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Interaction of microorganisms with vascular plants.pptx

Microbial association with vascular plants Plants—the major source of organic matter on which most soil microorganisms are dependent. Different Microorganisms are associated with the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. The microbial community influences plants in direct and indirect ways.

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Interaction of microorganisms with vascular plants.pptx
• Plants—the major source of organic matter on which
most soil microorganisms are dependent.
• Different Microorganisms are associated with the leaves,
stems, flowers, seeds, and roots.
• The microbial community influences plants in direct and
indirect ways.
Commensalism
• One partner is
benefited other
neither hurt nor
helped
Mutualism
• Both the partners
are benefited
Pathogenic
• Damage the host
Epiphytes Endophytes
Microbes
that live
on the
surface
of the
plants
Microbes
that
colonize
internal
plant
tissues
Those
microbes that
live above –
ground level /
aerial
Those that
inhabit
below-ground
level
• Phyllosphere – the environment of the aerial portion of the plant
(leaves, stem, flowers, friuts & seeds) inhabited by microorganisms.
• Phylloplane – the leaf surface.
• Ruinen coined the term ‘’Phyllosphere’’
• Once assumed that aerial portion does not support stable microbial
community becoz of
• Rapid changes in humidity
• UV exposure
• Temperature
• Now known that phyllosphere is home for diverse assortment of
Results in the
fluctuations in the
leaching of organic
material like simple
sugars.
1. Phyllosphere
Spermosphere
The phyllosphere can be
further subdivided into
 Caulosphere (stems)
 Phylloplane (leaves)
 Anthosphere (flowers)
 Carposphere (fruits)
 Spermosphere (seeds)
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Interaction of microorganisms with vascular plants.pptx

  • 2. • Plants—the major source of organic matter on which most soil microorganisms are dependent. • Different Microorganisms are associated with the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. • The microbial community influences plants in direct and indirect ways.
  • 3. Commensalism • One partner is benefited other neither hurt nor helped Mutualism • Both the partners are benefited Pathogenic • Damage the host
  • 4. Epiphytes Endophytes Microbes that live on the surface of the plants Microbes that colonize internal plant tissues Those microbes that live above – ground level / aerial Those that inhabit below-ground level
  • 5. • Phyllosphere – the environment of the aerial portion of the plant (leaves, stem, flowers, friuts & seeds) inhabited by microorganisms. • Phylloplane – the leaf surface. • Ruinen coined the term ‘’Phyllosphere’’ • Once assumed that aerial portion does not support stable microbial community becoz of • Rapid changes in humidity • UV exposure • Temperature • Now known that phyllosphere is home for diverse assortment of Results in the fluctuations in the leaching of organic material like simple sugars. 1. Phyllosphere
  • 6. Spermosphere The phyllosphere can be further subdivided into  Caulosphere (stems)  Phylloplane (leaves)  Anthosphere (flowers)  Carposphere (fruits)  Spermosphere (seeds)
  • 7. • Supports bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeast & photosynthetic & heterotropic protists. • Important spp are – γ Proteobacteria, Pseudomonas syringae, Erwinia, Pantoea spp., Pseudobacterium, Phytomonas, Sarcina. • Abundant bacterial genus – Sphingomonas (survive under high level of UV irradiation)– produces a pigment that function like a sun screen. • This bacterium, also common in soils and waters, can occur at 108 cells per gram of plant tissue.
  • 8. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Beijerinckia & Azotobacter Cyanobacteria Anabaena, Nostoc, Calothrix, Scytonema, Tolypothrix Fungi Cladosporium, Alternaria, Cercospora, Rodotorula, Torulopsis, Oidium, Puccinia, Melanospora, Saccharomyces, Candida, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Fusarium, Colletotrichum. Actinomyces & Streptomyces
  • 9. • Microbes controls the spread of air borne pathogens. • Spores of pathogen attaches to the surface of leaves/plant pathogen attacks the leaf. • Microorganisms gets activated • Produce ‘’elicitor’’ • This activates the plant to produce ‘’Phytoalexins’’ • Attacks the pathogen
  • 10. Elicitor Biotic Polysaccharides (fungi), lipids, microbial enzymes & polypeptides. Abiotic Heavy metal salts, autoclaved ribonuclease, cold & UV light Plants Phytoalexins Potato Chlorogenic acid (CA), catteic acid Pea Pisatin Green bean Phaseolin Soybean Hydroxyphaseolin Carrot CA & 6-methoxymellein (MM) Apple Phloridzin & Phloretin Tobacco Scopoletin, Scopolin, Benzoic acid
  • 11. • Term Rhizosphere was coined by Hiltner. • Rhizosphere - Root exudates create a unique environment for soil microorganisms. • Rhizoplane – plant root surface • Rhizosphere effect (RE) – the overall influence of plant root on soil microorganisms.
  • 12. Soil type Moisture pH Temperatur e Age of the plant Condition of the plant
  • 13. • Catalyses the breakdown of organic material • Eg: oxidoreductase • Hydrolases • Lyases • Transferases • Cellulase • Urease • Dehydrogenase
  • 14. • R:S ratio = No. of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil No. of microorganisms in root free soil
  • 15. • Gram negative, non sporulating, rod shape bacteria • Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Agrobacterium, Azotobacter, Mycobacterium, Flavobacter, Cellulomonas, Micrococcus. • Nitrogen fixing bacteria – Azotobacter, Acetobacter, Azospirillum
  • 16. Plant (root exudates) Rhizosphere microbes Enhance growth Protects microbes  Protect from plant pathogens  Improves the nutrient availability  Enhance plant growth by producing growth promoting substances  Root hair development  Mucilage secretion  Lateral root development Root exudates  Aminoacids  Sugars  Organic acids  Vitamins  Nucleotides Growth promoting substances  Auxins  Gibberelins  Cytokinins  Glycolipids
  • 17. • Mycorrhizae are fungus-root associations, first discovered by Albert Bernhard Frank in 1885. • Mycorrhizae – fungus root (greek) • It’s a mutualistic relationship b/w most plants & limited number of fungal species. • Both partners depends on the activities of the other and have coevolved. • Fungi colonize about 80% of all higher plants, ferns & mosses.
  • 18. They do not obtain organic carbon from the degradation of organic material They use photo synthetically derived carbohydrate provided by their host
  • 19. Enhance the nutrient uptake Increases the plant biomass Increases the photosynthetic rate of the plant
  • 21. Mycorrhiza e Ectomycorrhiz ae or sheathed mycorrhizae Remain extracellularly & forms sheath of interconnecting hyphae around the roots Endomycorrhiz ae or Arbuscular mycorrhizae Fungi that enters the root cells
  • 22. • Formed by ascomycete & basidiomycete fungi. Plant colonization: • ECM colonize almost all trees & woody plants in cooler climates. • Fungal/plant colonization is species specific. Function: • Transfer nutrients – nitrogen, phosphorous to the root.
  • 23. ECM fungal mycelium grow around the root Mycelium thickens & forms sheath or mantle (entire root is covered by the fungal mycelium). ECM produce signalling molecules that limits the growth of root hairs (fungi itself function like root hairs). From the root surface, fungal hyphae extends into the soil. These hyphal filaments aggregates to form Rhizomorphs (visible to the naked eye). Hyphae on the inner side of the sheath penetrate b/w the cortical cells (but not within) & form a mesh like hyphae called Hartig net.
  • 24. Plant Ectomycorrhizae Provide carbohydrate – mannitol, Trehelose (cannot used by the plants) Uptake nutrients – N, P Soil nutrients Rhizomorphs Hyphal sheath Hartig net filaments Root cells
  • 25. • “Mycorrhization helper bacteria” (MHB) – helps in the development of the mycorrhizal relationships with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. • Bacterial symbionts also are found in the cytoplasm of AM fungi. • Bacterialike organisms (BLOs) - related to Burkholderia cepacia. These “trapped” bacteria contribute to the nitrogen metabolism of the plant-fungal complex by assisting with the synthesis of essential amino acids. • More than 5,000 species of fungi, predominantly Carbon flow Plant Mycorrhizal hyphal network Surrounding soil. Helps in the formation of ‘Mycorrhizospher e’
  • 26. • Also called as arbuscular mycorrhizae or AM fungi due its characteristic intracellular structure called the arbuscule. • It is the most common type of mycorrhizae. • Associated with many tropical plants esp. crop plants - wheat, corn, beans, tomatoes, apples, oranges, and many other commercial crops, as well as grasses. • AM fungi belongs to Glomeromycota division.
  • 27. DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESS The fungal hyphae enter into the root cells b/w the plant cell wall & invaginates the plasma membrane They do not breach the root cell membrane. Within the folds of the plasma membrane it forms a treelike hyphal networks called arbuscules. Life span of invidual arbuscules – 2 weeks AM is a vigourous colonizers
  • 28. Nutrient uptake & transfer – N, P Protects the plant host from disease Increase drought resistance Reduce pest & nematode infection Facilitate soil aggregation Promote seed production
  • 29. • This mycorrhizal fungi are saprophytic. • Orchids are – unusual plants, function like parasite. Never produce chlorophyll (nonphotosynthetic), other produce after maturation. Cannot produce photosynthetically derived carbon. Orchid seeds do not germinate with out the help of Orchid mycorrhizal fungi (Basidiomycete) Organic matter Carbon Orchid mycorrhizal fungi Decomposition Utilized by Orchid plant Orchid mycorrhizal fungi
  • 30. Wet environments • Increase the availability of nutrients Arid environments • Aid in water uptake • Allow increased transpiration rates
  • 31. Mycorrhizae Fungi involved Plants colonized Fungal structural features Fungal funtions Ectomycorrhizae Basidiomycetes Ascomycetes 90% of trees in temperate region (species specific) Rhizomorphs Sheath/ mantle Hartig net Nutrient uptake (N&P) & transfer Ectendomycorrhiz ae Ascomycetes Conifers Hartig net with some intracellular hyphae Nutrient uptake Mineralization of organic matter Monotropoid mycorrhizae Basidiomycetes Ascomycetes Flowering plants that lack chlorophyll (eg: indian pipe) Hartig net with one cell deep in the root cortex Nutrient uptake Arbuscular mycorrhizae Glomeromycete s Crop plants & tropical trees (not species specific) Arbuscules Nutrient uptake (N&P) & transfer Promote seed production Orchidaceous mycorrhizae (Saprophytic) Basidiomycetes orchids Hyphal coils called pelotons within host tissue Provide organic carbon & nutrients Ericaceous mycorrhizae Basidiomycetes Ascomycetes low evergreen shrubs & heathers Some intracellular & some extracellular Mineralization of organic matter Ectomycorrhizae Endomycorrhizae