Ch .Steps In Research Process


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Ch .Steps In Research Process

  1. 1. Steps in Research Process<br />
  2. 2. Step 1 – Selecting the research topic<br />Basic Step in research<br />Research is possible in Marketing, banking insurance, transport, export etc<br />For e.g.: In marketing we have areas of research such as product research, price research, consumer behavior research, packaging research, promotion research etc.<br />Primary decision in a research process is to select the research area.<br />
  3. 3. Our Topic of Research<br />IshantAvasti – Problem Child from TaareZameen Par<br />
  4. 4. The case<br />IshaanNandkishoreAwasthi, the story's leading character, is an eight-year-old boy who dislikes school and fails every test or exam. He finds all subjects difficult, and is belittled by his teachers and classmates. <br />Lets assume that Ishant’s parents have appointed you as Ishant’s Mentor and Guide. Your task is to help him in his academics and help his parents to understand his problem.<br />The first step you need to take is to conduct a research on Ishant’s problem and then suggest a solution to the parents.<br />
  5. 5. Step 2 - Define the research problem <br />The second, and the most important step in research:<br />“A problem well-defined is half solved” <br />Nature of the problem determines the type of study to conduct. <br />Symptoms, for example, declining sales, profit, market share, or customer loyalty are not problems. <br />Ishant’s Problem is not Lack of interest in studies, Misbehavior at home, Lack of focus, A problem child, Very mischeavious etc, they are symptoms.<br />
  6. 6. A research problem must be accurately and precisely defined, otherwise the task of designing a good research is difficult.<br />Marketing problems may be difficulty-related or opportunity-related. For both, the prerequisite of defining the problem is to identify and diagnose it.<br />Conduct situation analysis. It provides the basic motivation and momentum for further research.<br />
  7. 7. Get the right answer to the question:<br />“What exactly do Ishant’s Parents want or need to know?”<br /> The basic question to address is:<br /> “What is Ishant’s Problem?”<br />The symptoms which show that Ishant has a problem are:<br />Lack of interest in studies, Misbehavior at home, Lack of focus, A problem child, Very mischeavious, <br />
  8. 8. In the same way a company’s Problems may become apparent from:<br />deviation from the business plan, company records and reports, customer complaints and grievances, conversations with company employees, and observation of inappropriate behavior or conditions in the firm; the success of the firm’s competitors, and published materials reporting issues such as, changes in market or environmental trends, new government regulations, anticipated changes in the economy, etc.)<br />
  9. 9. Once the symptoms of a problem are detected..<br />Conduct some initial fact finding to determine the nature of the true problem. <br />Talk to others about the problem and conduct a preliminary literature search on the topic. <br />
  10. 10. In the initial stage, a problem may be recognized in a very broad and general form only. This may restrict the research program from being comprehensively designed. <br />Both the researcher and the marketing manager (or the research client ) need to work together to formulate the problem into a precise and definite statement. <br />This fact-finding exercise helps the researcher to refine his educated guess to a more accurate problem statement. <br />
  11. 11. So In the case of Ishant: <br />Prof Nikumb speaks to Ishant’s Parents, brother, friends and other professors. <br />He discovers that he is finding it difficult to read and write. <br />Thus he comes to a conclusion that he might be suffering from Dyslexia<br />
  12. 12. Step 3: Establish Research Objectives<br /><ul><li>“If you do not know what you are looking for, you won’t find it”
  13. 13. Research objectives are related to and determined by the problem definition. In establishing research objectives, the researcher must answer the following questions:</li></ul>i) What specific information should the project provide? <br />ii) If more than one type of information will be developed from <br /> the study, which is the most important? and finally, <br />iii) What are the priorities? <br /><ul><li>When specifying research objectives, development of hypothesis, might be very helpful.
  14. 14. When achieved, objectives provide the necessary information to solve the problem.</li></li></ul><li>Our Objectives In Ishant’s Case<br /> What is the diagnosis for Dyslexia?<br /> Has anyone ever suffered from Dyslexia? How did they manage?<br /> How to manage Dyslexia? ( how to help Ishant)<br />
  15. 15. Step 4: Research Design <br />Research Design step involves the development of a research plan for carrying out the study. <br /><ul><li>There are a number of alternative research designs. The choice will largely depend on the research purpose.</li></li></ul><li>What type of research will be suitable for Ishant?<br />Exploratory Research<br />
  16. 16. Step 5: Specify the information required.<br />After defining the problem the researcher must determine what kind of information will best meet the research objectives. <br />Secondary information – Information that is readily available. E.g.<br />- Internet, Magazines, books,<br />Primary information – Information that needs to be found by conducting Survey, Observation or experimentation<br />
  17. 17. Step 6: Design the method of collecting the needed information.<br />Marketing research information may be collected in many ways: <br />via mail, telephone, fax, Internet, or personal interview. <br />using consumer panels, consisting of individuals who have agreed to provide purchasing and media viewing behavior.<br />
  18. 18. Step 7: Design the questionnaire.<br /><ul><li>You need to have a questionnaire to collect Primary data
  19. 19. A primary responsibilities of a marketing researcher is to design the data collection instrument or questionnaire in a manner so that it is easily understood by the respondent and administered to them. </li></li></ul><li>Sample Questionnaire<br />Since how long do you know Ishant?<br />What does Ishant Like?<br />What is he good at?<br />What food does he like?<br />Which subjects does he find difficult?<br />Does he understand the first time that you tell him, or do you need to repeat what you say?<br />
  20. 20. Step 8: Decide on the sampling design.<br />Selecting the target audience <br /> The researcher must determine the criteria that would enable a respondent to take part in a study.<br /> The sampling design must result in the proper sample of respondents being selected. Different sampling designs are available to researchers. <br />
  21. 21. Step 9: Manage and implement the data collection.<br /> The researcher must properly manage and oversee the data collection process.<br />If interview method is used, the researcher must train interviewers and develop procedures for controlling the quality of the interviewing. <br />[This is not necessary if survey methodology is used, where the research instruments are completed by the respondents. ]<br />
  22. 22. Step 10: Analyze and interpret the results.<br />The ‘raw’ research data needs to be edited, tabulated and analyzed to find the results and to interpret them.<br /><ul><li>the method used may be manual or computer based.
  23. 23. The analysis plan follows from the research objective of the study.
  24. 24. Association and relationships of variables are identified and discussed in the light of the specific marketing problem.</li></li></ul><li>Step 11: Communicate the findings and implications<br />The researcher has to submit a written report and often make an oral presentation to management or the client.<br />In conducting all the marketing research activities; the marketing researchers must adhere to ethical standards.<br />