• The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases
surrounding the planet Earth.
• The atmosphere protects life on Earth.
• The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner
with increasing altitude, with no definite
boundary between the atmosphere and outer
• begins at the surface and extends to between
9 km (30,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km
(56,000 ft) at the equator
• mostly heated by transfer of energy from the
• TROPOPAUSE - is the boundary between the
troposphere and stratosphere.
• extends from the tropopause to about 51 km
(32 mi; 170,000 ft).
• Temperature increases with height
• STRATOPAUSE - is the boundary between the
stratosphere and mesosphere which, typically
is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 160,000 to
• is contained within the stratosphere and is
mainly located in the lower portion of the
stratosphere from about 15–35 km (9.3–22
mi; 49,000–110,000 ft)
• called mother-of-pearl clouds
• they are filmy sheets slowly curling and
uncurling, stretching and contracting in the
• are seen mostly during winter at high latitudes
like Scandinavia, Iceland, Alaska and Northern
Canada. Sometimes, however, they occur as
far south as England.
• extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km
(50–53 mi; 260,000–280,000 ft)
• MESOPAUSE - the temperature minimum that
marks the top of the mesosphere
• are tenuous cloud-like phenomena that are
the "ragged-edge" of a much brighter and
pervasive polar cloud layer called polar
mesospheric clouds in the upper atmosphere.
• They are made of crystals of water ice.
• are most commonly observed in the summer
months at latitudes between 50° and 70°
north and south of the equator.
• the inversion is a result of the extremely low
density of molecules.
• The International space Station orbits in this
layer, between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240
• TURBOPAUSE – where homsphere and
• Homosphere and heterosphere are defined by
whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed.
• EXOBASE - The top of the thermosphere is the
bottom of the exosphere
• the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by
• stretches from 50 to 1,000 km (31 to 620 mi;
160,000 to 3,300,000 ft)
• typically overlaps both the exosphere and the
thermosphere. It forms the inner edge of the
• The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere
extends from the exobase upward
• mainly composed of hydrogen and helium
POLLUTANT - A substance in the air that can
cause harm to humans and the environment is
known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in
the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or
gases. In addition, they may be natural or manmade.
CLASSES OF POLLUTANTS
• Sulphur Oxide - produced by volcanoes and in
various industrial processes
• Nitrogen Oxide - emitted from high temperature
combustion, and are also produced naturally
during thunderstorms by electrical discharge.
• Carbon Monoxide - is a colourless, odorless, nonirritating but very poisonous gas.
• Carbon Dioxide - a colourless, odorless, non-toxic
greenhouse gases emmited from sources such as
combustion, cement production, and respiration.
• Volatile Organic Compounds - divided into the
separate categories of methane (CH4) and nonmethane. Methane contributes to enhanced global
• Particulate Matter - are tiny particles of solid or
liquid suspended in a gas.
• Chlorofluorocarbon - harmful to the ozone layer
emitted from products currently banned from use.
• Ammonia - from agricultural processes.
• Radioactive Pollutants - produced by nuclear
explosion, nuclear events, war explosives, and
natural processes such as the radioactive decay of
• Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.
MAS, Pamela Bianca E.
MANAHAN, Sophia Nicole A.
LIBRES, Mary Grace
JAINAR, Glaisa Mae
GAMIAO, Allan Craig W.
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