Successfully reported this slideshow.

More Related Content

Related Books

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 14 day trial from Scribd

See all

Open Linked Data as Part of a Government Enterprise Architecture

  1. 1. Open Linked Data A Key Element of Public Administration Information Management
  2. 2. Political Mindset
  3. 3.  Transparency  Participation  Collaboration “My Administration is committed to creating an Unprecedented level of openness in Government.“ Barack Obama, “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies - Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009.
  4. 4. Neelie Kroes Vice-President of the European Commission responsible for the Digital Agenda “Take the example of public sector information – possibly a €30 billion market in Europe. I have said it before, and I say it again: yes to open data!” “Lift-Off towards Open Government" conference, Brussels, 15 December 2010 http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/10/752
  5. 5. Status Quo Austria  2 Initiativen der Zivilgesellschaft: ● http://gov.opendata.at ● http://www.open3.at ● http://offenedaten.at/  Überblick am Reference-Server http://reference.e-government.gv.at/Open-Government-Let-the- suns.opengovernment.0.html  E-Government-Vision 2020 ● „Bereitstellung von ausgewählten öffentlichen Rohdaten und Mashups mit privaten Services“ ● http://www.bka.gv.at/site/6878/default.aspx  Im Regierungsprogramm Rot/Grün Wien  Thema des Kompetenzentrums Internetgesellschaft “KIG”
  6. 6. Applications & State of Affairs
  7. 7. Open Data Catalogues State / Federal Private  data.gov  data.worldbank.org/  datasf.org data-catalog  data.edmonton.ca/  www.undata- api.org/wiki/datasets  data.gov.uk  gov.opendata.at  data.london.gov.uk  data.reegle.info  digitaliser.dk  OpenBelgium.be  geodata.gov.gr  opengovdata.ru  data.suomi.fi
  8. 8. http://www.london.gov.uk/rents/
  9. 9. http://afterschoolsf.org/
  10. 10. http://achievedc.mapkist.com/
  11. 11. http://www.parkitdc.com/
  12. 12. http://www.nycbigmaps.com/restaurant-inspections-heatmap.php
  13. 13. http://ubahnaufzug.at/
  14. 14. http://www.open3.at/sparpaket
  15. 15. http://treesnearyou.com/ http://www.wayfindermobile.com/ http://www.cabsense.com/
  16. 16. Why Open Data?  More information might lead to more informed and better decisions  Higher degree of effectiveness & efficiency ● P. Weiss, "Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts," ed: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2004.  Strengthen trust in establishment ● R. Marcella and G. Baxter, "Information need, information seeking behaviour and participation, with special reference to needs related to citizenship: results of a national survey," Journal of Documentation, vol. 56, pp. 136-160, 2002.  Leverage benefits of peer production  New business models  “Peoples right to know”
  17. 17. Benefits for Citizens  Execution of controlling rights by the citizens  Self-Determination  Communication on equal information level  Better Services – better Governance – better Regulation
  18. 18. Drawbacks  Administration:Loss of control & power – undermining the statutory supremacy  Business: Loss of money by threatening established business models  Society: Discrimination by stigmatisation  “The unknown” considered harmful
  19. 19. Challenges  Beneficial for many but drawbacks for some others ● eg. changing value of real estate by transparency  Media Literacy - “Data divide” ● Data journalism as a new role for the endangered traditional media  Access vs. effective use ● Theoretical benefit – real utility  Beneficial for larger & educated states ● Anyone for “Apps for Liechtenstein”? - “Apps for Somalia”? Background image attribution http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SBB-CFF.JPG
  20. 20. Open Government Data Definitions & Principles
  21. 21. Open Government Data Open Government Data are data sets released by the government on public interest. Usage is unconstrained with the right to re-share and re-purpose without further notice.
  22. 22. Explained  Released by the government  Data is following the open data principles  Always non-personal  Beneficiaries rights are regulated by meaningful licences  Usage is unconstrained  Business usage is welcomed
  23. 23. Open Data Principles  Complete  Primary  Timely  Easily Accessible  Machine Processable  Non-Discriminating  Using Open Standards  Liberal Licencing  Reliable  Free of Charge OR Non-Discriminating fees von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.
  24. 24. Open Government Data Element of Public Administration Information Management
  25. 25. Information Management (EN)  Collection and management of information  Organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information
  26. 26. Informationsmanagement (DE)  Beschaffung und Bereitstellung von Information  Planung, Beschaffung und Bereitstellung der dafür erforderlichen Informations- und IT- Infrastruktur und notwendiger, personeller Ressourcen ● Informationsmanagement wird in der deutschsprachigen Literatur überwiegend als Informationsgenerierung und Informationsbeschaffung behandelt
  27. 27. Literature Research [1] J. White, Managing information in the public sector, Armonk N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007. [2] C.M. Shea and G.D. Garson, Handbook of public information systems, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010. [3] B. Rocheleau, Public management information systems, Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., 2006.
  28. 28. Peculiarities of Public Sector Information Management  Functional discrepancies ● Private: Maximizing shareholder value ● Public: Loss-making public transport  Conflicting targets, perceptions and interests in public & private sector information management ● Risk, Accountability, Representativeness, Stakeholders, Openness;  Information management performance measure models complex due to conflicting targets  BUT: Literature recognizes information as a critical resource  Conclusion: Information out-flow shall be treated as a core element of public sector information management B. Bozeman and S. Bretschneider, “Public management information systems: Theory and prescription,” Public Administration Review, vol. 46, 1986, pp. 475–487.
  29. 29. Literature Review - Result  Information is a critical resource  Information flow is not considered to be bi-directional  Current literature does not describe an open data architecture model
  30. 30. Open Government Data Architecture Model
  31. 31. Architecture Model  Five level saturation model by Tim Berners-Lee ★ Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open licence ★★ Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) ★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
  32. 32. Architecture Model  Everything gets an URI  Data is encoded in RDF  URIs are kept persistent by policies and PURLs  Ontologies describe NON-Information Resources ● Data entities are self-described by these government ontologies  RESTFul APIs for data access  Data gets federated to meta data register  Data searchable à la swoogle
  33. 33. Linking Concepts - Basics  Connecting concepts across federal levels, spanning departments  Supports the automatic generation of new information  Common understanding about “things”, even across different languages http://data.wien.gv.at/info.rdf Bundeshauptstadt Vienna
  34. 34. URIs for everything  Naming scheme respects federal principle of subsidiarity and autonomy  http://{sector}.{federallevel}.data.gv.at/ {concept}/IDENTIFIKATION {.rdf|html} ● http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711  NON-Information resources require two additional URIs (“HttpRange-14”) ● Associated information resource, eg. HTML-Page ● Associated information resource as “303” resource, eg. RDF-data
  35. 35. RDF Data Representation  One format fits all  Target representation by XSLT transformation or (X)HTML render  Plethora of public sector data in legacy or non-conforming formats will require a transitional phase  TXT, CSV, HTML, XML are royalty free formats with strong open source backing
  36. 36. Trust by Reliability  Internet Addresses come and go  URIs shall be reliable by organizational consensus  Fancy URIs remain invariant by means of permanent Urls (PURL)  PURLs interpretation of HTTP-Header response values harmonize with Semantic Web Interpretation
  37. 37. PURL vs. SemWeb Interpretation HTTP- HTTP- PURL Semantic Web Header Interpretation Interpretation Interpretation Status Code 301 Moved Moved permanently permanently to a target URL 302 Found Simple redirection to a target URL 303 Found See other URL A URI; likely an RDF-Document
  38. 38. Ontologies for Non- Information Resources (NIR)  Enable computer systems to reason about reality  Automated service discovery  Optimal resource allocation for processes  Ontologies about NIRs classify Open Linked Data about Information Resources (IR)  SKOS as an alternative to the overly expressive OWL for creating eg. Thesaurus of the public service portfolio
  39. 39. Open Data API  Reduce server resources by optimal query strategy  Querying data originator rather than local storage prevents data inconsistencies  Extern-facing API by means of RESTful serives ● Integrates seamlessly with web browsers ● Well understood and supported standard technology ● JSON serialization less verbose and more web friendly than XML ● “Simple” compared to wsdl:SOAP  Eliminates asymmetry of Open Data by enabling information in-flow
  40. 40. Open Government Data Register  Topic of research  Do not repeat dead end of UDDI! C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
  41. 41. Architecture (0) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set
  42. 42. Architecture (1) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set [1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711)
  43. 43. Architecture (2) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set [1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711) [2] Transfer minimal Web Page with Javascript RDF-Browser
  44. 44. Architecture (3) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service [0] Identify an Open Data Set [1] Browse Url / Uri (eg. http://bildung.krems.noe.data.gv.at/schule/4711) [2] Transfer minimal Web Page with Javascript RDF-Browser [3] Retrieve Data using OGD API
  45. 45. Architecture (4) 3 0 1 2 URI Web Interface Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service 4' Externe Sicht 5 Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3 Organisation [4] Query RDF-Database
  46. 46. 3 1 RDF-Browser 0 Web Interface Javascript Libraries URI Service Architecture (4') Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service 4' Externe Sicht Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3 Organisation [4] Query RDF-Database [4'] Use HTTP-Proxy to Query Databases outside Internet Domain
  47. 47. Big picture 3 0 1 2 Web Interface URI Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery api.data.gv.at data.gv.at proxy.data.gv.at Service 4 Externe Sicht 5 Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3 Organisation
  48. 48. Next steps  Identify already released data or uncritical data sets; grab for the low hanging fruits  Release as XML, CSV  Create an online-catalogue of Open Data  Go semantic: Enrich with meta data, create URI infrastructure, identify open source components  Extend government enterprise architecture with Linked Data elements
  49. 49. Thank you – Contact Johann Höchtl Center for E-Government Danube University Krems, Austria johann.hoechtl@donau-uni.ac.at
  50. 50. Links and further reading Papers & Literature: C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010. F. Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.C. Pelaez, and F.J. Pascual, “Semantic model approach for eGovernment to improve sharing, retrieving and exchanging documentation across back-office,” Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government, Digital Government Society of North America, 2009, pp. 319–320. S.K. Goudos, V. Peristeras, and K. Tarabanis, “Reengineering Public Administration through Semantic Technologies and a Reference Domain Ontology,” Semantic Web for eGovernment 2006, p. 25. C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010. P. Salhofer, “Ontology Driven E-Government,” eGovernment Review, Jan. 2009, pp. 22-23. J. Sheridan and J. Tennison, “Linking UK government data,” Proc. of the WWW Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, 2010. D. Wood, Linking Enterprise Data, Springer, 2010. F. Servant, “Linking Enterprise Data,” CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Bejing: 2008. F. Maali, R. Cyganiak, and V. Peristeras, “Enabling Interoperability of Government Data Catalogues,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 339-350. P.N. Weiss, “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts,” Public sector information in the digital age: between markets, public management and citizens' rights, 2004, p. 137. E. Hornes, A. Jansen, and Ø. Langeland, “How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 301-314. . von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010. Web Links: Empowering the empowered: http://gurstein.wordpress.com/2010/09/02/open-data-empowering-the-empowered-or-effective-data-use- for-everyone/ Cool URIs for the semantic web: http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/ Re-use HTTP-Header Response Codes for the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/doc/httpRange-14/2007-05-31/HttpRange-14 Licenses: http://www.opendatacommons.org/ CKAN Semantic Web Software: http://ckan.org/ Tabulator Library to render RDF as (X)HTML: http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Tabulator APIs: http://open311.org/, http://www.odata.org/ http://services.sunlightlabs.com/docs/Sunlight_Congress_API/ SKOS recommendation to create thesauri: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/ Tools and Software recommended by the W3C to deal with RDF and the Semantic Web: http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Tools
  51. 51. http://gov.opendata.at/
  52. 52. http://offener.datenkatalog.at/

×