,
research, practice and
discussion
Conference is the formal
meeting for deliberations,
consultations, discussions &
exchange of opinions on a
set agenda with keynote
presentations
Symposium is the gathering
of the educated for
intellectual or agreeable
conversations & free
interchange of Ideas
A Conclave is a secret
meeting where the
discussions are kept private
& confidential
Summit is referred to the
topmost form of anything
including a meeting
Seminars help the
participants develop new
insights into pedagogy and
their own practice and
explore new or advanced
understandings of content
and resources.
A workshop can introduce a
new concept, spurring
participants to investigate it
further on their own, or can
demonstrate and encourage
the practice of actual
methods. It's a great way to
teach hands-on skills
A conference is a gathering
of people with common
interest or background, with
the purposes of allowing
them to meet, learn and
discuss issues, ideas and
work that focus on a topic of
mutual concern.
The purpose of a symposium
is for experts to highlight their
recent discoveries and the
latest in research
developments in a given field of
study.
The main purpose of
Conclave is for the
organizations to introspect,
deliberate, course correct &
come out with future plans
A Summit is an event of
global political leadership to
discuss common problems,
seek solutions and resolve
the inter or intracontinental
issues and challenges
through cooperation.
Seminars are relatively
formal, less structured &
conducted in one day
though they can be
recurrent
A workshop consists of
smaller groups and lasts only
for a day or two.
A conference can last up to a
week and will have keynote
speakers who are experts on
a particular topic, giving
attendees new knowledge
and updates.
A symposium generally has a
much narrow focus & short
duration
The duration depends upon
the need & agenda but
usually do not last more than
2 to 3 days
Summit are usually held for
one or two days
16 – HARD SKILLS & SOFT SKILLS
Dimension Hard Skills Soft Skills
Definition Hard Skills are technical knowledge, skills & abilities possessed by a person
which can be acquired through Education, Training & Experience.
Soft Skills are personality traits & innate qualities possessed by a
person acquired through upbringing & social surrounding influences.
Nature Hard Skills define what we have & what we have acquired Soft Skills define who & what we are
Domain Hard Skills are associated with our Left Brain or Logical Centre hence it is in the
Cognitive & Psychomotor domain
Soft Skills are associated with the Right Brain or Emotional Centre
hence it is in the Affective domain
Achieved Earned through formal or semiformal process & can be defined, quantified,
measured & evaluated
Earned through informal process, & difficult to define, quantify,
measured or evaluated
Orientation Aptitude oriented Attitude oriented
Provability Can be demonstrated through tangible evidence such as certificate, degree,
diploma, awards, examples of work etc.
Intangible, hence, demonstration of soft skills is based on subjective
opinion
Transferability Possible Not possible
Rules Rules related to Hard Skills remains unchanged irrespective of Time & Position Rules related to Soft Skills varies based on Culture & Expectations
Impact Gives Competence & Confidence Gives Acceptability & Respect
Example For a Teacher, Hard Skills are the expertise of the Content, Methodology &
Evaluation.
Soft Skills for a Teacher are empathy, Leadership, Communication,
Team-work, Patience, Problem solving & Time management etc.
Image Credit: Unideal
17 – INTELLIGENCE & EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT
Dimensions
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Emotional Quotient (EQ)
Definition An Intelligent Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from standardized tests
designed to assess human intelligence
Emotional Quotient (EQ) is the ability to identify, assess & control the
emotions of self & others
Origin The abbreviation "IQ" was first coined by the Psychologist William Stern
for the German term ”Intelligenzquotient” in a 1912 book.
First mentioned in 1985 in Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis “A study of
emotions developing emotional Intelligence”
Nature IQ tests measure the ability to solve problems, use logic, and grasp or
communicate complex ideas.
EQ tests measure the ability to recognize emotion and to use that
awareness to guide the decisions.
Focus People with high IQ are good at logical reasoning and can learn,
understand & apply the knowledge & information
People with high EQ are good at evaluating, controlling & expressing
emotions & use it to facilitate the thinking process
Success People with high IQ get success with challenging tasks, ability to analyze
& connect with research & development
People with high EQ are great Leaders & Team players because of their
innate ability to understand, empathize & connect with others
Form It is a form of Academic Intelligence It is a form of Social Intelligence
Dynamics IQ is generally established at birth & cannot be enhanced EQ can be learned & enhanced throughout life
Features IQ defines how smart one is EQ defines how well to use the smartness
Impact Enables development of technical skills, abilities & conceptual thinking Promotes positive relationships, increases motivation & self drive
Test An IQ test generally involves a set of standardized questions for which
the test taker receives a score
An EQ test is difficult to design & administer as it deals with information
which cannot be presented as a numerical value but are more subjective
Image Credit: Depositphotos
18 - DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE, WISDOM
Dimension Data Information Knowledge Wisdom
Definition Data are collection of facts
and figures that on their own
have no meaning
when data is processed within a
context to give it a meaning turns
into information.
This capability of understanding the relationship
between information and what to do with
the information is knowledge.
When a decision is taken based on
knowledge it is called wisdom
Context Data is either text, numbers,
or symbols
Information is refined & interpreted
Data
Knowledge is information acted upon cognitively. Wisdom is applied knowledge with
the common sense
Origin The term Data is derived from
Latin term ‘datum’ which
refers to ‘something given’
The term information discovered
from the Latin word ‘informare’,
which refers to ‘give form to’
Knowledge comes from the Greek word,
“Gnosis,” signifying knowing through observation
or experience.
The word Wisdom is created from the
English word Wise.
wis (from wise ) + dom.
Acquisition By Records & Observations Analysis of records & observations Obtained or Learned by observation & Education Developed through experiences
Dependency Data does not depend on
information.
Without data, information cannot
be processed.
Knowledge is made up of information, beliefs
and experiences
Wisdom is an intangible quality gained
through Knowledge & experience
Usefulness /
Outcome
May or may not be useful /
Basis for analysis
Useful / Comprehension Always useful / Improves representation Ability to make decisions &
judgements is most useful
Application Can be shared but not easily
understood without context
Can be shared, much more
easily & understood by everyone
Can be shared but might be
perceived differently
Personal quality , can not be shared
Example 2011 – 78.8% & 59.3%
2001 – 75.85% & 54.16%
Context: Male & Female literacy
rates in India for 2011 & 2001
• Female literacy rate is lower than male.
• Female literacy rate has improved in the last
decade
India should focus on…
• Girls’ Education
• Women empowerment
19 – DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES
Dimensions Duties Responsibilities
Origin The word duty originates from the Latin word ‘debere’, which
means obligation to call to do something or commitment.
Responsibility originated from the Latin word ‘respondere’ which means to
vouch; respond to something or the capacity to act on one’s own will.
Definition Duty is the obligatory task, conduct, work or service, that
emerge out of an individual’s position, occupation or role.
Responsibility refers to a state of having some authority or obligation
to undertake an assigned task satisfactorily to attain the desired
results.
Meaning Duty implies an obligation or moral commitment which an
individual is expected to perform.
Responsibility refers to the liability which is assumed or accepted by a
person, as a part of his job role or position.
Reflects Respect or obedience, for the work, rules, superiors or
elders
Accountability for the performance or non-performance of something
Demands Sacrifice of self-interest, sincerity Trustworthiness and loyalty
Obligation It exhibits an invisible force which binds a person to do the
expected & right.
It makes a person answerable or accountable for the completion of the
task to the authority.
Repercussion Non-performance of duties may result in some form of
action, fine or punishment.
The person who accepts the responsibility must be ready to bear the
consequences, which may be positive or negative.
Duties are imputed on a person, either naturally or out of
the role/position he occupies.
Responsibility is accepted duties, which are shouldered on a person
who is competent and conscientious enough to handle it.
Delegation Duty can be delegated. Responsibility is absolute & cannot be delegated.
Example A teacher must teach and perform all the tasks assigned Teacher must ensure that students develop the desired knowledge , skills &
Duties
Image Credit: Clipart Library
20 – AUTHORITARIAN BOSS, MANAGER, LEADER
Dimension Authoritarian Boss Manager Leader
Definition A person who gives orders to
employees and behaves in an
authoritative way & seeks control is a
Boss.
A representative of the organization
responsible for the management of the
work and takes requisite actions is a
Manager.
An individual who influences, directs,
guides and encourages the behaviour of
people towards the attainment of
specific goals is a Leader.
Focus On himself (Self oriented) Managing Work (Work Oriented) Leading Team(People Oriented)
Workforce Sub-ordinates Employees Followers
Seeks Results Objectives Vision
Direction Own Roads Existing Roads New Roads
Concern I am Right Being Right What is Right?
Nature Arrogant Tactful Humble
Style Autocratic Leadership Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership
Feedback Less feedback Formal Feedback Honest Feedback
Risks Avoids Minimizes Takes
Essence Dominance Stability Change
Decisions Imposes Makes Facilitates
Credit & Blame Takes Credit & Places Blame Shares Credit & Blame Gives Credit & Takes Blame
Authoritarian
Boss
21 – BILL, ORDINANCE, ACT, RULES, G.R.
Bill Ordinance Act Rules G.R
 Bill is an idea which is
introduced in the legislature
for getting it passed.
 It is a draft of a proposed
legislation.
 It is a statute in the draft form
and cannot become a law
unless it is approved by the
Parliament and signed/assent
by the president / Governor.
 Once the bill is framed it has
to be put up in the public
domain to invite their
suggestions.
 As per the suggestions the bill
is amended and presented in
legislature for approval.
 When bill is passed by the
legislature it is called an
ordinance.
 Ordinance can be passed directly
by an elected govt. if the matter is
urgent.
 When Ordinance is signed by the
President it becomes an act or
law.
 Ordinance constitutes the subject
matter of the enacted law.
 Ordinance can also be issued by
President directly when the
parliament is not in session, and
he believes it is required at that
time.
 It will have the same power as
statutory law which is passed by
the parliament.
 Once parliament comes into
session it can be ratified / passed
or discarded.
 Ordinance becomes an act when
it is passed by the parliament.
 When a bill / ordinance is
passed by the parliament and
signed by the President it
becomes an act or law.
 Act becomes a part of the
constitution.
 It is an instrument or document
stating something done or
transacted.
 Act is a substantive law.
 Act is an adopted and effective
legislation.
 It can be amended with Gazette
notification only.
 Rules are the guidelines for
implementing the act in its
true form.
 Rules are framed
subsequently after the act
is passed.
 Rules are the standard
methods and procedures in
relation to provisions
contained in the act.
 In case of any contradiction
in the rules and act the
provision of the act prevails
and applied accordingly.
 Rules may be called
regulatory principles,
procedural rules or
operating principles.
 A Government
resolution is a written
motion adopted by a
deliberative body.
 It is a formal expression
of opinion, a decision or
determination or
intention made usually
after voting by a formal
organization, a
legislature, a committee
or a group.
 G.R clarifies certain
 aspects of law and its
explanation.
Examples of Bill, Ordinance, Act, Rules & G.R
BILL
1-Maharashtra
Educational
Institutions
(Regulation of
Collection of Fees)
Bill 2011
2-Prohibition of
Unfair Practices in
School Bill 2012
ORDINANCE
1- Ordinance to
Repeal Bombay
Primary Act 1947
2-Anti Black Magic &
Superstition
Ordinance 2013
ACT/LAW
1- Right to Education
Act 2009
2-Maharashtra Self
Financed Schools
ACT 2012
RULES
1- Maharashtra
Employees of Private
Schools (MEPS) Rules
1981
2- RTE Model Rules
(Central &
Maharashtra)
GOVRNMENT
RESOLUTION
1- RTE G. Rs
2- School Bus GR
3-Various G.Rs issued
By the Govt.
22 – CURRICULUM VITAE , RESUME, BIO-DATA
Dimension Curriculum Vitae (C.V) Resume Bio-Data
Origin Curriculum Vitae is a Latin expression
which means ‘Course of Life’.
Resume is a French word which means
‘Summary’
Bio-Data is the short form for
Biographical
Meaning A document containing detailed
information related to individual's past
qualification, experience, skills,
competencies and achievements.
A Resume is a summary of an individual's
education, skills & employment.
In a Bio Data the focus is on personal
information like date of birth, gender,
religion, race, nationality, residence,
marital status etc.
Goal Full history of academic credentials,
professional experience, Research and
Awards.
Brief snapshot of skills & experience that
communicates the ability to perform the job
To convey the personal details
Emphasis On Expertise, Skills & Achievements On contribution, making a difference Family & personal background
Length Comprehensive, Length is an indicator of
accomplishment. Generally, 2 to 3 pages
long.
Concise, Shorter the better, usually 1 to 2
pages.
Short, Not more than one page
Dynamics C.V cannot be customised, it remains
static.
A Resume is dynamic, and changes
according to the job.
It can be modified with changes in
positions.
Use Applying for an academic position,
advanced research, fellowship etc. or on
demand.
Applying for a job, internship etc. or on
demand.
For reference or marital purpose.
Addition It also includes details about a person’s
area of interest, hobbies and
extracurricular activities.
It only outlines the job applicant’s
relevant qualifications and experience which
is required for the specific job.
Family profile with achievements may
be added.
Image Credit: Global ENGLISH CREATIVITY
23 – MISCELLANEOUS
Table of Contents Index
The table of contents appears at the beginning of a book & consists of main
Headings, Titles, and Page numbers associated with it.
An Index is placed at the end of a book & lists the detailed inventory of the topic,
key elements, important words, concepts, etc. from each chapter.
Table of Contents include reference to the additional pages along with the
main content, such as foreword, preface, bibliography, annexure, appendix,
etc.
The index is an organized overview of the book’s contents with no reference to
such additional pages, as it covers keywords present in the main content.
Table of Contents is listed sequentially & acts as an indication of each segment of
the document which helps the readers locate the information easily and
quickly.
Index is listed alphabetically which record list of details required to help the
reader understand & find the written material better & easier.
Annexure Appendix
An annexure is a supplementary material or a set of documents, which are added at
the end of a text or a book, to validate the information provided in the main text.
An appendix refers to an addition or extension to the main text, that contains
information which is too detailed to put in the main document or report.
It contains relevant papers or proofs that validate the main body of the report, or
document. Like News articles, reports, affidavit, etc.
It contains essential background details like Graphics, tables, charts, statistics,
figures, etc.
It is a standalone document not prepared by the author of the main document. Prepared by the author of the main document, not a standalone document.
Reference Bibliography
Reference implies the list of all primary sources, that has been referred to in the
written work.
Bibliography is about listing out the details of all the primary or secondary sources
which has been consulted during the written work.
It is arranged alphabetically as well as numerically Bibliography is arranged numerically
It is only limited to the materials and contents that have actually been quoted in the
essay work. It is hence quite limited in scope.
It is quite broad in scope in that it comprises those contents which have been
quoted in the essay work and some others which are relevant but not quoted.
THANK YOU

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Know the Differences - Najma Kazi

  • 1. KNOW THE DIFFERENCES (Comparison of Terminologies) Najma Kazi najmakazi@gmail.com
  • 2. WHAT & WHY OF “KNOW THE DIFFERENCES” Meanings, Examples & Images are used for better comprehension & proper applications. The Differences are expressed in the form of Comparison Tables. The consequent slides, show & explain the basic differences between a few commonly used educational terminologies. This Presentation is prepared with the sole intention of bringing clarity in the different concepts used in Education.
  • 3. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 1) Learning & Education 2) Vision, Mission, Goals & Objectives 3) Learning Goals, Learning Objectives & Learning Outcomes 4) Curriculum & Syllabus 5) Pedagogy, Andragogy & Heutagogy 6) Active Learning & Passive Learning 7) Assessment & Evaluation 8) Formative Assessment & Summative Assessment 9) Percentage & Percentile 10) Curricular, Co-curricular & Extra curricular Activities 11) Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Dyspraxia 12) Hearing & Listening 13) Discipline & Punishment 14) Training & Development 15) Seminar, Workshop, Conference, Symposium, Conclave, Summit 16) Hard Skills & Soft Skills 17) Intelligent Quotient & Emotional Quotient 18) Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom 19) Duties & Responsibilities 20) Authoritarian Boss, Manager, Leader 21) Bill, Ordinance, Act, Rules, GR. 22) Curriculum Vitae, Resume, Bio-data 23) Miscellaneous
  • 5. 1 – LEARNING & EDUCATION Dimensions Learning Education Definition Learning refers to an intellectual process of acquiring new skills and knowledge, through experience, study, or teaching Education is an enlightening process of receiving and providing knowledge, through systematic instruction Purpose To bring certain desirable changes in the behaviour To regulate future actions and develop new knowledge Process Natural Deliberate Design Learning is independent of Education Learning is a must for Education Guidance/Source Both may or may not be required Require both Guidance & Source Nature Informal, Unplanned & Unstructured Formal, Planned & Structured Duration It is a lifelong ongoing process Education is that one gets at some point in the life Progress Learning is something that evolves in the inner self Education is that an individual gets from an outside source Ownership Learning is the basic instinct possessed by all individuals Education is intentionally acquired by individuals Motivation Inherent Extraneous
  • 7. 2 - VISION, MISSION, GOAL, OBJECTIVE Dimension Vision (Create Vision) Mission (Develop Mission Statement) Goals (Identify Goals) Objectives (Set Objectives) Concept A vision statement outlines an organization’s aspirations and the wider impact it aims to create. A mission statement articulates the purpose of an organization’s core principle, focus, and aims. Goals are an intermediate result or specific target which an organization is expected to achieve by a certain span of time. Objectives are precise quantifiable actions & timelines that are necessary to achieve the goal/s. Purpose A Vision statement is the “why” of the existence of the Organization A Mission statement is the “what” and the “how” of the Vision statement A Goal is “what” & “when” of the Vision & Mission statement Objectives are “what”, “when”, & “How” of the Goals identified Features Inspiring, Original, Competitive, & Realistic Realistic, Achievable, Precise, Clear, & Motivating Well Constructed, Realistic, Quantitative, Consistent & Prioritized Specific, Flexible, Attainable, Measurable & Challenging Characteristic Forms the basis of formulating the mission statement Indicates the process of accomplishing the objectives Provides the basis of judging the performance of the organization Present quantitative statements of the end result of the planned activities Function Helps in creating a common identity & a shared sense of purpose Ensures unanimity of purpose & directions Assist in establishing the end result of activities in general Supports in enhancing the efficiency & effectiveness of the organization Process Define- where are you heading Define – The fundamental Principles Define: Specific measurable statements aligned with vision & mission Define – Action steps taken in order to meet goals Example (Educational Organization) Vision: “To create a favorable learning environment & implement innovative educational approaches” Mission Statement: “Our mission is to develop & execute a teaching program which is child centered, age appropriate & relevant to the 21st century” Goal: Our primary goal is to instill the right values from an early age & prepare them for the life ahead. • Objectives:To inculcate in children, the values of compassion, empathy and respect towards others and the environment. • To offer educational programmes that support children’s academic, physical, social, emotional & moral development. Example (Corporate) Microsoft Vision: “A Computer on every desk & in every home.” Google: “To provide access to the world’s information in one click” Microsoft Mission Statement: “To empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more by creating technology that transforms the way people work, play, and communicate.” The Primary Goals of Microsoft are: To reinvent productivity and business processes, build the intelligent cloud platform and create more personal computing. Microsoft Objectives: • Reinvent productivity and business processes • Build the intelligent cloud platform • Create more personal computing
  • 9. 3 – LEARNING GOALS, OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES Dimension Learning Goals Learning Objectives Learning Outcomes Definition A general statement that describes the Competency & desired Knowledge, Skill & Ability needed to successfully perform after an Educational Session A specific statement that describes exactly what is intended to be able to perform after completing the educational Session An explicit statement that describes the learning that will have achieved & can be demonstrated at the end of the Educational Session Objectives Learning Goals are general description of the overall aim or purpose of Learning Learning Objectives are brief description of how the learning goals are to be fulfilled Learning Outcomes are concise statements of how learners will demonstrate the achieved learning Direction Goals set the direction for the performance Objectives help determine what & how must be accomplished to achieve the goal Outcome provide measurable effects the program will accomplish Aim Goals are generally what is intended to learn Objectives are specifically what & how the content is intended to be learnt Outcomes are what the students will be able to do by the end of the lesson Focus Goals are syllabus centric (Prescribes) Objectives are Teacher centric (Describes) Outcomes are learner centric(Demonstrates) Design Goals are planned result of the instruction Objectives are intended result of the instruction Outcomes are the achieved result of the instruction Nature Goals are like vision statement Objectives are like mission statements Outcomes are expected result statement Features Goals are specific & achievable, may not be measurable Objectives are specific, attainable, realistic & measurable Outcomes are observable & measurable (assessable) Scope Goals are general & broad in scope Objectives are specific & narrow in scope Outcomes are specific & exact in scope Example Std. X – History – Chapter 1 – Historiography To understand the concept of ‘Historiography’ 1-To introduce the term ‘Historiography’ & explain. 2-To highlight the importance of chronology of past events and its interconnections 3- To acquaint the students with different sources used by historians while writing History. 1- Students understand that “Historiography’ is a discipline involving writing of history 2- Students are able to establish corelation between happenings in the past & their current & future effects. 3- Students learn about various sources used by historians for reference, research, & scrutiny of historical facts, to prove their relevance & authenticity.
  • 10. Image Credit: PNGitem Image Credit: Dreamstime.com Image Credit: Zaidlearn
  • 11. 4 – CURRICULUM & SYLLABUS Dimensions Curriculum Syllabus Definition It is the focus of studies consists of various courses designed for a particular proficiency or Qualification It is an outline or summary of topics & subtopics to be covered in a course or subject Meaning A curriculum is a more generalized or an overview of the subjects or topics that the students are meant to learn A syllabus is a more detailed overview of the subjects of study Purpose Provides Objectives of the Course Provides Means to achieve the objectives Nature Perspective Descriptive Scope Broad Specific Set of It is the superset of the course of study It is the subset of the curriculum Term Till the Course Lasts For a fixed Term Components Concept format, Administrative Decisions, Syllabus Planning, Material Design, Evaluation Subjects, objectives of the subjects, Topics, Sub – topics, Assessment design & Timeline Designed At the National Level At the State Level Example National Curriculum Framework (NCF) - By NCERT Primary Syllabus – By SCERT Secondary & Higher Secondary Syllabus - By the State Board
  • 12. Teaching Program include, Subject contents, Objectives & Outcomes, Pedagogy, Evaluation & Timeline Image Credit: ResearchGate
  • 13. 5 – Pedagogy, Andragogy & Heutagogy Dimension Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy Origin Derived from the Greek word ‘paidi’ meaning child and ‘ago’ means guide. Derived from the Greek word ‘andras’ meaning man and ‘ago’ means guide. Derived from the Greek word ‘"heuriskein" means "to discover“ and ‘ago’ meaning guide. Meaning It is the method of teaching Children. It is an adult focused teaching approach. It is the self determined Learning of any age. Learning resources The institution and teacher decide what the student will learn and how they will learn it The teaching of adults (which can be pedagogical, heutagogical, or a blend of both) The student decides what to learn and how, and is supported by outside resources, including the teacher Dependency Learners are dependent Learners are independent Learners are interdependent Orientation Learning is curriculum & content driven Learning is goal oriented Learning is personal goal oriented Motivation External Motivation Internal Motivation Self efficacy driven Objective Gaining next level Drive to increase performance Learning potential, unplanned, non- linear Focus Subject centered, Prescribed Task or problem centered Proactive & problem oriented Teacher’s Role Controller Facilitator Capacity builder Grades Grades are very important Grades are less important Grades are not important
  • 15. 6 – ACTIVE LEARNING & PASSIVE LEARNING Dimensions Active Learning Passive Learning Meaning Active Learning is that form of learning wherein there is active involvement of the students in the concerned activities and discussions Passive learning is when the learners acquire knowledge without making any conscious efforts, in this regard. Learning Student Centered Teacher Centered Responsibility Learning responsibility is on the student Student’s learning is the responsibility of the Teacher Role of Teacher Facilitator Master of subject matter Usage To improve learning Presenting new Matter Thinking Skills Higher order (HOTS) Low order (LOTS) Initiates Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Student’s Involvement High involvement Low involvement Source of knowledge Hands-on observation, practical application, simulations etc. Teacher/Instructor, Books or Online Resources
  • 16. Image Credit: Key Differences
  • 17. 7 – ASSESSMENT & EVALUATION Dimensions Assessment Evaluation Definition The process of collecting information or evidence of a learner’s learning progress & achievement over a period to improve Teaching & Learning (Bob Adamson) A process of making overall judgement about one’s work or performance on a set of standards (Cameron) Primary Objective Formative (undertaken while an educational process is ongoing) Summative (taken at the conclusion of an educational process) Purpose To Improve the quality of future Performance To determine the quality of the present performance Influence Provides feedback on performance and areas of improvement Determines the extent to which objectives are achieved Nature Diagnostic (Identify areas for improvement) Judgemental (Arrive at an overall grade/score) Focus Process Oriented (Indicates how learning is taking place) Product Oriented (Indicates what has been learned) Process A process of documenting knowledge, Skills & Attitudes in measurable terms A process of making judgement based on criteria & evidence Designed Designed & intended to be useful to make improvement Designed & intended to document the level of achievement attained Standard of Measurement Absolute but Flexible: Adjusts as Problems Are Clarified Comparable but Fixed: Rewards Success, Punish Failure Example Teacher does assessment of students’ performance and provides constructive feedback. The evaluation of the skills of a candidate is done before hiring him or her for the job.
  • 18. Image Credit: Sergiy Prymachock
  • 19. 8 – FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Dimension Formative Assessment Summative Assessment Goal The Assessment FOR learning The Assessment OF learning Purpose To monitor & improve student learning (performance) To evaluate & prove student learning (performance) Nature Diagnostic Evaluative Frequency Occurs on a continuous basis (daily) during instruction Occurs at a particular point of time after instruction Role of Teachers To improve learning, make decisions and monitor their instructions based on students’ performance To predict & judge students’ performance, give grades and determine if the content being taught was retained Role of students Active involvement Passive Involvement Examples Observations, interviews, evidence from work samples, etc. Common assessments like tests and exams Design Designed to adjust teaching and learning while they are still occurring Designed to provide information about the amount of learning that has occurred at a particular time Testing methods Quiz, interviews, conversations, visual and oral testing, projects, practicals and assignments etc. Assessment in the form of pen-paper test mostly Evaluation Done to improve or change a program while it is in progress Focuses on the results or outcomes of a program Grading Scored but not graded Scored & Graded
  • 20. Image Credit : Teachers Pay Teachers Image Credit: Design + Teach + Engage
  • 21. 9 – PERCENTAGE & PERCENTILE Dimensions Percentage Percentile Definition The percentage refers to the unit of measurement indicating, for every hundred. Percentile represents that value in the distribution or level, at or below which, a certain percentage of score lies. Meaning The word ‘percentage’ is a combination of two words, ‘per’ ‘cent’, i.e. ‘per hundred’ or ‘/100’, signifying ‘out of 100’ Percentile indicates the rank, position or standing based on the appearance. Represents The percentage is a means of comparing quantities. A percentile is used to display the position or rank. Symbol (If X is a number) It is written as X% It is expressed as Xth Form It can be written in the form of ratios & decimals Percentile cannot be written in ratio or decimal form Based on Individual performance Relative performance Comparison of Actual scores with the total scores. Individual's rank with the total number of students who appeared the examination. Objective To show fractional numbers as whole numbers. To show where the scores stand in relation to other scores. Usage Percentages are mostly used in calculating interest rates in the financial world & for calculating student’s marks in Examination. Percentiles are mostly used in standardized tests to establish a ranking system of achievement. Formula Percentage formula: Percentage = (Value/Total value)×100 Percentile Formula : Percentile P = (n/N)X100..…where…. n = Number of values below the number & N = Total number of values in the data set
  • 23. 10 – CURRICULAR, CO & EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Dimension Curricular Activities Co-Curricular Activities Extra-Curricular Activities Definition Curricular activities are those activities that are a part of the curriculum Co-curricular activities are those activities that are outside of but usually complement & supplement the regular curriculum & learning experiences. Extracurricular activities are defined as those school- based activities that are not tied to the curriculum Design These are formal activities which are structured & well organized. These are less formal activities which are planned as per the need. They may be offered or coordinated by a school but are informal & flexible. Use The Academic activities are the fundamental part of the school curriculum. These activities are organised or designed to help the students have a better understanding of the course. These activities are essential for the all-round development of the students. Grades These activities could be assessed, marked or graded These activities may or may not be graded These activities are practical based & ungraded Affects It affects Cognitive Domain It affects Affective Domain It affects Psychomotor Domain Benefits Curricular activities impart practical & theoretical knowledge of various subjects & prepares them for better careers & opportunities. It develops analytical, logical thinking & scientific temper. Co-curricular activities are instrumental in drawing out the best potentialities & Creativity. It improves communication, Fosters time management skills, Inculcates moral values & decision-making ability. Develops organisational skills. Extra curricular activities improves the confidence & self esteem of the students. Makes them physically & mentally fit & strong. Encourage leadership, promotes responsibility & collaborative abilities. Example Examples are Classroom Teaching, Syllabus Planning, Library Experience, Laboratory Activities, Assignments, Assessments & Evaluations, Academic Projects etc. Some common examples are Elocution, Debate, Dramatics, Quiz, Mental Mathematics, Spell Bee, School Newsletter, Writing Competitions, Science events etc. Some common examples are Games, Picnic, Excursions, Music and Dance, Sports, Gym, Swimming, Athletics, Internships, Photography etc.
  • 24. TYPES OF ACTIVITIES CURRICULAR CO- CURRICULAR EXTRA CURRICULAR
  • 25. 11 – LEARNING DISABILITIES Dimension Dyslexia Dyscalculia Dysgraphia Dyspraxia Definition Dyslexia is a language-based disability in which a person has trouble understanding words, sentences, or paragraphs. Dyscalculia is a life-long learning disability that affects the ability to grasp and solve math concepts. Dysgraphia is a writing disability where people find it hard to form letters and write within a defined space. Dyspraxia is a neurological disorder that affects the development of motor skills. Difficulty Area Problems with processing or understanding what they read or hear. Difficulty with reading, writing, spelling & phonological processing. Difficulty manipulating numbers and remembering steps in formulas and equations, calculations & number concepts. Possess handwriting that is uneven and illegible. Write very slowly or very small. Inconsistent use of lower & upper case. Impaired spelling. Trouble planning and executing fine motor tasks. Difficulties with planning movements, co-ordination, balance & poor spatial awareness. Origin Dyslexia, literally means "difficulty with words” (from the Greek “dys” meaning problem, “lexis” meaning words or language, & the suffix ‘ia’ refers to having a condition). Dyscalculia means ‘Counting badly’ (In Greek “dys” means badly, the root calculia comes from Latin ‘Calculare’ which means to count) Dysgraphia in Greek means ‘disabled handwriting ‘ (The prefix dys indicates impairment, Graph refers to producing letter forms & the suffix ia is having a condition) Dyspraxia too is a taken from the Greek word ‘ Duspraxia’ meaning ‘abnormal act’ ( Praxis means to act & dys meaning impaired) Symptoms Late talking, Learning new words slowly, Problems forming words correctly, mispronouncing words or confusing words that sound alike, Problems remembering or naming letters, numbers and colors, Slow & labored intensive reading, Problems writing & spelling, etc. Difficulty counting backwards, Difficulty remembering 'basic' facts, Slow to perform calculations, Weak mental arithmetic skills, Poor sense of numbers & estimation, Difficulty in understanding place value, Addition is often the default operation, High levels of mathematics anxiety etc. Trouble forming letters shapes, Tight, awkward grip of pencil, Difficulty following a line or staying within margins. Trouble with sentence structure & grammar, Difficulty organizing or articulating thoughts on paper, Pronounced difference between spoken and written understanding of a topic etc. Poor Balance, Poor Posture, Fatigue, Clumsiness, Differences in Speech, Perception Problem, Poor Hand-Eye Co-ordination etc. Tips for Teachers Differentiated & inquiry-based Instruction, Co-operative Learning, Utilizing Technology, simplifying written directions, highlighting essential information, providing additional practice activities, Incorporate visual elements & involve body movements. Draw out Diagrams & Flow Charts, Emphasize Key Concepts, Concrete Instructions, Highlight key words/Ideas, Step by Step Guide, Real World Applications, Extra Time, Use of Calculator. Extended Time for writing, Ignore Spelling Errors, Comfortable writing Environment, Dictation, Allow Writer for Tests, Use audio recordings, brainstorm Ideas before writing, Provide special writing material and paper, Consider alternatives to activities requiring handwriting. Teach & use touch-typing, Adjust seating plans, Provide breaks, Give plenty of extra time, Emphasize directions in step-by-step form. Provide written, visual & recorded Support.
  • 26. Image Credit: Learning Assessment & Neurocare Centre
  • 27. 12 – HEARING & LISTENING Dimensions Hearing Listening Definition The natural ability or an inborn trait that allows us to recognize sound through ears by catching vibrations is called the hearing Listening is defined as the learned skill, in which we can receive sounds through ears, and transform them into meaningful messages What is it? It’s an individual’s ability to perceive sounds, by receiving vibrations through ears. It’s an individual’s skill which is done consciously for the analysis and understanding of the sounds. Nature Primary & Continuous Secondary & Temporary Act Physiological Psychological Occurs at Subconscious level Conscious level Reason We are neither aware nor we have any control over the sounds we hear. We listen to acquire knowledge and receive information. Requirement It is an involuntary process Requires concentration & attention Use of Brain Hearing is a passive bodily process that does not the involve use of the brain listening is an active mental process, which involves the use of brain to draw meaning from words and sentences.
  • 29. 13 – DISCIPLINE & PUNISHMENT Dimension Discipline Punishment Definition Discipline is the practice of training children how to make good choices about the results of their behaviour Punishment is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offence. Focus Discipline is teaching to behave in accordance with rules by focusing on future behavior. Punishment is inflicting fear & suffering for past behavior hoping to change the future behavior. Objective Making children learn from their mistakes Making children pay for their mistakes. Control It teaches the child self control It causes the child to call for external control Appeals Invoking the thinking brain to learn new behavior Invoking the emotional brain to fear a consequence Demands Discipline presents a choice Punishment demands a compliance Effects Positive self-esteem, Decreased power struggles, Confidence & contended , Increased academic achievement. Negative self-esteem, Increased power struggles, Fear and resentment, Lowered academic achievement. Outcome Discipline is a kind of training which corrects, shapes strengthen or refines the behaviour or attitude of the child. Punishment comprises of penalties and restrictions, which makes a child fear for the consequences Relationship Strengthened Weakened Types The three types of discipline are preventative, supportive, and corrective discipline Corporal Punishment, Verbal reprimanding, Isolation, withdrawing Privileges etc.
  • 31. 14 – TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Dimensions Training Development Meaning Training is a learning process to develop knowledge, skills & attitude as per the job requirement Development is an educational process for the overall growth & maturity of the personality Goal Specific Job related Conceptual & Managerial Knowledge Purpose To improve the work performance To prepare for future challenges Duration Short Term Continuous &/or Long Term Focus Present Future Scope Limited/ Narrow Wider Orientation Job oriented Career oriented Motivation Improved efficiency & productivity Promotion & Overall Growth Number Many/ Large Individual/ Few Methods Induction Training, Job Training, Apprenticeship Training, Promotional Training, Internship Training, Vestibule Training Coaching, Mentoring, Counselling, Role-Play, Case Study, Conference & Seminars, Special Project
  • 32. Image Credit: UniTol Training Solutions
  • 33. 15 - SEMINAR, WORKSHOP, CONFERENCE, SYMPOSIUM, CONCLAVE, SUMMIT Seminar Workshop Conference Symposium Conclave Summit Seminar is derived from the Latin word ‘Seminarium’ means Seed Plot or Breeding Ground The English word ‘Workshop' simply referred to a place where goods were manufactured or repaired Conference is developed from Latin ‘Conferentia or Conferens’ means To bring Together Symposium is a Latin word from ancient Greek ‘Symposion’ means Drinking Party Conclave is derived from Latin ‘Con’ means With & ‘Clavis’ means Key. A place which may be locked The root of ‘Summit’ are in the Latin word’ Summum’ means ‘The Highest’ Seminar is a gathering of large group of people for the purpose of discussing the stated topic/s. Workshop is an assembled group of people to improve their skill of a subject through intensive study, research, practice and discussion Conference is the formal meeting for deliberations, consultations, discussions & exchange of opinions on a set agenda with keynote presentations Symposium is the gathering of the educated for intellectual or agreeable conversations & free interchange of Ideas A Conclave is a secret meeting where the discussions are kept private & confidential Summit is referred to the topmost form of anything including a meeting Seminars help the participants develop new insights into pedagogy and their own practice and explore new or advanced understandings of content and resources. A workshop can introduce a new concept, spurring participants to investigate it further on their own, or can demonstrate and encourage the practice of actual methods. It's a great way to teach hands-on skills A conference is a gathering of people with common interest or background, with the purposes of allowing them to meet, learn and discuss issues, ideas and work that focus on a topic of mutual concern. The purpose of a symposium is for experts to highlight their recent discoveries and the latest in research developments in a given field of study. The main purpose of Conclave is for the organizations to introspect, deliberate, course correct & come out with future plans A Summit is an event of global political leadership to discuss common problems, seek solutions and resolve the inter or intracontinental issues and challenges through cooperation. Seminars are relatively formal, less structured & conducted in one day though they can be recurrent A workshop consists of smaller groups and lasts only for a day or two. A conference can last up to a week and will have keynote speakers who are experts on a particular topic, giving attendees new knowledge and updates. A symposium generally has a much narrow focus & short duration The duration depends upon the need & agenda but usually do not last more than 2 to 3 days Summit are usually held for one or two days
  • 34.
  • 35. 16 – HARD SKILLS & SOFT SKILLS Dimension Hard Skills Soft Skills Definition Hard Skills are technical knowledge, skills & abilities possessed by a person which can be acquired through Education, Training & Experience. Soft Skills are personality traits & innate qualities possessed by a person acquired through upbringing & social surrounding influences. Nature Hard Skills define what we have & what we have acquired Soft Skills define who & what we are Domain Hard Skills are associated with our Left Brain or Logical Centre hence it is in the Cognitive & Psychomotor domain Soft Skills are associated with the Right Brain or Emotional Centre hence it is in the Affective domain Achieved Earned through formal or semiformal process & can be defined, quantified, measured & evaluated Earned through informal process, & difficult to define, quantify, measured or evaluated Orientation Aptitude oriented Attitude oriented Provability Can be demonstrated through tangible evidence such as certificate, degree, diploma, awards, examples of work etc. Intangible, hence, demonstration of soft skills is based on subjective opinion Transferability Possible Not possible Rules Rules related to Hard Skills remains unchanged irrespective of Time & Position Rules related to Soft Skills varies based on Culture & Expectations Impact Gives Competence & Confidence Gives Acceptability & Respect Example For a Teacher, Hard Skills are the expertise of the Content, Methodology & Evaluation. Soft Skills for a Teacher are empathy, Leadership, Communication, Team-work, Patience, Problem solving & Time management etc.
  • 37. 17 – INTELLIGENCE & EMOTIONAL QUOTIENT Dimensions Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Emotional Quotient (EQ) Definition An Intelligent Quotient (IQ) is a score derived from standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence Emotional Quotient (EQ) is the ability to identify, assess & control the emotions of self & others Origin The abbreviation "IQ" was first coined by the Psychologist William Stern for the German term ”Intelligenzquotient” in a 1912 book. First mentioned in 1985 in Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis “A study of emotions developing emotional Intelligence” Nature IQ tests measure the ability to solve problems, use logic, and grasp or communicate complex ideas. EQ tests measure the ability to recognize emotion and to use that awareness to guide the decisions. Focus People with high IQ are good at logical reasoning and can learn, understand & apply the knowledge & information People with high EQ are good at evaluating, controlling & expressing emotions & use it to facilitate the thinking process Success People with high IQ get success with challenging tasks, ability to analyze & connect with research & development People with high EQ are great Leaders & Team players because of their innate ability to understand, empathize & connect with others Form It is a form of Academic Intelligence It is a form of Social Intelligence Dynamics IQ is generally established at birth & cannot be enhanced EQ can be learned & enhanced throughout life Features IQ defines how smart one is EQ defines how well to use the smartness Impact Enables development of technical skills, abilities & conceptual thinking Promotes positive relationships, increases motivation & self drive Test An IQ test generally involves a set of standardized questions for which the test taker receives a score An EQ test is difficult to design & administer as it deals with information which cannot be presented as a numerical value but are more subjective
  • 39. 18 - DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE, WISDOM Dimension Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Definition Data are collection of facts and figures that on their own have no meaning when data is processed within a context to give it a meaning turns into information. This capability of understanding the relationship between information and what to do with the information is knowledge. When a decision is taken based on knowledge it is called wisdom Context Data is either text, numbers, or symbols Information is refined & interpreted Data Knowledge is information acted upon cognitively. Wisdom is applied knowledge with the common sense Origin The term Data is derived from Latin term ‘datum’ which refers to ‘something given’ The term information discovered from the Latin word ‘informare’, which refers to ‘give form to’ Knowledge comes from the Greek word, “Gnosis,” signifying knowing through observation or experience. The word Wisdom is created from the English word Wise. wis (from wise ) + dom. Acquisition By Records & Observations Analysis of records & observations Obtained or Learned by observation & Education Developed through experiences Dependency Data does not depend on information. Without data, information cannot be processed. Knowledge is made up of information, beliefs and experiences Wisdom is an intangible quality gained through Knowledge & experience Usefulness / Outcome May or may not be useful / Basis for analysis Useful / Comprehension Always useful / Improves representation Ability to make decisions & judgements is most useful Application Can be shared but not easily understood without context Can be shared, much more easily & understood by everyone Can be shared but might be perceived differently Personal quality , can not be shared Example 2011 – 78.8% & 59.3% 2001 – 75.85% & 54.16% Context: Male & Female literacy rates in India for 2011 & 2001 • Female literacy rate is lower than male. • Female literacy rate has improved in the last decade India should focus on… • Girls’ Education • Women empowerment
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  • 41. 19 – DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES Dimensions Duties Responsibilities Origin The word duty originates from the Latin word ‘debere’, which means obligation to call to do something or commitment. Responsibility originated from the Latin word ‘respondere’ which means to vouch; respond to something or the capacity to act on one’s own will. Definition Duty is the obligatory task, conduct, work or service, that emerge out of an individual’s position, occupation or role. Responsibility refers to a state of having some authority or obligation to undertake an assigned task satisfactorily to attain the desired results. Meaning Duty implies an obligation or moral commitment which an individual is expected to perform. Responsibility refers to the liability which is assumed or accepted by a person, as a part of his job role or position. Reflects Respect or obedience, for the work, rules, superiors or elders Accountability for the performance or non-performance of something Demands Sacrifice of self-interest, sincerity Trustworthiness and loyalty Obligation It exhibits an invisible force which binds a person to do the expected & right. It makes a person answerable or accountable for the completion of the task to the authority. Repercussion Non-performance of duties may result in some form of action, fine or punishment. The person who accepts the responsibility must be ready to bear the consequences, which may be positive or negative. Duties are imputed on a person, either naturally or out of the role/position he occupies. Responsibility is accepted duties, which are shouldered on a person who is competent and conscientious enough to handle it. Delegation Duty can be delegated. Responsibility is absolute & cannot be delegated. Example A teacher must teach and perform all the tasks assigned Teacher must ensure that students develop the desired knowledge , skills &
  • 43. 20 – AUTHORITARIAN BOSS, MANAGER, LEADER Dimension Authoritarian Boss Manager Leader Definition A person who gives orders to employees and behaves in an authoritative way & seeks control is a Boss. A representative of the organization responsible for the management of the work and takes requisite actions is a Manager. An individual who influences, directs, guides and encourages the behaviour of people towards the attainment of specific goals is a Leader. Focus On himself (Self oriented) Managing Work (Work Oriented) Leading Team(People Oriented) Workforce Sub-ordinates Employees Followers Seeks Results Objectives Vision Direction Own Roads Existing Roads New Roads Concern I am Right Being Right What is Right? Nature Arrogant Tactful Humble Style Autocratic Leadership Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership Feedback Less feedback Formal Feedback Honest Feedback Risks Avoids Minimizes Takes Essence Dominance Stability Change Decisions Imposes Makes Facilitates Credit & Blame Takes Credit & Places Blame Shares Credit & Blame Gives Credit & Takes Blame
  • 45. 21 – BILL, ORDINANCE, ACT, RULES, G.R. Bill Ordinance Act Rules G.R  Bill is an idea which is introduced in the legislature for getting it passed.  It is a draft of a proposed legislation.  It is a statute in the draft form and cannot become a law unless it is approved by the Parliament and signed/assent by the president / Governor.  Once the bill is framed it has to be put up in the public domain to invite their suggestions.  As per the suggestions the bill is amended and presented in legislature for approval.  When bill is passed by the legislature it is called an ordinance.  Ordinance can be passed directly by an elected govt. if the matter is urgent.  When Ordinance is signed by the President it becomes an act or law.  Ordinance constitutes the subject matter of the enacted law.  Ordinance can also be issued by President directly when the parliament is not in session, and he believes it is required at that time.  It will have the same power as statutory law which is passed by the parliament.  Once parliament comes into session it can be ratified / passed or discarded.  Ordinance becomes an act when it is passed by the parliament.  When a bill / ordinance is passed by the parliament and signed by the President it becomes an act or law.  Act becomes a part of the constitution.  It is an instrument or document stating something done or transacted.  Act is a substantive law.  Act is an adopted and effective legislation.  It can be amended with Gazette notification only.  Rules are the guidelines for implementing the act in its true form.  Rules are framed subsequently after the act is passed.  Rules are the standard methods and procedures in relation to provisions contained in the act.  In case of any contradiction in the rules and act the provision of the act prevails and applied accordingly.  Rules may be called regulatory principles, procedural rules or operating principles.  A Government resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body.  It is a formal expression of opinion, a decision or determination or intention made usually after voting by a formal organization, a legislature, a committee or a group.  G.R clarifies certain  aspects of law and its explanation.
  • 46. Examples of Bill, Ordinance, Act, Rules & G.R BILL 1-Maharashtra Educational Institutions (Regulation of Collection of Fees) Bill 2011 2-Prohibition of Unfair Practices in School Bill 2012 ORDINANCE 1- Ordinance to Repeal Bombay Primary Act 1947 2-Anti Black Magic & Superstition Ordinance 2013 ACT/LAW 1- Right to Education Act 2009 2-Maharashtra Self Financed Schools ACT 2012 RULES 1- Maharashtra Employees of Private Schools (MEPS) Rules 1981 2- RTE Model Rules (Central & Maharashtra) GOVRNMENT RESOLUTION 1- RTE G. Rs 2- School Bus GR 3-Various G.Rs issued By the Govt.
  • 47. 22 – CURRICULUM VITAE , RESUME, BIO-DATA Dimension Curriculum Vitae (C.V) Resume Bio-Data Origin Curriculum Vitae is a Latin expression which means ‘Course of Life’. Resume is a French word which means ‘Summary’ Bio-Data is the short form for Biographical Meaning A document containing detailed information related to individual's past qualification, experience, skills, competencies and achievements. A Resume is a summary of an individual's education, skills & employment. In a Bio Data the focus is on personal information like date of birth, gender, religion, race, nationality, residence, marital status etc. Goal Full history of academic credentials, professional experience, Research and Awards. Brief snapshot of skills & experience that communicates the ability to perform the job To convey the personal details Emphasis On Expertise, Skills & Achievements On contribution, making a difference Family & personal background Length Comprehensive, Length is an indicator of accomplishment. Generally, 2 to 3 pages long. Concise, Shorter the better, usually 1 to 2 pages. Short, Not more than one page Dynamics C.V cannot be customised, it remains static. A Resume is dynamic, and changes according to the job. It can be modified with changes in positions. Use Applying for an academic position, advanced research, fellowship etc. or on demand. Applying for a job, internship etc. or on demand. For reference or marital purpose. Addition It also includes details about a person’s area of interest, hobbies and extracurricular activities. It only outlines the job applicant’s relevant qualifications and experience which is required for the specific job. Family profile with achievements may be added.
  • 48. Image Credit: Global ENGLISH CREATIVITY
  • 49. 23 – MISCELLANEOUS Table of Contents Index The table of contents appears at the beginning of a book & consists of main Headings, Titles, and Page numbers associated with it. An Index is placed at the end of a book & lists the detailed inventory of the topic, key elements, important words, concepts, etc. from each chapter. Table of Contents include reference to the additional pages along with the main content, such as foreword, preface, bibliography, annexure, appendix, etc. The index is an organized overview of the book’s contents with no reference to such additional pages, as it covers keywords present in the main content. Table of Contents is listed sequentially & acts as an indication of each segment of the document which helps the readers locate the information easily and quickly. Index is listed alphabetically which record list of details required to help the reader understand & find the written material better & easier. Annexure Appendix An annexure is a supplementary material or a set of documents, which are added at the end of a text or a book, to validate the information provided in the main text. An appendix refers to an addition or extension to the main text, that contains information which is too detailed to put in the main document or report. It contains relevant papers or proofs that validate the main body of the report, or document. Like News articles, reports, affidavit, etc. It contains essential background details like Graphics, tables, charts, statistics, figures, etc. It is a standalone document not prepared by the author of the main document. Prepared by the author of the main document, not a standalone document. Reference Bibliography Reference implies the list of all primary sources, that has been referred to in the written work. Bibliography is about listing out the details of all the primary or secondary sources which has been consulted during the written work. It is arranged alphabetically as well as numerically Bibliography is arranged numerically It is only limited to the materials and contents that have actually been quoted in the essay work. It is hence quite limited in scope. It is quite broad in scope in that it comprises those contents which have been quoted in the essay work and some others which are relevant but not quoted.