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Open Linked Data




             A Key Element of
        Public Administration
    Information Management
Political Mindset
   Transparency
                                                         Participation
                                                         Collaboration




“My Administration is committed to creating an
Unprecedented level of openness in Government.“
             Barack Obama, “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies -
                                              Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009.
Neelie Kroes
Vice-President of the European Commission
responsible for the Digital Agenda




“Take the example of public sector information –
possibly a €30 billion market in Europe. I have said it
before, and I say it again: yes to open data!”
                          “Lift-Off towards Open Government" conference, Brussels, 15 December 2010
                               http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/10/752
Status Quo Austria
   2 Initiativen der Zivilgesellschaft:
    ●   http://gov.opendata.at
    ●   http://www.open3.at
    ●   http://offenedaten.at/
   Überblick am Reference-Server
    http://reference.e-government.gv.at/Open-Government-Let-the-
    suns.opengovernment.0.html
   E-Government-Vision 2020
    ●   „Bereitstellung von ausgewählten öffentlichen Rohdaten und Mashups mit
        privaten Services“
    ●   http://www.bka.gv.at/site/6878/default.aspx
   Im Regierungsprogramm Rot/Grün Wien
   Thema des Kompetenzentrums Internetgesellschaft “KIG”
Applications & State of Affairs
Open Data Catalogues
State / Federal          Private
   data.gov                data.worldbank.org/
   datasf.org               data-catalog
   data.edmonton.ca/
                            www.undata-
                             api.org/wiki/datasets
   data.gov.uk
                            gov.opendata.at
   data.london.gov.uk
                            data.reegle.info
   digitaliser.dk
                            OpenBelgium.be
   geodata.gov.gr
                            opengovdata.ru
   data.suomi.fi
http://www.london.gov.uk/rents/
http://afterschoolsf.org/
http://achievedc.mapkist.com/
http://www.parkitdc.com/
http://www.nycbigmaps.com/restaurant-inspections-heatmap.php
http://ubahnaufzug.at/
http://www.open3.at/sparpaket
http://treesnearyou.com/   http://www.wayfindermobile.com/   http://www.cabsense.com/
Why Open Data?
   More information might lead to more informed
    and better decisions
   Higher degree of effectiveness & efficiency
    ●   P. Weiss, "Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts," ed: U.S.
        Department of Commerce, 2004.


   Strengthen trust in establishment
    ●   R. Marcella and G. Baxter, "Information need, information seeking behaviour and participation, with special reference to
        needs related to citizenship: results of a national survey," Journal of Documentation, vol. 56, pp. 136-160, 2002.


   Leverage benefits of peer production
   New business models
   “Peoples right to know”
Benefits for Citizens


   Execution of controlling rights by the citizens
   Self-Determination
   Communication on equal information level
   Better Services – better Governance – better
    Regulation
Drawbacks

   Administration:Loss of control & power –
    undermining the statutory supremacy
   Business: Loss of money by threatening
    established business models
   Society: Discrimination by stigmatisation
   “The unknown” considered harmful
Challenges
   Beneficial for many but drawbacks for some others
    ●   eg. changing value of real estate by transparency
   Media Literacy - “Data divide”
    ●   Data journalism as a new role for the endangered
        traditional media
   Access vs. effective use
    ●   Theoretical benefit – real utility
   Beneficial for larger & educated states
    ●   Anyone for “Apps for Liechtenstein”? - “Apps for Somalia”?



                    Background image attribution http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SBB-CFF.JPG
Open Government Data
Definitions & Principles
Open Government Data


Open Government Data are data sets
released by the government on public
interest. Usage is unconstrained with
the right to re-share and re-purpose
        without further notice.
Explained
   Released by the government
   Data is following the open data principles
   Always non-personal
   Beneficiaries rights are regulated by
    meaningful licences
   Usage is unconstrained
   Business usage is welcomed
Open Data Principles
      Complete
      Primary
      Timely
      Easily Accessible
      Machine Processable
      Non-Discriminating
      Using Open Standards
      Liberal Licencing
      Reliable
      Free of Charge OR Non-Discriminating fees
von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.
Open Government Data

Element of Public Administration
   Information Management
Information Management (EN)
   Collection and management of
    information
   Organization of and control over the
    structure, processing and delivery of
    information
Informationsmanagement (DE)
   Beschaffung und Bereitstellung von Information
   Planung, Beschaffung und Bereitstellung der
    dafür erforderlichen Informations- und IT-
    Infrastruktur und notwendiger, personeller
    Ressourcen
    ●   Informationsmanagement wird in der
        deutschsprachigen Literatur überwiegend als
        Informationsgenerierung und
        Informationsbeschaffung behandelt
Literature Research




[1] J. White, Managing information in the public sector, Armonk N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007.
[2] C.M. Shea and G.D. Garson, Handbook of public information systems, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010.
[3] B. Rocheleau, Public management information systems, Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., 2006.
Peculiarities of Public Sector
        Information Management
      Functional discrepancies
       ●   Private: Maximizing shareholder value
       ●   Public: Loss-making public transport
      Conflicting targets, perceptions and interests in public & private
       sector information management
       ●   Risk, Accountability, Representativeness, Stakeholders, Openness;
      Information management performance measure models complex
       due to conflicting targets
      BUT: Literature recognizes information as a critical resource
      Conclusion: Information out-flow shall be treated as a core
       element of public sector information management



B. Bozeman and S. Bretschneider, “Public management information systems: Theory and prescription,” Public
Administration Review, vol. 46, 1986, pp. 475–487.
Literature Review - Result

   Information is a critical resource




   Information flow is not considered to be
    bi-directional
   Current literature does not describe an
    open data architecture model
Open Government Data

 Architecture Model
Architecture Model
    Five level saturation model by Tim
     Berners-Lee
     ★    Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open licence
     ★★   Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead
          of image scan of a table)
 ★★★      as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel)
★★★★      All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL)
          to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff
★★★★★     All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data
          to provide context
Architecture Model
   Everything gets an URI
   Data is encoded in RDF
   URIs are kept persistent by policies and PURLs
   Ontologies describe NON-Information Resources
    ●   Data entities are self-described by these government
        ontologies
   RESTFul APIs for data access
   Data gets federated to meta data register
   Data searchable à la swoogle
Linking Concepts - Basics
   Connecting concepts across federal levels, spanning departments
   Supports the automatic generation of new information
   Common understanding about “things”, even across different
    languages



                            http://data.wien.gv.at/info.rdf




                Bundeshauptstadt                              Vienna
URIs for everything
   Naming scheme respects federal principle of
    subsidiarity and autonomy
   http://{sector}.{federallevel}.data.gv.at/
    {concept}/IDENTIFIKATION {.rdf|html}
    ●   http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711
   NON-Information resources require two
    additional URIs (“HttpRange-14”)
    ●   Associated information resource, eg. HTML-Page
    ●   Associated information resource as “303” resource,
        eg. RDF-data
RDF Data Representation
   One format fits all
   Target representation by XSLT
    transformation or (X)HTML render
   Plethora of public sector data in legacy or
    non-conforming formats will require a
    transitional phase
   TXT, CSV, HTML, XML are royalty free
    formats with strong open source backing
Trust by Reliability
   Internet Addresses come and go
   URIs shall be reliable by organizational
    consensus
   Fancy URIs remain invariant by means
    of permanent Urls (PURL)
   PURLs interpretation of HTTP-Header
    response values harmonize with
    Semantic Web Interpretation
PURL vs. SemWeb
            Interpretation
HTTP-    HTTP-            PURL                 Semantic Web
Header   Interpretation   Interpretation       Interpretation
Status
Code
301      Moved            Moved permanently
         permanently      to a target URL
302      Found            Simple redirection
                          to a target URL
303      Found            See other URL        A URI; likely an
                                               RDF-Document
Ontologies for Non-
    Information Resources (NIR)
   Enable computer systems to reason about reality
   Automated service discovery
   Optimal resource allocation for processes
   Ontologies about NIRs classify Open Linked Data
    about Information Resources (IR)
   SKOS as an alternative to the overly expressive OWL
    for creating eg. Thesaurus of the public service
    portfolio
Open Data API
   Reduce server resources by optimal query strategy
   Querying data originator rather than local storage
    prevents data inconsistencies
   Extern-facing API by means of RESTful serives
    ●   Integrates seamlessly with web browsers
    ●   Well understood and supported standard technology
    ●   JSON serialization less verbose and more web friendly than
        XML
    ●   “Simple” compared to wsdl:SOAP
   Eliminates asymmetry of Open Data by enabling
    information in-flow
Open Government Data Register
     Topic of research
     Do not repeat dead
      end of UDDI!

C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global
integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
Architecture (0)
  3                                          0
          1         2
                                                              URI
                                            Web Interface
                                                             Service
            RDF-Browser     Javascript Libraries
                                                            Discovery
 api.data.gv.at           data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at     Service




[0] Identify an Open Data Set
Architecture (1)
  3                                          0
          1         2
                                                              URI
                                            Web Interface
                                                             Service
            RDF-Browser     Javascript Libraries
                                                            Discovery
 api.data.gv.at           data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at     Service




[0] Identify an Open Data Set
[1] Browse Url / Uri                                         (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)
Architecture (2)
   3                                          0
           1         2
                                                               URI
                                             Web Interface
                                                              Service
             RDF-Browser     Javascript Libraries
                                                             Discovery
  api.data.gv.at           data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at     Service




[0] Identify an Open Data Set
[1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)
[2] Transfer minimal Web Page with
    Javascript RDF-Browser
Architecture (3)
   3                                          0
           1         2
                                                               URI
                                             Web Interface
                                                              Service
             RDF-Browser     Javascript Libraries
                                                             Discovery
  api.data.gv.at           data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at     Service




[0] Identify an Open Data Set
[1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)
[2] Transfer minimal Web Page with
    Javascript RDF-Browser
[3] Retrieve Data using OGD API
Architecture (4)
           3                                          0
                  1          2
                                                                           URI
                                                     Web Interface
                                                                          Service
                     RDF-Browser     Javascript Libraries
                                                                      Discovery
         api.data.gv.at            data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at      Service
                                                                     4'
 Externe Sicht                                                                         5
 Interne Sicht
                 4
                                                            DB1      RDF            RDF
                        RDF                                          DB             DB
                      Datenbank                             DB2
                                                                     Org 2          Org 3
Organisation




   [4] Query RDF-Database
3
                  1
                     RDF-Browser
                                                      0
                                                     Web Interface
                                     Javascript Libraries
                                                                           URI
                                                                          Service
                                                                                            Architecture (4')
                                                                      Discovery
         api.data.gv.at            data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at      Service
                                                                     4'
 Externe Sicht

 Interne Sicht
                 4
                                                            DB1       RDF           RDF
                        RDF                                           DB            DB
                      Datenbank                             DB2
                                                                     Org 2          Org 3
Organisation




   [4] Query RDF-Database
   [4'] Use HTTP-Proxy to Query Databases
        outside Internet Domain
Big picture


           3                                          0
                  1          2
                                                     Web Interface
                                                                           URI
                                                                          Service
                     RDF-Browser     Javascript Libraries
                                                                         Discovery
         api.data.gv.at            data.gv.at    proxy.data.gv.at         Service
                                                                     4
 Externe Sicht                                                                          5
 Interne Sicht
                 4
                                                            DB1      RDF             RDF
                        RDF                                          DB              DB
                      Datenbank                             DB2
                                                                     Org 2           Org 3
Organisation
Next steps
   Identify already released data or uncritical data sets;
    grab for the low hanging fruits
   Release as XML, CSV
   Create an online-catalogue of Open Data
   Go semantic: Enrich with meta data, create URI
    infrastructure, identify open source components
   Extend government enterprise architecture with
    Linked Data elements
Thank you – Contact


      Johann Höchtl
    Center for E-Government
 Danube University Krems, Austria

    johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at
Links and further reading
Papers & Literature:
C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
F. Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.C. Pelaez, and F.J. Pascual, “Semantic model approach for eGovernment to improve sharing, retrieving and
exchanging documentation across back-office,” Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government
Research: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government, Digital Government Society of North
America, 2009, pp. 319–320.
S.K. Goudos, V. Peristeras, and K. Tarabanis, “Reengineering Public Administration through Semantic Technologies and a Reference
Domain Ontology,” Semantic Web for eGovernment 2006, p. 25.
C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
P. Salhofer, “Ontology Driven E-Government,” eGovernment Review, Jan. 2009, pp. 22-23.
J. Sheridan and J. Tennison, “Linking UK government data,” Proc. of the WWW Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, 2010.
D. Wood, Linking Enterprise Data, Springer, 2010.
F. Servant, “Linking Enterprise Data,” CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Bejing: 2008.
F. Maali, R. Cyganiak, and V. Peristeras, “Enabling Interoperability of Government Data Catalogues,” Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 339-350.
P.N. Weiss, “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts,” Public sector
information in the digital age: between markets, public management and citizens' rights, 2004, p. 137.
E. Hornes, A. Jansen, and Ø. Langeland, “How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector,”
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 301-314.
. von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.



Web Links:
Empowering the empowered: http://gurstein.wordpress.com/2010/09/02/open-data-empowering-the-empowered-or-effective-data-use-
for-everyone/
Cool URIs for the semantic web: http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/
Re-use HTTP-Header Response Codes for the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/doc/httpRange-14/2007-05-31/HttpRange-14
Licenses: http://www.opendatacommons.org/
CKAN Semantic Web Software: http://ckan.org/
Tabulator Library to render RDF as (X)HTML: http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Tabulator
APIs: http://open311.org/, http://www.odata.org/ http://services.sunlightlabs.com/docs/Sunlight_Congress_API/
SKOS recommendation to create thesauri: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
Tools and Software recommended by the W3C to deal with RDF and the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Tools
http://gov.opendata.at/
http://offener.datenkatalog.at/

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Open Linked Data as Part of a Government Enterprise Architecture

  • 1. Open Linked Data A Key Element of Public Administration Information Management
  • 3. Transparency  Participation  Collaboration “My Administration is committed to creating an Unprecedented level of openness in Government.“ Barack Obama, “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies - Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009.
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  • 7. Neelie Kroes Vice-President of the European Commission responsible for the Digital Agenda “Take the example of public sector information – possibly a €30 billion market in Europe. I have said it before, and I say it again: yes to open data!” “Lift-Off towards Open Government" conference, Brussels, 15 December 2010 http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/10/752
  • 8. Status Quo Austria  2 Initiativen der Zivilgesellschaft: ● http://gov.opendata.at ● http://www.open3.at ● http://offenedaten.at/  Überblick am Reference-Server http://reference.e-government.gv.at/Open-Government-Let-the- suns.opengovernment.0.html  E-Government-Vision 2020 ● „Bereitstellung von ausgewählten öffentlichen Rohdaten und Mashups mit privaten Services“ ● http://www.bka.gv.at/site/6878/default.aspx  Im Regierungsprogramm Rot/Grün Wien  Thema des Kompetenzentrums Internetgesellschaft “KIG”
  • 9. Applications & State of Affairs
  • 10. Open Data Catalogues State / Federal Private  data.gov  data.worldbank.org/  datasf.org data-catalog  data.edmonton.ca/  www.undata- api.org/wiki/datasets  data.gov.uk  gov.opendata.at  data.london.gov.uk  data.reegle.info  digitaliser.dk  OpenBelgium.be  geodata.gov.gr  opengovdata.ru  data.suomi.fi
  • 18. http://treesnearyou.com/ http://www.wayfindermobile.com/ http://www.cabsense.com/
  • 19. Why Open Data?  More information might lead to more informed and better decisions  Higher degree of effectiveness & efficiency ● P. Weiss, "Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts," ed: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2004.  Strengthen trust in establishment ● R. Marcella and G. Baxter, "Information need, information seeking behaviour and participation, with special reference to needs related to citizenship: results of a national survey," Journal of Documentation, vol. 56, pp. 136-160, 2002.  Leverage benefits of peer production  New business models  “Peoples right to know”
  • 20. Benefits for Citizens  Execution of controlling rights by the citizens  Self-Determination  Communication on equal information level  Better Services – better Governance – better Regulation
  • 21. Drawbacks  Administration:Loss of control & power – undermining the statutory supremacy  Business: Loss of money by threatening established business models  Society: Discrimination by stigmatisation  “The unknown” considered harmful
  • 22. Challenges  Beneficial for many but drawbacks for some others ● eg. changing value of real estate by transparency  Media Literacy - “Data divide” ● Data journalism as a new role for the endangered traditional media  Access vs. effective use ● Theoretical benefit – real utility  Beneficial for larger & educated states ● Anyone for “Apps for Liechtenstein”? - “Apps for Somalia”? Background image attribution http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SBB-CFF.JPG
  • 24. Open Government Data Open Government Data are data sets released by the government on public interest. Usage is unconstrained with the right to re-share and re-purpose without further notice.
  • 25. Explained  Released by the government  Data is following the open data principles  Always non-personal  Beneficiaries rights are regulated by meaningful licences  Usage is unconstrained  Business usage is welcomed
  • 26. Open Data Principles  Complete  Primary  Timely  Easily Accessible  Machine Processable  Non-Discriminating  Using Open Standards  Liberal Licencing  Reliable  Free of Charge OR Non-Discriminating fees von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.
  • 27. Open Government Data Element of Public Administration Information Management
  • 28. Information Management (EN)  Collection and management of information  Organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information
  • 29. Informationsmanagement (DE)  Beschaffung und Bereitstellung von Information  Planung, Beschaffung und Bereitstellung der dafür erforderlichen Informations- und IT- Infrastruktur und notwendiger, personeller Ressourcen ● Informationsmanagement wird in der deutschsprachigen Literatur überwiegend als Informationsgenerierung und Informationsbeschaffung behandelt
  • 30. Literature Research [1] J. White, Managing information in the public sector, Armonk N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007. [2] C.M. Shea and G.D. Garson, Handbook of public information systems, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010. [3] B. Rocheleau, Public management information systems, Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., 2006.
  • 31. Peculiarities of Public Sector Information Management  Functional discrepancies ● Private: Maximizing shareholder value ● Public: Loss-making public transport  Conflicting targets, perceptions and interests in public & private sector information management ● Risk, Accountability, Representativeness, Stakeholders, Openness;  Information management performance measure models complex due to conflicting targets  BUT: Literature recognizes information as a critical resource  Conclusion: Information out-flow shall be treated as a core element of public sector information management B. Bozeman and S. Bretschneider, “Public management information systems: Theory and prescription,” Public Administration Review, vol. 46, 1986, pp. 475–487.
  • 32. Literature Review - Result  Information is a critical resource  Information flow is not considered to be bi-directional  Current literature does not describe an open data architecture model
  • 33. Open Government Data Architecture Model
  • 34. Architecture Model  Five level saturation model by Tim Berners-Lee ★ Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open licence ★★ Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) ★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
  • 35. Architecture Model  Everything gets an URI  Data is encoded in RDF  URIs are kept persistent by policies and PURLs  Ontologies describe NON-Information Resources ● Data entities are self-described by these government ontologies  RESTFul APIs for data access  Data gets federated to meta data register  Data searchable à la swoogle
  • 36. Linking Concepts - Basics  Connecting concepts across federal levels, spanning departments  Supports the automatic generation of new information  Common understanding about “things”, even across different languages http://data.wien.gv.at/info.rdf Bundeshauptstadt Vienna
  • 37. URIs for everything  Naming scheme respects federal principle of subsidiarity and autonomy  http://{sector}.{federallevel}.data.gv.at/ {concept}/IDENTIFIKATION {.rdf|html} ● http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711  NON-Information resources require two additional URIs (“HttpRange-14”) ● Associated information resource, eg. HTML-Page ● Associated information resource as “303” resource, eg. RDF-data
  • 38. RDF Data Representation  One format fits all  Target representation by XSLT transformation or (X)HTML render  Plethora of public sector data in legacy or non-conforming formats will require a transitional phase  TXT, CSV, HTML, XML are royalty free formats with strong open source backing
  • 39. Trust by Reliability  Internet Addresses come and go  URIs shall be reliable by organizational consensus  Fancy URIs remain invariant by means of permanent Urls (PURL)  PURLs interpretation of HTTP-Header response values harmonize with Semantic Web Interpretation
  • 40. PURL vs. SemWeb Interpretation HTTP- HTTP- PURL Semantic Web Header Interpretation Interpretation Interpretation Status Code 301 Moved Moved permanently permanently to a target URL 302 Found Simple redirection to a target URL 303 Found See other URL A URI; likely an RDF-Document
  • 41. Ontologies for Non- Information Resources (NIR)  Enable computer systems to reason about reality  Automated service discovery  Optimal resource allocation for processes  Ontologies about NIRs classify Open Linked Data about Information Resources (IR)  SKOS as an alternative to the overly expressive OWL for creating eg. Thesaurus of the public service portfolio
  • 42. Open Data API  Reduce server resources by optimal query strategy  Querying data originator rather than local storage prevents data inconsistencies  Extern-facing API by means of RESTful serives ● Integrates seamlessly with web browsers ● Well understood and supported standard technology ● JSON serialization less verbose and more web friendly than XML ● “Simple” compared to wsdl:SOAP  Eliminates asymmetry of Open Data by enabling information in-flow
  • 43. Open Government Data Register  Topic of research  Do not repeat dead end of UDDI! C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
  • 44. Architecture (0) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set
  • 45. Architecture (1) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set [1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)
  • 46. Architecture (2) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set [1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711) [2] Transfer minimal Web Page with Javascript RDF-Browser
  • 47. Architecture (3) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set [1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711) [2] Transfer minimal Web Page with Javascript RDF-Browser [3] Retrieve Data using OGD API
  • 48. Architecture (4) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service 4' Externe Sicht 5 Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3 Organisation [4] Query RDF-Database
  • 49. 3 1 RDF-Browser 0 Web Interface Javascript Libraries URI Service Architecture (4') Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service 4' Externe Sicht Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3 Organisation [4] Query RDF-Database [4'] Use HTTP-Proxy to Query Databases outside Internet Domain
  • 50. Big picture 3 0 1 2 Web Interface URI Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service 4 Externe Sicht 5 Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3 Organisation
  • 51. Next steps  Identify already released data or uncritical data sets; grab for the low hanging fruits  Release as XML, CSV  Create an online-catalogue of Open Data  Go semantic: Enrich with meta data, create URI infrastructure, identify open source components  Extend government enterprise architecture with Linked Data elements
  • 52. Thank you – Contact Johann Höchtl Center for E-Government Danube University Krems, Austria johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at
  • 53. Links and further reading Papers & Literature: C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010. F. Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.C. Pelaez, and F.J. Pascual, “Semantic model approach for eGovernment to improve sharing, retrieving and exchanging documentation across back-office,” Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government, Digital Government Society of North America, 2009, pp. 319–320. S.K. Goudos, V. Peristeras, and K. Tarabanis, “Reengineering Public Administration through Semantic Technologies and a Reference Domain Ontology,” Semantic Web for eGovernment 2006, p. 25. C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010. P. Salhofer, “Ontology Driven E-Government,” eGovernment Review, Jan. 2009, pp. 22-23. J. Sheridan and J. Tennison, “Linking UK government data,” Proc. of the WWW Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, 2010. D. Wood, Linking Enterprise Data, Springer, 2010. F. Servant, “Linking Enterprise Data,” CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Bejing: 2008. F. Maali, R. Cyganiak, and V. Peristeras, “Enabling Interoperability of Government Data Catalogues,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 339-350. P.N. Weiss, “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts,” Public sector information in the digital age: between markets, public management and citizens' rights, 2004, p. 137. E. Hornes, A. Jansen, and Ø. Langeland, “How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 301-314. . von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010. Web Links: Empowering the empowered: http://gurstein.wordpress.com/2010/09/02/open-data-empowering-the-empowered-or-effective-data-use- for-everyone/ Cool URIs for the semantic web: http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/ Re-use HTTP-Header Response Codes for the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/doc/httpRange-14/2007-05-31/HttpRange-14 Licenses: http://www.opendatacommons.org/ CKAN Semantic Web Software: http://ckan.org/ Tabulator Library to render RDF as (X)HTML: http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Tabulator APIs: http://open311.org/, http://www.odata.org/ http://services.sunlightlabs.com/docs/Sunlight_Congress_API/ SKOS recommendation to create thesauri: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/ Tools and Software recommended by the W3C to deal with RDF and the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Tools