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  1. 1. By Vikram Chandrashekhar Prabhasa R Sriram Kalyanaraman The U. S. Foreign Policy
  2. 2. Role of U. S. in Foreign Wars <ul><li>Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>East Timor </li></ul><ul><li>Venezuela </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul>
  3. 3. Iran – Iraq War (Sep ’80-Aug ’88) <ul><ul><li>US announces neutrality in the conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes number of advantages to be gained by prolongation of the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports & “Condemns” Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursues two-track policy for Iran too </li></ul></ul>TIMELINE
  4. 4. Reasons for US two-track policy <ul><li>US wanted to control, to the greatest extent possible, the oil resources in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent oil access to the Soviet in the Gulf </li></ul><ul><li>Profit from the Arms trade with Iran and Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to solve the hostage crisis in Iran by secret deals </li></ul><ul><li>Siding with Iraq : Attempt to oust the Khomeini regime </li></ul>
  5. 5. US policy during Gulf War <ul><li>A week before the war broke out, US ambassador April Glaspie met Hussein and told him: </li></ul><ul><li>“ We have no opinion on your Arab - Arab conflicts, such as your dispute with Kuwait. Secretary (of State James) Baker has directed me to emphasize the instruction, that the Kuwait issue is not associated with America. ” </li></ul>This is seen by most analysts as America’s way of giving Saddam a nod and a wink for the Kuwait invasion TIMELINE Reasons for Iraq invasion
  6. 6. <ul><li>US changes its position abruptly, and condemns Iraqi invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion provides US an easy excuse for war against Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>US launches offensive, defeats Iraq and leaves it crippled </li></ul><ul><li>The alliance with Iraq is reversed and the demonisation of Saddam Hussein and all things Iraqi begins… </li></ul>US policy during Gulf War
  7. 7. Operation Iraqi Freedom <ul><li>Iraq is in breach of several UN resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons of Mass Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein is a tyrant who must be removed </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq has a history of employing WMDs on neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Bush : “ It’s not about oil… ” </li></ul>Reasons stated by USA for the invasion
  8. 8. True Lies…
  9. 9. Cruel Intentions… <ul><li>To secure & increase oil flow from the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>To increase US dominance in the area </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve Dollar hegemony over the global oil market </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving Dollar supremacy over the Euro </li></ul>vs
  10. 10. <ul><li>US begins covert operations in the Afghanistan War </li></ul><ul><li>US supports Islamic factions </li></ul><ul><li>Back-firing of US policy </li></ul><ul><li>September 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>War on Terrorism – </li></ul><ul><li>“ Operation Enduring Freedom” </li></ul>Afghanistan TIMELINE
  11. 11. 1980s: US helps create, nurture Taliban <ul><li>US begins supplying arms to rebels around mid ’79 to provoke Soviet invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Aim was to trap the Soviets in a long and costly war, designed to drain their resources.. ‘serve them a Vietnam’ </li></ul><ul><li>With support of Zia-Ul-Haq, US begins recruiting and training both Mujahideen fighters from the Afghan refugees and Islamic mercenaries </li></ul><ul><li>US channeled around $6 billion to the Afghan rebels </li></ul><ul><li>CIA became the grand coordinator </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>One of the first non-Afghan volunteers to join the ranks of the mujahideen was Osama bin Laden </li></ul><ul><li>Bin Laden recruited about 4,000 volunteers and worked closely with the CIA </li></ul><ul><li>In ’88, with U.S. knowledge, bin Laden created Al Qaeeda, a conglomerate of Islamic terrorist cells spread across at least 26 countries </li></ul><ul><li>In ’94, a new group, the Taliban (Pashtun for &quot;students&quot;), emerged. Its members came from madrassas set up by the ISI, funded by the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Taliban swept across most of the exhausted country finally capturing Kabul 1996, all this with the full support of U.S. </li></ul>Osama bin Laden and the Taliban
  13. 13. <ul><li>Tacit U.S. support for Taliban continues until ’98, when Washington blames Bin Laden for the bombing of the U.S. embassies in Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Taliban's refusal to extradite bin Laden- not its atrocious human rights record- led to UN-imposed sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Following 9/11, US launches war against its former allies, overthrows the Taliban and establishes a puppet “democracy” in Afghanistan </li></ul>
  14. 14. US Policy in Indonesia <ul><li>1948 : US accepts non-Leftist Sukarno as Indonesian President </li></ul><ul><li>US opposes Sukarno’s neutralism in Cold War, attempts to remove him but unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><li>United States shifted its strategy to building up the Indonesian military </li></ul>Sukarno TIMELINE
  15. 15. <ul><li>1965 : Military coup deposes Sukarno, Gen. Suharto takes over at the cost of the lives of lakhs of “communists” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIA provides lists of Communist Party members, who are slaughtered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1975 : US supports East Timor occupation, provides nearly 90% of Indonesian weaponry (despite US laws banning this) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US also lends diplomatic support, ensures UN takes no action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US increases military aid to Indonesia </li></ul></ul></ul>US Policy in Indonesia Gen. Suharto
  16. 16. <ul><li>Congress began to shift the direction of US policy. After the Dili massacre, 52 Senators wrote to President Bush, calling for active US support for the implementation of the UN resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>In October ’92, Congress voted to cut off Indonesia's IMET military training aid despite opposition by the Bush Govt, Pentagon, and prominent US corporations. </li></ul><ul><li>In March ’93, under Congress pressure, US reversed its pro-Jakarta stance, co-sponsored a successful resolution at the UNHRC criticizing Indonesian abuses in East Timor. </li></ul><ul><li>In July ’93, again under Congress pressure, the State Department blocked transfer of US F-5 fighter planes from the Govt of Jordan to Indonesia, citing human rights as one of the reasons. </li></ul>Policy Shift : Role of Congress
  17. 17. Philippines
  18. 18. US Presence in Philippines <ul><li>Till ’92, US troops were deployed in a big way </li></ul><ul><li>Clarks Airbase closes due to volcanic outburst of Mt. Pinatubo </li></ul><ul><li>Subic Naval Base vacated in Sep ’92, after Senate voting on end of US bases </li></ul><ul><li>Despite economic benefits of US presence, there was public resentment due to indignity </li></ul><ul><li>US troops now present for anti-ASG operations </li></ul>
  19. 19. Abu Sayyaf Group <ul><li>Militant organisation seeking separate Islamic state for Muslim minority </li></ul><ul><li>US suspects Al-Qaeeda links </li></ul><ul><li>Most victims are Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>Earns resources primarily from kidnappings, extortions etc </li></ul><ul><li>US has used this pretext to increase military presence, despite anti-US feelings in the Muslim community </li></ul>ASG leader Khadafi Janjalani, centre, with Philippine militants
  20. 20. Venezuela vs Hugo Chavez Gen. Romero Lucas Pedro Carmona Otto Reich Elliot Abrams TIMELINE
  21. 21. How US supported the coup <ul><li>Chavez was trying to re-negotiate the 60-yr agreement with US & UK oil companies which charges them just 1% in royalties, and hands out huge tax breaks, threatening US economic interests </li></ul><ul><li>For several months, the coup plotters – Pedro Carmona & Gen. Lucas - had been making secret trips to the White House to meet with Abrams and Reich </li></ul><ul><li>US provided financial support to opposition </li></ul><ul><li>US Navy provided signals intelligence and communications jamming support. Additional USN vessels stood by in the event the coup, thus requiring evacuation of US citizens in Venezuela </li></ul>
  22. 22. Vietnam <ul><li>Prevent the spread of Communism </li></ul><ul><li>If South Vietnam fell to Communism,the Pacific Islands and even Australia would be at risk </li></ul><ul><li>The US prevented the elections that were promised under the Geneva conference because it knew that the Communists would win </li></ul><ul><li>This led the US to fight the Vietnam War, thus committing some of the worst atrocities on mankind that history has ever witnessed. </li></ul>Why did USA fight the war?
  23. 23. Repercussions of US-sponsored Wars <ul><li>Humanitarian repercussions : thousands dead and wounded </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Postwar chaos and riots </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread dissatisfaction with US-led government </li></ul><ul><li>War costs are paid by victims of war </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction highly profitable for US companies </li></ul>
  24. 24. THANK YOU
  25. 25. Advantages of Prolongation <ul><li>Need for arms, money would make Baghdad dependent on Egypt and other conservative Gulf states, thus improving ties with Cairo and other Arab states </li></ul><ul><li>Iran, which used US supplied weapons would require military equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Demands of war might make both nations willing to improve ties with US </li></ul><ul><li>Dislocations of war would give US greater ability to carry out covert operations in Iran or Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Turmoil in Gulf might make other states more susceptible to US pressure for military co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>BACK </li></ul>
  26. 26. US supports Iraq throughout the Iran-Iraq War <ul><li>US approves sale to Iraq of 5 Boeing Jetliners </li></ul><ul><li>Removes Iraq from its list of “nations supporting terrorism” </li></ul><ul><li>Washington extends $400 million credit guarantee for US exports to Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>CIA establishes direct Washington-Baghdad link to provide military intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>US “condemns” Iraq’s use of chemical weapons but doesn’t support any Council action against Iraq </li></ul>US shoots down an Iranian passenger plane in the Persian Gulf : Iran sues US in World Court, receives $131.8 million in 1996. BACK
  27. 27. Two-Track policy towards Iran <ul><li>Washington tries to instigate a coup in Iran </li></ul><ul><li>US provides support to Iranian paramilitary groups </li></ul><ul><li>Begins broadcasts into Iran (costing $30000 pm) calling for Khomeini’s overthrow </li></ul><ul><li>CIA broadcasts message from the overthrown Shah’s son, to cause instability and chaos </li></ul><ul><li>US tries to establish ties with Iranian mullahs </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies arms to Iran through Israel </li></ul><ul><li>US passes military intelligence on border threats </li></ul>BACK
  28. 28. <ul><li>September, 1980 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq invades Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calling for peace, UN passes Resolution 479, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rejected by Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>December, 1986 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following exposure of its double strategies, US sides with Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August, 1987 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US deploys American Armada : an aircraft carrier, a battleship, six cruisers, three destroyers, seven frigates, and numerous supporting naval vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August, 1988 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War comes to an end : Total casualties around 1 million </li></ul></ul>Iran – Iraq War : Timeline BACK
  29. 29. GULF WAR : TIMELINE <ul><li>August, 1990 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq invades Kuwait, seizes control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US, UN demand immediate withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Iraqi troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Coalition begins deploying troops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>January, 1991 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense diplomacy between US, Iraq fails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation Desert Storm : Allied Forces begin bombing of Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March, 1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq accepts terms of cease-fire and war ends </li></ul></ul>Bush administration meeting to review the Kuwait invasion BACK
  30. 30. <ul><li>Iraq had long considered Kuwait to be a part of itself </li></ul><ul><li>With Iraq’s unsuccessful invasion of Iran, it sought easier conquests against its weak southern neighbors. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq constantly claimed that Kuwaiti oil rigs were illegally tapping into Iraqi oil fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq claimed that Kuwaiti rigs were stealing oil from the Rumaila oil fields, one of Iraq’s richest. </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between Iraq and Kuwait deteriorated after the war </li></ul>Gulf War : Reasons for Iraq Invasion BACK
  31. 31. Afghanistan : TIMELINE <ul><li>1979 : Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, removes Amin </li></ul><ul><li>1980 : Soviet establishes puppet regime </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US fuels anti-Soviet resistance by providing arms and money </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1986 : US begins supplying Mujahideen Stinger missiles, enabling them to shoot Soviet helicopters </li></ul><ul><li>1988 : Soviet Union begins pulling out troops </li></ul><ul><li>1996 : Taliban seize control of Kabul, introduce hardline Islamism </li></ul><ul><li>2001 : Following 9/11, US invade Afghanistan, take out Taliban </li></ul>BACK
  32. 32. CIA : Coordinating In Afghanistan <ul><li>CIA supplied : </li></ul><ul><li>Assault rifles, grenade launchers, mines and SA-7 light antiaircraft weapons, tons of C-4 explosives, long-range sniper rifles, anti-tank missiles </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive satellite reconnaissance data of Soviet targets, military plans, Communications devices, targeting devices directly links to US-Navy satellites </li></ul>BACK
  33. 33. East Timor : TIMELINE <ul><li>6 December, 1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger consult with President Suharto of Indonesia, after which US announces that it “understands Indonesia's position on the question of East Timor” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7 December, 1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia invades East Timor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>12 November, 1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesian troops armed with American-made M-16 rifles gun down more than 270 Timorese civilians, in Dili, at the Santa Cruz Cemetery </li></ul></ul>BACK
  34. 34. VENEZUELA : TIMELINE <ul><li>1989 - Carlos Andres Perez (AD) elected president against the background of economic depression </li></ul><ul><li>1992 - 120 people killed in two attempted coups, the led by future president Colonel Hugo Chavez and his supporters </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – Chavez elected President </li></ul><ul><li>April 12, 2002 - Armed forces head announces Chavez has resigned. Chavez taken into custody </li></ul><ul><li>April 14, 2002 – Chavez returns to power after failure of interim govt. </li></ul>BACK
  35. 35. <ul><li>1980-88 : Iran – Iraq War </li></ul><ul><li>1990-91 : Gulf War </li></ul><ul><li>2003 : Invasion of Iraq - </li></ul><ul><li> “ Operation Iraqi Freedom ” </li></ul>USA and Iraq : A History