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Linking Open Data to Accelerate Low - Carbon Development


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Presentation in the course of the Workshop in Abu Dhabi on 18.01.2012: Linking Open Data to Accelerate Low-Carbon Development - A workshop for decision makers in clean energy organisations - by Martin Kaltenböck, Semantic Web Company (SWC) including:
Linked Open Government Data: Open Government & Open Government Data; Putting the L in Front: from Open Data to Linked Open Data (LOD) -

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Linking Open Data to Accelerate Low - Carbon Development

  1. 1. Linked Open Government DataOpen Government & Open Government DataPutting the L in Front: from Open Data to Linked Open Data (LOD)Linking Open Data to Accelerate Low-Carbon DevelopmentA workshop for decision makers in clean energy organisationsJanuary 18th 2012 in Abu Dhabi, Masdar InstituteMartin KaltenböckManaging Partner & CFO, Semantic Web @semwebcompany These slides are published under :
  2. 2. Agenda of PresentationOpen GovernmentA new way of transparency, participation & collaborationOpen (Government) DataA worldwide movement for re-use of data & contentPutting the L in frontFrom Open Data to Linked Open DataThe Power of Linking Open DataBenefits & Potentials of LOD 2
  3. 3. Open Government (Data) A short introduction Grafik: 3
  4. 4. What is Open Government?The basic idea of Open Government is to establish a moderncooperation among politicians, public administration,industry and private citizens by enabling more transparency,democracy, participation and collaboration.Some of the most important enablers for Open Government arefree access to information and the possibility to freely use andre-use this information (e.g. data, content, etc).After all, without information it is not possible to establish aculture of collaboration and participation among the relevantstakeholders. Therefore, Open Government Data (OGD) is often seen as a crucial aspect of Open Government. 4
  5. 5. Where it started & where we are now!© Semantic Web Company – 5
  6. 6. Where it started & where we are now!© Semantic Web Company – 6
  7. 7. What is Open Government Data?Open Government Data (OGD) is a worldwidemovement to open up data (& information) of thegovernment / public administration* - that is NOTpersonal (individual related) – in human- andmaschine readable open formats (non proprietary)for use & re use!OPEN stands for lowering the barriers to ensure as broad aspossible re-use (for everybody)!There is a new paradigm in publishing Government Data= look, take and play!* ….. data and information produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities 7
  8. 8. Open Government Data in Europa20. 10. 2011, OGD Camp 2011 Warsaw -’ve said before that I’m a big fan of open data. Opening up public data will get citizens involvedin society and political life, increase the transparency of public administration, and improve publicdecision making. Those benefits cannot be overestimated. And public data can be used in manyunexpected ways, too: as the father of the Internet, Tim Berners-Lee, put it: “if people put data ontothe web… it will be used by other people to do wonderful things in ways that they never would haveimagined”.There’s a huge amount of money here, and a huge amount of opportunity. I want to see Europeat the forefront of this development. So I‟m going to be taking action to open up Europe‟s publicsector, by promoting creative and innovative re-use of public data. 8
  9. 9. Open Government Data in EuropaOutreach EC Activities• June 2012 – Launch of EC Open Data Portal (Data & Information of EC departments)• 100 Mio Euros for Open Data related acticities in EC funded R&D projects• 2013 – Launch of a Pan-European Data Portal (Single Point of Access to Open Data of EU27) 9
  10. 10. Global Open Data Initiatives There are more & more Open Data systems available by international organisations, NGOs and NPOs!• United Nations –• World Bank -• Eurostat –• FAO –• REEEP, Clean Energy Datasets:• NREL, OpenEI:• The Guardian -• New York Times - Map Worldwide: 10
  11. 11. Principles of Open Government Data 1. Completeness All public data are made available. Public data are data that are not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations, as governed by other statutes. 2. Primacy Data are published as collected at the source, with the finest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 3. Timeliness Data are made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 4. Ease of Physical and Electronic Access Data are available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes. 5. Machine readability Data are reasonably structured to allow automated processing of it. 6. Non-discrimination Data are available to anyone, with no requirement of registration. 7. Use of Commonly Owned Standards (e.g. open formats) Data are available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control. 8. Licensing Data are not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions may be allowed as governed by other statutes. Finally, compliance must be reviewable. PLUS: Sunlight Foudation, August 2010: 9) Permanence & 10) Usage Costs 11
  12. 12. Open Government Data RequirementsThe following 11 topics as a partial aspect of Open Government Data could beidentified & described on the basis of a requirement analysis to implement OGD: 1. Need for Definitions 2. Open Government: Transparency and Democracy, Participation & Collaboration 3. Legal Issues 4. Impact on Society 5. Innovation and Knowledge Society 6. Impact on Economy / Industry 7. Licenses, Models for Exploitation, Terms of Use 8. Data relevant Aspects 9. Data Governance 10. Applications and Use Cases 11. Technological Aspects 12
  13. 13. Also take the Metadata into account! Towards Open Government Metadata (Sept 2011)In the EU eGovernment Action Plan semantic interoperability is mentioned “…as anessential precondition for open, flexible delivery of eGovernment services”.Metadata IgnorancePublic administrations should become aware of the importance of Metadata in eGovernmentand the need for coherent relevant management policies.Scattered or Closed MetadataPublic administrations should organize the scattered Metadata in structured repositories,catalogues or libraries and provide open access to the collected resources.Open Metadata for Humans & Open Reuseable MetadataPublic administrations should provide services to query, browse and export their Metadata in amachine-readable and preferably non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV, XML).Linked Open MetadataPublic administrations should consider applying linked metadata policies, including use of RDFto document their Metadata, persistent design, use and maintenance of URIs, linking toexternal vocabularies/schemata, harmonize their resources to third parties resources etc. 13
  14. 14. David Eaves Centre for the Study of Democracy, Canada„Words to every OGD advocate:Building an Open GovernmentData Infrastructure is likebuilding a electric power grid. It„shard to measure it„s impact onsociety and on economy, but it isevident that there is one. “ 14
  15. 15. Putting the L in frontFrom Open Data to Linked Open Data
  16. 16. Open Data in Use: what is important for whom?What is important when thinking about Open Data in use• Interoperability to ensure broad & easy use & re-use• Human AND machine readable data• In open formats (using open standards)• To ensure smooth & cost efficient data integration• Local–regional–national–continent wide–worldwide effectsFor several target groups with several interests• Internal usage inside of Public Administration / Organisations• Politicians / Decision Makers• Citizens (Citizen Analysts) / Employees• Economy & Industry / NPOs & NGOs• (Data) Journalists & Media• Education, Academia & Science 16
  17. 17. 5 Stars for Open Data by Tim Berners Lee 17
  18. 18. Costs & Benefits of 1 to 5 Star DataWhat are the costs and benefits of ★ web data?As a consumer ...✔ You can see it. ✔ You can print it. ✔ You can store it locally (on your hard drive or on an USB stick). ✔ You can enter the data manually into another system.As a publisher ...✔ It is easy to publish.What are the costs and benefits of ★★ web data?As a consumer: everything that you could do with ★ web data, plus:✔ You can directly process it with proprietary software to aggregate it, perform calculations, visualise it, etc.✔ You can export it into another (structured) format.As a publisher ...✔ It is still easy to publish. Adapted 5 star model by Michael Hausenblas 18
  19. 19. Costs & Benefits of 1 to 5 Star DataWhat are the costs and benefits of ★★★web data?As a consumer, everything that you could do with ★★ web data, plus:✔ You do not have to pay for a format over which a single entity has exclusive controlAs a publisher ...✔ It is still easy to publish.What are the costs and benefits of ★★★★ web data?As a consumer, everything that you could do with ★★★ web data, plus:✔ You can link to it from any other place, either on the web or locally.✔ You can bookmark it.✔ You can re-use parts of the data.As a publisher ...✔ You will need to invest some time slicing and dicing your data.✔ You will need to assign URIs to data items and think about how to represent the data.✔ You have fine-granular control over the data items and can optimise their access (e.g. load balancing, caching, etc.) Adapted 5 star model by Michael Hausenblas 19
  20. 20. Costs & Benefits of 1 to 5 Star DataWhat are the costs and benefits of ★★★★★ web data?As a consumer, you can do everything that you could do with ★★★★web data, plus:✔ You can discover new data of interest while consuming other information.✔ You have access to the data schema.As a publisher ...✔ You will need to invest resources to link your data to other data on the web.✔ You make your data discoverable.✔ You increase the value of your data. Adapted 5 star model by Michael Hausenblas 20
  21. 21. Documents on the Web Web of Documents AKA Hypertext Data on the Web AKA Open Data Web of Data AKA Hyperdata The Evolution of the Internet21
  22. 22. From Open Data to Linked Open Data Publish Data! •Organise Data! •License Data! •Raw Data now! Use Web-Technologies •Provide an API!• The web is an Ecosystem Use Linked Data!• Networked Data creates Network Effects • Give things an URI!• Lowers Costs of Data • Use RDF for Publishing! Integration • Link your Data to other Data (as well as the data models)! • Provide a Standard-API 22
  23. 23. The Idea of HyperdataData Integration on User Level and Application Level 23
  24. 24. The Idea of Hyperdata Application and/or APIIntegration on Data Level 24
  25. 25. The LOD Cloud: it is already there!~50 bio. triples/facts 25
  26. 26. The Vision of the New Internet Linked Data realizes the vision of evolving the Web into a global data commons, allowing applications to operate on top of an unbounded set of data sources, via standardised access mechanisms. I expect that Linked Data will enable a significant evolutionary step in leading the Web to ist full potential.CC-BY-SA von campuspartybrasil (flickr) 26
  27. 27. Linked Open DataBenefits & Potentials
  28. 28. LOD Benefits: An Overview• Less replication (offering same datasets in different places) & thereby cost saving• Encouragement to re-use existing datasets on the basis of open standards• Clear which datasets are providing similar / same information• More innovation because datasets can be put in a new context and lead to interesting applications & create knowledge• LOD can provide a powerful digital infrastructure for data management 28
  29. 29. The Power of Linked Open Data• Enables web-scale data publishing - distributed publication with web- based discovery mechanisms• Everything is a resource – follow your nose to discover more about properties, classes, or codes within a code list• Everything can be annotated - make comments about observations, data series, points on a map• Easy to extend - create new properties as required, no need to plan everything up-front• Easy to merge - slot together RDF graphs, no need to worry about name clashes• Easy use and re-use on top of common schemas AND schema mapping• Allows complex querying of several distributed data sources & systems Parts of list: John Sheridan, OGD2011 Conference, Vienna, Austria: 29
  30. 30. Linked (Open) Data as a‚(National) Digital Infrastructure‘ 30
  31. 31. Linked (Open) Data in the Intranet 31
  32. 32. Cost of Data Integration – 2 Approaches Can we afford to mash the data with ours?Source: Price Waterhouse Coopers – Technology Forecast, Spring 2009 32
  33. 33. LOD – Huge Economic PotentialsData have swept into every industry and business function and are now animportant factor of production, alongside labor and capital.Harnessing big data in the public sector has enormous potential, too. If US healthcare were to use big data creatively and effectively to drive efficiency and quality,the sector could create more than $300 billion in value every year. Two-thirds ofthat would be in the form of reducing US health care expenditure by about 8 percent.In the developed economies of Europe, government administrators could savemore than €100 billion ($149 billion) in operational efficiency improvementsalone by using big data, not including using big data to reduce fraud and errors andboost the collection of tax revenues.And users of services enabled by personal location data could capture $600 billion inconsumer surplus. 33
  34. 34. Where is the Semantic Web used? Under the hood of lots of products© Semantic Web Company – 34
  35. 35. Infos & Kontakt Martin Kaltenböck, CMC Semantic Web Company GmbH (SWC) Lerchenfelder Gürtel 43 A-1160 WienSemantic Web Company (SWC) LOD2 Creating Knowledge out ofWeb Interlinked Datahttp://www.semantic-web.at Web http://blog.lod2.euPhone: +43-1-402 12 35–25 35
  36. 36. ANNEX 36
  37. 37. Linked Data: pay-as-you-go! “Linked Data technologies can easily fill the gap between unstructured Intranet search and expensive & complicated Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Compared to SOA, Linked Data is a pay-as-you-go strategy, where data integration can be performed incrementally and in sync with the requirements and evolution of the dataDr. Sören Auer structures in the enterprise.”University of LeipzigLOD2 – Project Co-ordinator 37
  38. 38. From Open Data to Linked Open DataOpen Government Data Stakeholder Survey 2010/2011 I current consume/publish data in the following formats 38
  39. 39. From Open Data to Linked Open DataOpen Government Data Stakeholder Survey 2010/2011 I would ideally like to consume/publish data in the following formats 39