Sociological research<br />Unit 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6<br />
Develop aims or hypothesis of the research<br />Carry out pilot studies<br />Selecting samples<br />Collecting data<br />A...
Aims are the goals of the study. What is the researcher planning to investigate and gives a clear focus to the study.<br /...
This is a small scale trial run of the research done before the main research.  It is done to determine if there is enough...
Read the written activity on Piloting a questionnaire in Costa del Sol on page 13 of your book.<br />Answer the following ...
Before a researcher can start a study, they need to identify the population that they wish to study, and then get a sample...
Probability (or random sampling)<br />And<br />Non-probability sampling.<br />Two categories of samples	<br />
Three types<br />Simple random sampling- each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample...
Snowball sampling- There may be no sampling frame available.  If not, this type of sampling occurs when the researcher get...
Complete the Sampling Technique section on pg 15 of your book.<br />Answer the following questions in your copybooks.<br /...
Data collection- several methods of collecting data, it depends on what the research techniques used are.<br />Primary dat...
Primary data sources include<br />Questionnaires<br />Structured interviews<br />Unstructured interviews<br />Observation....
Secondary data sources include<br />Official statistics <br />Mass media<br />Letters<br />Diaries <br />Photographs <br /...
Quantitative- numbers.  Something that can be counted.  Presented in graphs or tables of statistics which count or measure...
This is dependent on the type of data generated.  Qualitative vs Quantitative.<br />Quantitative data is often analyzed in...
Once a researcher has completed their research, they examine the data and form a conclusion based on the data.  <br />Did ...
Complete the Research Process written activity on page 17 in your copy book and answer the questions at the bottom of page...
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Sociological research 2.4 to 2.6

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Sociological research 2.4 to 2.6

  1. 1. Sociological research<br />Unit 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6<br />
  2. 2. Develop aims or hypothesis of the research<br />Carry out pilot studies<br />Selecting samples<br />Collecting data<br />Analysing the data<br />Evaluating the project.<br />Research process<br />
  3. 3. Aims are the goals of the study. What is the researcher planning to investigate and gives a clear focus to the study.<br />Hypothesis is a hunch or guess that is usually written as a statement that can be tested and then either supported by the evidence or disproved.<br />Aims or/and Hypothesis.<br />
  4. 4. This is a small scale trial run of the research done before the main research. It is done to determine if there is enough interest, money or the right research methods are being used to study the event/item/problem.<br />Pilot studies allow the researchers to get a “trial” before they do the actual research.<br />Pilot studies<br />
  5. 5. Read the written activity on Piloting a questionnaire in Costa del Sol on page 13 of your book.<br />Answer the following questions in your copy book.<br />1. Why did O’Reilly use a questionnaire?<br />2. Why did she undertake a pilot study?<br />3. Identify two concerns raised by those who took part in the pilot study.<br />4. What changes did O’Reilly make to her questionnaire after doing the pilot study?<br />Test your understanding.<br />
  6. 6. Before a researcher can start a study, they need to identify the population that they wish to study, and then get a sample of it.<br />A population is the entire group that the sociologist is studying. It could be very large, or as small as a household.<br />A sample is taken from a sampling frame to get an accurate representation of the population.<br />Unit 2.5 Selecting samples<br />
  7. 7. Probability (or random sampling)<br />And<br />Non-probability sampling.<br />Two categories of samples <br />
  8. 8. Three types<br />Simple random sampling- each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. <br />Systematic sampling- taking every “nth” item from the sampling frame. For example, every tenth person from a phone book.<br />Stratified random sampling- sociologist wants the sample to reflect the age and gender characteristics of the population. Divides the population into different layers and then randomly draws a sample from each subgroup in proportion to the numbers in the population.<br />Probability Sampling<br />
  9. 9. Snowball sampling- There may be no sampling frame available. If not, this type of sampling occurs when the researcher gets to know one member of a population, and then is introduced to more members. It grows like a snowball.<br />Quota sampling- often used by market research. Each researcher will have to interview a specific number of people (a quota) from different categories.<br />Purposive sampling- sample is selected using a known characteristic.. Such as employment, education<br />Non-probability sampling<br />
  10. 10. Complete the Sampling Technique section on pg 15 of your book.<br />Answer the following questions in your copybooks.<br />1. Explain how you would obtain<br />A. a stratified random sample of 200 students, stratified according to class, ethnicity and gender<br />B. A systematic sample of 200 students<br />2. Which of these two types of sampling do you think would give the most representative sample? Explain your view.<br />Test your understanding.<br />
  11. 11. Data collection- several methods of collecting data, it depends on what the research techniques used are.<br />Primary data is data collected by the researcher in their study.<br />Secondary data is data that has already been collected by other individuals and is being used by the researcher.<br />Unit 2.6 Data collection and analysis<br />
  12. 12. Primary data sources include<br />Questionnaires<br />Structured interviews<br />Unstructured interviews<br />Observation.<br />
  13. 13. Secondary data sources include<br />Official statistics <br />Mass media<br />Letters<br />Diaries <br />Photographs <br />Studies by other sociologists<br />
  14. 14. Quantitative- numbers. Something that can be counted. Presented in graphs or tables of statistics which count or measure something.<br />Qualitative- cannot be counted. It is usually presented in a verbal or visual form. These are word for word accounts of people being studied, explanations of what was seen using less standardized methods. This includes newspapers, letters, diaries, etc.<br />Quantitative vs Qualitative<br />
  15. 15. This is dependent on the type of data generated. Qualitative vs Quantitative.<br />Quantitative data is often analyzed in statistics. The researcher looks at relationships or links in the data which can be used to disprove or validate the hypothesis.<br />Qualitative data is often indexed (or coded) in transcripts which describe a particular part of what the research is looking for. Such as “peer pressure,” “family difficulties,” etc.<br />Data analysis <br />
  16. 16. Once a researcher has completed their research, they examine the data and form a conclusion based on the data. <br />Did the data gathered support their hypothesis or did it disprove it?<br />Researchers present their findings at conferences or in journals where their research, data and evaluation can be peer reviewed.<br />Evaluation. <br />
  17. 17. Complete the Research Process written activity on page 17 in your copy book and answer the questions at the bottom of page 17.<br />Test your knowledge <br />

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