The War of 1812 and its affects By. Manuel Jimenez
Lead ups to the war… The United States declared war on Britain for various reasons, however an unstated but strong motivation for the Americans was to uphold national honor in the face of what they considered to be British insults. (including the Chesapeake affair) In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to stop American trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The U.S found these restrictions illegal under international law. American expansionism into the northwest territory was being obstructed by native leaders , who were supplied and encouraged by the British. The British Navy needed good sailors so they started to take back all the well trained British born American sailors (Impressment)
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair was a naval battle which occurred of the coast of Virginia between the British Warship HMS Leopard and the American frigate USS Chesapeake. The Leopard was looking for any deserters of the British navy. The Chesapeake surrendered after firing one shot because they were unprepared for the sudden attack. 4 crew members were taken from the American frigate, one of whom was executed aboard the Leopard. The frigate was then allowed to leave, but upon return her captain James Barron was relived of duty. This even triggered an outcry of rage and anger from the American people.
Theaters of the War 1 Atlantic Ocean-The American fleet was outnumbered by the thousands against the British, Britains main strategy was to protect their merchant ships 2 Great lakes and Canadian frontierAmerica believed it would be simple and they would face little opposition. They were wrong Southern statesMain conflict was ―The Battle of New Orleans‖. Hailed as a great American victory and propelled Andrew Jackson to presidency
Peace and Negotiations By 1814, both sides had achieved their main war goals and were weary of a costly war that offered little but stalemate. They both sent delegations to a neutral site in Ghent, Belgium. The negotiations began in early August and concluded on December 24, when a final agreement was signed; both sides had to ratify it before it could take effect. Eventually American and British delegates signed the Treaty of Ghent .The treaty ignored the grievances that led to war. American complaints of Indian raids, impressments and blockades had ended when Britains war with France ended in 1814, and were not mentioned in the treaty. Mobile and parts of western Florida were not mentioned in the treaty but remained permanently in American possession, despite objections by Spain.Thus, the war ended with no significant territorial losses for either side.
Anna Prevost Anne was a daughter of General Sir George Prevost, Governor General of the British forces in Canada. At seventeen she was a faithful journal keeper, and she made almost daily entries during the time her father was prosecuting the war. In her entry of June 25, 1812 she provides insight into how a young British subject in Canada would react to news of the declaration of war: “I was summoned in the midst of my French lesson to hear some news that had arrived. It was indeed an important piece of intelligence:–America has declared War against England. The news had arrived by an Express to some of the Quebec merchants. ...On this day I saw nothing before me but my Fathers honour and glory. Although I knew how small a force we had to defend the Canadas, such was my confidence in his talents and fortune, that I did not feel the slightest apprehension of any reverse. I thought those abominable Yankees deserved a good drubbing for having dared to think of going to War with England, and surely there was no harm in rejoicing that the War had happened during my Fathers Administration, because I thought he was the person best calculated to inflict on the Yankees the punishment they deserved."
Analysis of diary entry As you saw this young lady feels very confident in her father and her people in the conflict against the ―Yankees‖. She mentions how ―I thought those abominable Yankees deserved a good drubbing for having dared to think of going to War with England, and surely there was no harm in rejoicing that the War had happened during my Fathers Administration…”, she seems to believe that her father , ―The General‖ is more then prepared for the war and will surely prevail. She even admits that ―Although I knew how small a force we had to defend the Canadas…”, but then she writes ―such was my confidence in his talents and fortune, that I did not feel the slightest apprehension of any reverse.” . She also seems to have a clear distain for the Americans when she writes ―I thought those abominable Yankees deserved a good drubbing for having dared to think of going to War with England”. This brings me to wonder if most children of British military soldiers felt this way.
John Norton he British and Canadian militia were aided at Queenston by the Mohawk chief John Norton. Norton was born in Scotland to a Scotswoman and a Cherokee Native who had joined the British army. While serving with the British in Canada, John Norton deserted, became a trader and eventually was drawn into the Six Nations of the Grand River Iroquois. The Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant employed Norton as an interpreter and eventually groomed him as his successor. His knowledge of both British and Native ways, his military background, and his natural charisma made him a powerful warrior. Norton, who had been well educated in Scotland as a child, wrote an account of his experiences in North America, including full reports of his participation as a Native leader in major battles of the War of 1812.
Diary entry for John Norton Remembering the siege of Fort Erie, Norton writes: “As we began to move forward, we heard the firing commence at Snake Hill. Hastening forward, through the Darkness of the night & closeness of the Woods, we separated from a numerous Division of our Men, which constrained us to check our speed at a point of Rendezvous previously appointed, until they had joined us. We were within a half mile of Fort Erie, when we heard the cracking of musketry and the roar of cannon announce the attack upon it. We then ran forward as fast as the woods and darkness would permit, stumbling over logs and fallen trees. We passed the reserve drawn up in a ravine, running against the fire to the Glacis, as we arrived there, the explosion blew the broken fragments of buildings and works in all directions, it appeared to create a general confusion. We met the troops retiring from the fort which they had gallantly entered. We saw none advancing. Our own number was nothing when compared to the host of foes which opposed us. After hesitating a little while, we retired with others to the ravine, on the summit of which we waited, until the whole of our troops had retired. The enemy did not come out of his works, but continued firing round shot, grape shells and musketry. We left them there and followed our
Analysis of Diary entry… John is writing upon his and his comrades entry into the siege of Fort Erie. He describes the chaos of the siege when he writes ― We were within a half mile of Fort Erie, when we heard the cracking of musketry and the roar of cannon announce the attack upon it.”. I found it really interesting that John was so ethnically diverse. It really made me think about how people of different ethnicities were part of the war.
Long term affects neither side lost territory in the war, nor did the treaty that ended it address the original points of contention—and yet it changed much between the United States of America and Britain. The Rush–Bagot Treaty was a treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817 that provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary and was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Great Britain in the period following the War of 1812. It remains in effect to this day. Border adjustments between the U.S. and British North America were made in the Treaty of 1818. A border dispute along the Maine–New Brunswick border was settled by the 1842Webster–Ashburton Treaty after the bloodless Aroostook War, and the border in the Oregon Territory was settled by splitting the disputed area in half
Some Americans had ambitions to take more territory. The "WarHawks" - led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and HenryClay of Kentucky - had their eyes on both Canada and Florida. Ifwould could gain these territories, they believed we would removeEuropean powers from American borders and open more land forthe "liberty-loving-Americans".
The British were actually instigating the Natives in Canada and the Westto go out and attack Americans who had settled those lands. Here yousee that the natives were told that they would be pain money if thebrought back the scalps of Americnas
Britains seizure of American ships and the impressment of AmericanSailors: Britain had continued to "hassle" American shipping during theNapoleonic Wars. The British Navy would attack ships they felt weretrading with France and confiscate our cargo. Impressment - that waswhen sailors on American ships would essentially be taken and forced intothe British Navy. The Brits claimed that these men used to be in thenavy, but had run away to join American ships for better pay and a lessdangerous life. However, not all of these kidnapped sailors were British -many were Americans. As you can see from the picture, these encounters