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Composition and Distribution of Air.pptx

Air is the simplest one It occurs in á single phase - gas. In addition to various gases, dust and condensed vapour may also be found in air. In addition to gases, dust particles and water vapour, air also contains microorganisms. There are vegetative cells and spores of bacteria, fungi and algae, viruses and protozoan cysts. Air is often exposed to sunlight, it has a higher temperature and less moisture. So, if not protected from desiccation, most of these microbial forms will die. Air is mainly a transport or dispersal medium for microorganisms They occur in relatively small numbers in air when compared with soil or water. Microflora of air Air can be studied under two headings Outdoor microflora and Indoor microflora

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Composition and Distribution of Air.pptx
Composition of air
• Air is the simplest one
• It occurs in á single
phase - gas.
• In addition to various
gases, dust and
condensed vapour may
also be found in air.
Nitrogen,
78%
Oxygen, 21%
Argon,
0.90%
Carbon
dioxide, 0.03 %
Hydrogen,
0.01%
Other gases -
Trace
amounts, 0
-20%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Relative Quantities of Various Gases in
Air
• T0 varies near the
earth’s surface
• Steady decrease of
10C / 150m until
top of the
trophosphere
• Above that the T0
starts to increase.
• Temperate region –
trophosphere
extends up to –
11km.
• Tropical region – up
to 16km.
• This layer contains
heavy load of
microorganisms.
Distribution
• In addition to gases, dust particles and water vapour, air also
contains microorganisms.
• There are vegetative cells and spores of bacteria, fungi and
algae, viruses and protozoan cysts.
• Air is often exposed to sunlight, it has a higher temperature and
less moisture. So, if not protected from desiccation, most of these
microbial forms will die.
• Air is mainly a transport or dispersal medium for microorganisms
• They occur in relatively small numbers in air when compared with
soil or water.
Microflora of air
• Air can be studied under two headings
Outdoor
Microflora
Indoor
Microflora

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Composition and Distribution of Air.pptx

  • 2. Composition of air • Air is the simplest one • It occurs in á single phase - gas. • In addition to various gases, dust and condensed vapour may also be found in air. Nitrogen, 78% Oxygen, 21% Argon, 0.90% Carbon dioxide, 0.03 % Hydrogen, 0.01% Other gases - Trace amounts, 0 -20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Relative Quantities of Various Gases in Air
  • 3. • T0 varies near the earth’s surface • Steady decrease of 10C / 150m until top of the trophosphere • Above that the T0 starts to increase.
  • 4. • Temperate region – trophosphere extends up to – 11km. • Tropical region – up to 16km. • This layer contains heavy load of microorganisms.
  • 5. Distribution • In addition to gases, dust particles and water vapour, air also contains microorganisms. • There are vegetative cells and spores of bacteria, fungi and algae, viruses and protozoan cysts. • Air is often exposed to sunlight, it has a higher temperature and less moisture. So, if not protected from desiccation, most of these microbial forms will die. • Air is mainly a transport or dispersal medium for microorganisms • They occur in relatively small numbers in air when compared with soil or water.
  • 6. Microflora of air • Air can be studied under two headings Outdoor Microflora Indoor Microflora
  • 7. i) Outdoor Microflora • The air in the atmosphere, which is found outside the building is referred to as outside air. • It is larger in volume than the indoor air • The dominant flora of outside air is fungi. • The two common fungi are o Deuteromycete - Cladosporium and o Basidiomycete - yeast Sporobolomyces. • Basidiospores, ascospores of yeasts, fragment of mycelium and conidia of molds are also common.
  • 8. Bacteria • Spores of Bacillus and Clostridium • Resistant non-spore formers such as Sarcina lutea and Micrococcu luteus. • Non-pathogenic species of Corynebacterium and • Few Gram negative rods such as coliforms and Achromobacteriaceae are the widely occurring ones.
  • 9. Air flora over the sea • The air flora over the sea is quite different from that of landscapes • Includes the following genera, Genera •Achromobacter •Bacillus, •Corynebacterium, •Flavobacterium, •Micrococcus, •Sarcina and •Staphylococcus.
  • 10. Air flora at very high altitudes 4 km from the earth's surface • Dark spored fungi such as Cladosporium and Alternaria • Bacteria like Bacillus and Micrococcus • Concentration - about 2 to 500 per m3 30 km from the earth's surface • Spores have been detected • But in very low concentration • At this altitudes the microorganisms are subjected to severe conditions like desiccation, ultraviolet radiation and low temperature.
  • 11. Number of microorganisms may vary from place to place. • For example, mainly due to the difference in human population densities.  In countries - several hundreds of bacteria are found per cubic meters.  In cities - several thousands of bacteria are seen per cubic meters. • During summer – over agricultural lands - fungal spores are found in ten thousand per cubic meter. • The relative abundance of fungal spores in air is due to the air acts as a means of transport for the fungal spores.
  • 12. Air over the sea has less Microbes Air over the terrestrial surface has more Microbes
  • 13. Spore density • Varies on an annual (caused by climatic changes – T 0) and daily basis.  In temperate countries - winter temperature is less favourable, during rainy season rain washes out the spores present in air, thus causing a reduction in spore density.  In tropical countries - high temperature causes desiccation leading to a reduction in spore density. • Spore discharge depends on the diurnal fluctuation.  Colorless basidiospores - released during night.  Sporangia of Phytopthora - released max level during day  Spore formation in Erysiphe - controlled by light and they mature only during midday.
  • 14. ii) Indoor Microflora • The air found inside the building is referred to as indoor air. • The air inside the room will not be still o Cold air blowing through the windows and doors o Turbulence created by moving people. • The dominant genera o Common saprophytic fungi are • Penicillium • Aspergillus.
  • 15. o Bacteria • Usually the bacterial flora of indoor air reflects that of human skin and respiratory tract. • The frequent bacterial species are Staphylococci, Bacillus and Clostridium perfringens. • number may vary depending upon various factors like ventilation, number of occupants in the room (being infected, other pathogenic bacteria and/or viruses of the respective diseases may also be present), etc. • ventilated rooms - several hundred bacteria per m3 will be present.