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Air Sanitation.pptx

Air sanitation is the system of removing the impurities present in air inside buildings to protect people from infections. Sanitation of air is essential in enclosed places like hospitals and operation rooms.

1 of 22
Air Sanitation.pptx
Why sanitation of air is essential?
 To prevent infection
 To prevent contamination
Methods of air sanitation
• Sanitation of air can be effected in a number of ways each having its own
applications.
Chemical
methods
Mechanical
methods
Ultraviolet
light
Electrostatic
precipitation
Heating
methods
 Air sanitation can be done by the use of certain
gaseous chemical agents.
 These agents are mostly used to sterilize air in an
enclosed space.
1) Hypochlorous acid
• Hypochlorous acid or a hypochlorite like sodium hypochlorite.
• Used in a final concentration of 1:2 million.
• This concentration is sufficient to reduce bacteria as well as viruses
like influenza virus.
• Its effectiveness depends upon the moisture content of air.
• Slightly increased relative humidity (RH 90%) rapidly kills
Streptococci and Staphylococci.
2) Quaternary ammonium surface active disinfectant
• Commercially available disinfectant
• Used as an air sanitizing agent.
• Reduce the number of airborne and surface bacteria in hospital
rooms when this compound is spray-fogged.
• Fogging procedures (are effectively used to decontaminate the
rooms vacated by patients infected with staphylococci, streptococci,
pseudomonads and Salmonella.
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Air Sanitation.pptx

  • 2. Why sanitation of air is essential?  To prevent infection  To prevent contamination
  • 3. Methods of air sanitation • Sanitation of air can be effected in a number of ways each having its own applications. Chemical methods Mechanical methods Ultraviolet light Electrostatic precipitation Heating methods
  • 4.  Air sanitation can be done by the use of certain gaseous chemical agents.  These agents are mostly used to sterilize air in an enclosed space.
  • 5. 1) Hypochlorous acid • Hypochlorous acid or a hypochlorite like sodium hypochlorite. • Used in a final concentration of 1:2 million. • This concentration is sufficient to reduce bacteria as well as viruses like influenza virus. • Its effectiveness depends upon the moisture content of air. • Slightly increased relative humidity (RH 90%) rapidly kills Streptococci and Staphylococci.
  • 6. 2) Quaternary ammonium surface active disinfectant • Commercially available disinfectant • Used as an air sanitizing agent. • Reduce the number of airborne and surface bacteria in hospital rooms when this compound is spray-fogged. • Fogging procedures (are effectively used to decontaminate the rooms vacated by patients infected with staphylococci, streptococci, pseudomonads and Salmonella.
  • 7. 3) Glycols • Propylene glycol and triethylene glycol are active against Streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, H. influenzae and influenza virus • Concentration - 1:4 million. • Maximum microbicidal activity - at temperature - 27°C and RH - 45-70%. • The bactericidal activity of glycols are due to their hygroscopicity. • When glycol molecules are atomized into the air they dissolve in the film of moisture surrounding each microorganism. At a particular concentration of glycol, the moisture inside the bacterial cell is drawn out of the cell and this leads to the death of the microbe.
  • 8. Limitations • (1) it is difficult to maintain a desired concentration because of the deposition of the agents on surfaces and • (2) large volumes of agents are required to maintain the final concentration. • (3) No chemical agent has been found to be successful.
  • 9. • Mechanical methods are aimed at the removal/reduction of microorganisms. Suppression of dust Filters Laminar air flow
  • 10. Suppression of dust • Dust particles act as a substratum for microorganisms • Microbes adhere and remain viable for quite long period. • Bacteria carrying dust particles can either remain suspended in air or they may settle down on various objects. • It depends on factors - air current and weight of the particle, • Dust particles helps in the dispersion of microorganisms in air.
  • 11. • So any procedure that suppresses the emergence or distribution of dust will in turn affect the microflora of air. • Applying oil emulsion to floors, bed cloths and other textiles will provide an effective control over dust and dust borne bacteria. • Oil mechanically inhibits the spread of dust by binding to them, • Simple, practicable and economical. • This method considerably reduce the incidence of respiratory tract infections. • Removal of dust using vacuum pump followed by application of disinfectant solution has also been recommended.
  • 12. Filters • Filtration is also a method of air sanitation, • Particles size - larger than 5μm. • The microbes can be removed by passing the air through simple filters • High efficiency filters can be used for smaller particles. • The various types of filter materials used in air sterilization o 1. Granular - activated charcoal; o 2. Fibrous pads - cotton wool, slag wool, and glass wool; o 3. Filter papers - cellulose - asbestos and glass fibre.
  • 13. HEPA Filters • High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are specially designed filters to deliver clean, sterile air into an enclosed room or cabinet. • The filter material is made up of fiberglass. • Pore size - 0.3μm • Efficiency - 99.9%. • Usually disposable pre-filter (reduces the load) is used along with the main filter. • Use of HEPA filter - laboratory safety cabinets where the incoming air is filtered and the used air is decontaminated as the air passes through the filter. • HEPA filters are also used in hospitals to provide sterile air. • Limitation - costly.
  • 14. Types of HEPA Filters Classification Types Performance Application HEPA Filter Class H A 99.97% for 0.3 μm particles MMD (Mass Median Diameter) Industrial C 99.99% for 0.3 μm particles MMD Laminar flow ULPA Filter Class U F 99.999% for 0.1 - 0.2 μm particles Ultra-low penetration air (ULPA) Minimum particle collection efficiency G 99.9999% on MPPS (Most penetrating particle size) Super ULPA According to the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, (IEST) with regard to performance, there are 6 types – A, B, C, D, E & F. Each has its own distinct characteristics
  • 15. Laminar air flow • Its an unidirectional flow of air. • Air is continuously flowing at high pressure in one direction. • Air flow prevents the dissemination of microorganisms into outside air. • HEPA filters were used.
  • 17. • Radiation of short wave lengths are more powerful in controlling airborne microorganisms. • Among these ultraviolet (UV) is the widely used one. • UV wavelength range - 210-328 nm. • Max. microbicidal effect of UV light - around 260nm (absorption wavelength for DNA). • Modern low pressure mercury vapour lamps • emit more than 95% of their radiation at 253.7nm – max. microbicidal activity.
  • 18. Mechanism • Various photo products are produced in microbe when exposed to UV.  Purine & Pyrimidine dimers b/w the adjacent bases in DNA.  Induce NA-Ptn crosslinks.  In Deinococcus radiodurans - 5, 6-dihydroxy dihydrothymine,  In bacterial spores - 5 thyminyl 5-6 dihydro thymine (TDHT), • Unless removed, these photo products form non coding lesions in DNA which ultimately lead to cell death.
  • 19. Factors influencing UV sterilization Factors Type of organism veg. cell/spores Type of suspension dry/wet forms Cell number Effect of Temperature lowT is sensitive Effect of organic matter req. increased dose of UV Repair mechanism
  • 20. • The airborne dust particles containing microorganisms are subjected to electric field. • When the air is passed through an ionizer the dust particles are charged. • From the ionizer the charged particles are carried through a collector which contains both negative and positive electrodes. • Charged dust particles are deposited on the electrodes of opposite charge. • It is an highly efficient process but costly.
  • 21. • Heating can also be used as an air sanitation method. • Sterile air can be produced by passage through a heated pipe. • The temperature of air must exceed 220°C to kill spores and vegetative forms. • Limitations - complex and expensive method, very rarely used.