Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. SEMINAR Vandana Thakur M.Sc. Nursing 1st year
  2. 2. Principles of Assessment, formative and Summative Assessment, Internal and External Assessment
  3. 3. Outlines Introduction of Assessment. Definitions of Assessment. Purposes of Assessment. Characteristics of Assessment. Principles of Assessment. Functions of Assessment. Formative Assessment. Summative Assessment. Internal Assessment. External Assessment.
  4. 4. Objectives • To introduce the topic. • To define the topic. • To explain the purposes and characteristics • To describe the principles of assessment. • To illustrate the functions • To describe the formative and summative assessment. • To discuss the internal and external assessment.
  5. 5. Assessment The word ‘assess’ comes from the Latin verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’. Assessment is a systematic process of gathering, interpreting, and acting upon data related to student learning and experience for the purpose of developing a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experience.
  6. 6. Definitions Assessment in education is the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992) Evaluation means the systematic examination of events occurring and consequent on a contemporary programme. Cronbach et al(1980)
  7. 7. Evaluation is an act or a dynamic process that allows one to make a judgment about the desirability or value of a measure. Evaluation is essential and never ending process or cycle of formulating goals, measuring the progress towards them and determining the new goals which emerge as a result of new warning. Chlara M. Brown Evaluation is a process wherein the parts, processes or outcomes of a programme are examined to see whether they are satisfactory with reference to the stated objectives of the programme. Tuckman(1975)
  8. 8. Purposes of evaluation To make provision for guiding the growth of individual pupils. To diagnose the weakness and strength of pupils. To locate areas where remedial measures are needed. To provide basis for a modification of the curriculum and course.
  9. 9. To motivate pupils towards better attainment and growth. To test the efficiency of teachers in providing learning experiences and the effectiveness of instruction and classroom activities. To improve instruction. For guidance and counseling services. For the purpose of promotions to the student.
  10. 10. To provide basis for the introduction of experiences and to meet the needs of individuals and group of pupil. For reporting students progress to their parents. For the purpose of selecting students for employment. For the awards of scholarship and merit awards. To certify that a student has achieved a particular level of performance.
  11. 11. Characteristics Evaluation is a continuous process. Evaluation includes academic and non-academic subjects Discovering the needs of an individual and designing learning experiences Evaluation is purpose oriented. Evaluation is a procedure for improving the product.
  12. 12. Principles of Evaluation Clearly specifying what is to be evaluated has priority in the evaluation process. An evaluation technique should be selected in terms of its relevance to the characteristics of performance to be measured. Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of evaluation techniques.
  13. 13. Contiiii Proper use of evaluation techniques requires an awareness of their limitations. Evaluation is a means to an end, not an end in itself. Evaluation technique should be selected according to purpose served.
  14. 14. FUNCTIONS OF EVALUATION Functions related to instructional process Measurement functions. Diagnostic function. Guidance and Remediation. Motivating function. Assessment of the final output. Classification and placement. Diagnosis, prediction and selection.
  15. 15. Functions related to total education system Improvement of inputs and process of education. Maximization of output.
  16. 16. Values and Attitudes about Assessment 1. Teachers value and believe in students. 2. Sharing learning goals with the students. 3. Involving students in self-assessment. 4. Providing feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them. 5. Being confident that every student can improve. 6. Providing students with examples of what we expect from them.
  17. 17. Factors Inhibiting Assessment A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and presentation of work rather than quality of learning. Greater attention given to marking and grading, much of it tending to lower self esteem of students, rather than providing advice for improvement. A strong emphasis on comparing students with each other, which demoralizes the less successful learners.
  18. 18. Implications for classroom practice Share learning goals with students. Involve students in self-assessment. Provide feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them. Be confident that every student can improve.
  19. 19. TYPES Assessment
  20. 20. Formative Assessment • formative evaluation is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feedback to both pupil and teacher regarding learning success and failures. • Taken at varying intervals throughout a course to provide information and feedback that will help improve.
  21. 21. Definitions It is conducted to monitor the instructional process to determine whether learning is taking place as planned. R.L. Ebel and D.A. Frishac 1986
  22. 22. It is concerned with judgment made during the design and development of a program which are directed towards modifying, forming, or otherwise improving the program before it is completed. A.J. Nitke 1983 Formative evaluation occurs over a period of time and monitors student’s progress.
  23. 23. Characteristics of Formative Assessment Provides the students with on his progress or gain. Must be continuous starts with comment of program until the time be complete it. Informs students about extent of learning needs to reach the education adjective. Enables learning activities to be adjusted in accordance with progress made or lack of it.
  24. 24. Useful in guiding the students and prompting him to ask for help. It is carried out frequently whenever the student/teacher feels it as necessary. Provides teacher with qualitative and quantitative data for modification of his teaching.
  25. 25. Activities of formative assessment •Day to day observation
  26. 26. Experiment or practical
  27. 27. Activity
  28. 28. Project
  29. 29. Assignment
  30. 30. Self Study
  31. 31. Questions and Answers
  32. 32. Home wok Exercises
  33. 33. Simulations
  34. 34. Conferencing
  35. 35. STRATEGIES USED IN FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Criteria and goal setting Observations Questioning strategies Self and peer assessment Student record keeping
  36. 36. Key Elements of Formative Assessment 1. The identification by teachers & learners of learning goals, intentions or outcomes and criteria for achieving these. 2. Rich conversations between teachers & students that continually build and go deeper. 3. The provision of effective, timely feedback to enable students to advance their learning. 4. The active involvement of students in their own learning. 5. Teachers responding to identified learning needs and strengths by modifying their teaching approaches. Black & William, 1998
  37. 37. Summative Assessment • Its designed to determine the extent to which the instructional objectives have been achieved and is used primarily for assigning course grades or certifying pupil mastery of the intended learning outcomes. • Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the "sum" of what they have or have not learned. • "Good summative assessments--must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias“.
  38. 38. Definitions Summative evaluation describes judgment about the merits of an already completed program. Term summative refers to assigning a grade for student’s achievement at the end of a term, course or instructional program. To conduct at the end of instructional segment to determine if learning is suffer complete to warrant moving the learner to the next segment of instruction.
  39. 39. Characteristics of summative evaluation Certifying evaluation is designed to develop competent personal from practicing. To place students in order of merit. Justifies the discussion as to whether they should more up to the next class or be awarded a degree or diploma. Carried out less frequently at the end of a period of instruction.
  40. 40. Types of Summative Assessment Attendance Performance Written product Unseen examination Seen examination Open Book Examination Multiple choice tests Essay or report Test Standardized test
  41. 41. Types of Summative Assessment Oral product Dissertation Presentation Portfolio
  42. 42. Difference between formative and summative assessment
  43. 43. Formative •‘… often means no more than that the assessment is carried out frequently and is planned at the same time as teaching.’ (Black and Wiliam, 1999) •‘… provides feedback which leads to students recognizing the (learning) gap and closing it (Harlen, 1998) •‘ … includes both feedback and self-monitoring.’ (Sadler, 1989) •‘… is used essentially to feed back into the teaching and learning process.’ (Tunstall and Gipps, 1996) Summative •‘…assessment (that) has increasingly been used to sum up learning…’(Black and Wiliam, 1999) •‘… looks at past achievements … adds procedures or tests to existing work • … is separated from teaching … is carried out at intervals when achievement has to be summarized and reported.’ (Harlen, 1998)
  44. 44. Definition: • Internal assessment refers to the process evaluating students or staffs by the people who govern it. • No external authority or office is liable to interfere with the test given to the members of the institution. The only governing body is the head of the institution.
  45. 45. Need for internal assessment To give credit in final assessment. To reduce tension associated with final examination. To provide link for feedback in teaching. To evaluate sphere of activity this cannot be alone through public exam. To provide opportunity to the teacher to evaluate his/her students. To induce students for continue learning.
  46. 46. Basic principles of internal assessment Should be continuous and made by subject teacher, it does not replace exam. It uses suitable evaluation tools and techniques. Fix proportion of marks according to hours of instructions and importance of subject to nursing. Used as a feedback to improve teaching.
  47. 47. Students should know their internal assessment marks before their final exams. Give opportunity to students to improve their internal assessment grade by additional tests, assignments etc. Results must be studied statistically. Improve a number of components.
  48. 48. Procedure for internal assessment Internal assessment should be comprehensive evaluating all the aspects of student’s growth. Eg- academic achievement, personality traits etc. Internal assessment should be kept separately.
  49. 49. Through internal assessment teachers can change attitude of students favorable towards day to day program. Internal assessment should be objective, unbiased and based on all the records of unit test, practical tests, home work, class work, observational scales and inventories, participation in group project etc.
  50. 50. Components of internal assessment • Subject wise assessment. • Assessment of co curricular activities. • Assessment of personality traits.
  51. 51. Validity of internal assessment The tool of internal assessment is very powerful if objectively and free from bias. It becomes invalid if the teacher is biased has prejudice against a particular pupil.
  52. 52. Advantages No undue weight age is given to annual or external exams. Students will be engaged in study throughout the year. They will be more regular, alert and science in students. Eleventh hour preparation in exams will be reduced to minimum. Internal assessment helps to reduce anxiety and prevent nervous breakdown in students.
  53. 53. Disadvantages A teacher may misuse it. It can cause a great harm in the hands of an inexperienced, insincere teacher. It will lose its validity if favourism, personal prejudice and subjectivity.
  55. 55. Definition An evaluation carried out by evaluators external to the entity evaluated. An evaluation which is performed by persons outside the organization responsible for the intervention itself.
  56. 56.   Importance/objectives of external assessment Degree/certificate A standard. To make distinguish. Comparison of abilities. To evaluate the progress. Selection for higher education. To get employment.
  57. 57. Popularity/standard of educational institution. Selection of intelligent students. Competition. Evaluation of teacher’s performance. Evaluation of objectives and curriculum. Creation of good habits in students. Satisfaction and happiness of parents.
  58. 58. Classification of results 50 % pass in each of the theory and practical separately. 50-59 % second division. 60-74% first division. 75 % and above is distinction. For declaring the rank aggregate of 2 years marks to be considered.
  59. 59. Regulations for examination
  60. 60. Process of external assessment Selection of paper setters and reviewers. Setting and moderation of question papers. Printing and packing of question papers confidential nature of printing work. Selection of examination centers. Appointments of superintendants and invigilators and staff for the fair conduct of examination at centres.
  61. 61. Supply of stationary to centres. Distributing of question papers to examinees under the supervision of the centre’s superintendents. Posting of police personnel at the centres. Packing of scripts and sending them to board’s office or examining body office. Deployment of special squads for checking unfair means. Assignment of fake of fictitious or secret roll numbers to answer books at the board’s office.
  62. 62. Examination scheme Minimum marks shall be 50 % in each of the theory and practical papers separately. A candidate must have minimum of 80% attendance in theory and practical in each subject for appearing for examination. A candidate has to pass in theory and practical exam separately in each of the paper.
  63. 63. Contiiii If a candidate fails in either theory or practical paper he/she has to reappear for both the papers. All practical examination must be held in the respective clinical areas. One internal and external examiner should jointly conduct practical examination for each student.
  64. 64. Advantages A person will be able to know his/her performance and knowledge. For most people exam may encourage them to work and learn. It can create competition which pushes the competitioners to do their best. It helps in developing one’s own personality and confidence. If a person passes the exam and got good result, it helps to get a scholarship which will bring to have a good job.
  65. 65. Demerits • Use of unfair means in examination hall. • Just pass the exam to get degree. • Partial curriculum is covered. • In complete evaluation of personality. • Unreliable results. • Use of helping books and guess papers.
  66. 66. Contiii • Chance/luck. • Corruption • Exams without specific objectives. • Negative effect/impact on the students. • No attention over research. • It is time consuming. • Pet questions are respected. • Standards vary from board to board and universities in the same year.
  67. 67. Contiiiii • Marking is not up to the standard. • For same people, exams make them stress. This is because there too much pressure of their parents and teachers. • During the exam a person may also have problems with questions.