Lorna Earl Rethinking Classroom Assessment With Purpose In Mind


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Lorna Earl Rethinking Classroom Assessment With Purpose In Mind

  1. 1. Rethinking Classroom Assessment With Purpose in Mind Lorna M. Earl, Ph.D. 3219 Yonge St. Suite # 240 Toronto ON M4N 3S1 aporia@attglobal.net tel 4 1 6 . 6 8 6 . 2 2 7 9 fax 4 1 6 . 6 8 6 . 4 1 6 2
  2. 2. Rethinking Classroom Assessment With Purpose in Mind Assessment for Learning Assessment as Learning Assessment of Learning 2006 Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education www.wncp.ca, classroom assessment
  3. 3. What is AfL? In your own words, describe AfL. – Write it on the sticky note on your table and stick it in the front of your packet.
  4. 4. Overview Why Rethink Classroom Assessment? Assessment, Learning and Motivation Purposes of Classroom Assessment Making the Change Getting There
  5. 5. Why Change Classroom Assessment? – Societal Changes – Classroom Assessment, Learning and Motivation? – Using Classroom Assessment for Differentiated Learning?
  6. 6. History of Assessment Plato Trade Guilds Industrial Revolution and Legislated Universal Education High Quality Education for All
  7. 7. 3 Powerful Insights about How People Learn (National Research Council) • People come to learning with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught or may learn them superficially and revert to their preconceptions in real situations.
  8. 8. Assessment, Learning and Motivation Jojo Story
  9. 9. 3 Powerful Insights about How People Learn (National Research Council) • To develop competence in an area of inquiry, people must: • have a deep foundation of factual knowledge • understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework • organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application
  10. 10. Using Assessment to Differentiate Learning From “Deficit” Explanations Of Diversity To “Inclusive” Strategies For All Deficit Paradigm Inclusion Paradigm What’s wrong with the child What’s wrong with the environment Focus on deficits Focus on strategies Prescriptive Malleable Diagnoses diversity Values diversity Tolerates differences Embraces differences Reliance on external expert Teacher/parent/student as expert Professionalized Personalized (adapted from Philpott et al., 2004)
  11. 11. Stages in Growth from Emergent to Proficient Emergent Proficient No practical Analytical. Locates Uses analysis and Understands the context. Expects definitive experience. and considers synthesis. Sees the Has a holistic grasp of answers. Some Dependent on possible patterns. whole rather than relationships. Considers recognition of rules. Has internalized the aspects. Looks for links alternatives in an iterative patterns. Limited experience. Still key dimensions so and patterns. Adjusts way and integrates ideas relies on rules. that they are to adapt to the into efficient solutions. automatic. context. Solves problems and makes ongoing adaptations automatically.
  12. 12. 3 Powerful Insights about How People Learn (National Research Council) • A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help people learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their own progress in achieving them.
  13. 13. BREAK
  14. 14. Purposes of Classroom Assessment Assessment for learning Assessment as learning Assessment of learning Balance and Tensions in Assessment Purposes
  15. 15. FOR OF FOR AS OF
  16. 16. Assessment For Learning Assessment for learning is designed to give teachers information to modify the teaching and learning activities in which students are engaged in order to differentiate and focus how individual students approach their learning. It suggests that students are all learning in individual and idiosyncratic ways, while recognizing that there are predictable patterns and pathways that many students go through. The emphasis is on teachers using the information from carefully-designed assessments to determine not only what students know, but also to gain insights into how, when, and whether students use what they know, so that they can streamline and target instruction and resources.
  17. 17. Assessment As Learning Assessment as learning emphasizes using assessment as a process of developing and supporting metacognition for students. Assessment as learning focuses on the role of the student as the critical connector between assessment and learning. Students, as active, engaged and critical assessors make sense of information, relate it to prior knowledge, and use it for new learning. This is the regulatory process in metacognition. It occurs when students personally monitor what they are learning and use the feedback from this monitoring to make adjustments, adaptations and even major changes in what they understand. When teachers focus on assessment as learning, they use classroom assessment as the vehicle for helping students develop, practice and become comfortable with reflection and with critical analysis of their own learning.
  18. 18. Assessment Of Learning Assessment of learning is assessment used to confirm what students know, to demonstrate whether or not the students have met the standards and/or show how they are placed in relation to others. In assessment of learning, teachers concentrate on ensuring that they have used assessment to provide accurate and sound statements of proficiency or competence for students, so that the recipients of the information can use the information to make reasonable and defensible decisions.
  19. 19. Shifting the Balance Among Assessment Purposes
  20. 20. Task – What are the properties of AfL Think of the last good lesson you gave or observed List the properties of that lesson that make you think it had good AfL practice? In your groups share your properties List shared properties on the chart paper
  21. 21. Properties of Assessment For Learning 1. Clarity of Purpose 2. Explicit Learning Progression 3. Intended Transparency of Current Knowledge 4. Pedagogical Next Steps Informed by Evidence 5. Students’ Next Steps as Informed by Evidence 6. Assessment supports Meta-Cognition Development 7. Multiplicity and Intentionality 8. Assessment Differentiates 9. Integration
  22. 22. Learning How to Swim Full Front Crawl Arms, kicking, breathing every stroke Gliding with a flitter kick & breathing Gliding with a flutter kick & breathing Glide & flutter kick Glide Saad's learning how to swim progression. Floating, breathing, comfortable in water
  23. 23. Explicit Learning Progression: Description There are explicit links to learning expectations that describe the road to proficiency Clear and explicit curriculum links Clear and explicit learning progression Students understand expectations Teachers can target instructional supports
  24. 24. Multiplicity and Intentionality Is this purple?
  25. 25. Multiplicity and Intentionality Assessment for Learning activities are intentional and planned Students’ learning is made transparent AfL draws on multiple forms of evidence
  26. 26. Integration Assessment for learning is an integrated process rather than an isolated event Assessment is seamless with teaching and learning The properties are tightly correlated Integration is hard to see
  27. 27. Task - The Assessment Story Guided Reading
  28. 28. Assessment As Learning – The Ultimate Purpose We must constantly remind ourselves that the ultimate purpose of evaluation is to enable students to evaluate themselves. Educators may have been practicing this skill to the exclusion of the learners. We need to shift part of this responsibility to students. Fostering students’ ability to direct and redirect themselves must be a major goal—or what is education for? Costa (1989)
  29. 29. For students to be able to improve, they must develop the capacity to monitor the quality of their own work during actual production. This in turn requires that students possess an appreciation of what high quality work is, that they have the evaluative skill necessary for them to compare with some objectivity the quality of what they are producing in relation to the higher standard, and that they develop a store of tactics or moves which can be drawn upon to modify their own work. » Sadler, 1989
  30. 30. Task – Assessment For Learning Guidelines Individually, complete the Assessment for Learning Guidelines Task Sheet Discuss the guidelines and your examples in your group
  31. 31. Levels of Learning New learning for the adults in schools and beyond
  32. 32. Learning Imperatives for You In groups: – What Do We Need to Learn?
  33. 33. Making the Change Changing Minds – Schools are for learning – Assessment is a significant part of learning Changing Practices – Learning at the core – Teaching each student “just in time” to maximise learning and minimise misconceptions – Feedback for learning – Communication to ourselves, to students, to parents, to the community
  34. 34. Getting There Think About What You Believe To Be True Learn About Learning Know Your Subject Be An Expert Teacher Work Together Be Gentle With Yourself; But, Don't Give up Self-monitoring and Self-Development For You Too Get The Support You Need Put it All Together
  35. 35. If you make a change and it feels comfortable, you haven’t made a change. » Lee Trevino
  36. 36. Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful and committed citizens can change the world. In fact, it has never happened any other way. » Margaret Mead