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Open Linked Data as Part of a Government Enterprise Architecture


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Open Linked Data as Part of a Government Enterprise Architecture

  1. 1. Open Linked Data A Key Element of Public Administration Information Management
  2. 2. Political Mindset
  3. 3.  Transparency  Participation  Collaboration“My Administration is committed to creating anUnprecedented level of openness in Government.“ Barack Obama, “Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies - Transparency and Open Government,” Jan. 2009.
  4. 4. Neelie KroesVice-President of the European Commissionresponsible for the Digital Agenda“Take the example of public sector information –possibly a €30 billion market in Europe. I have said itbefore, and I say it again: yes to open data!” “Lift-Off towards Open Government" conference, Brussels, 15 December 2010
  5. 5. Open Data CataloguesState / Federal Private  data-catalog  www.undata-    
  6. 6. Applications
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  15. 15. Open Government Data
  16. 16. Open Government DataOpen Government Data are data setsreleased by the government on publicinterest. Usage is unconstrained withthe right to re-share and re-purpose without further notice.
  17. 17. Explained Released by the government Data is following the open data principles Always non-personal Beneficiaries rights are regulated by meaningful licences Usage is unconstrained Business usage is welcomed
  18. 18. Open Data Principles  Complete  Primary  Timely  Easily Accessible  Machine Processable  Non-Discriminatory  Using Open Standards  Liberal Licencing  Reliable  Free of Charge OR Non-Discriminating feesvon Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.
  19. 19. Information Management (EN) Collection and management of information Organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information
  20. 20. Informationsmanagement (DE) Beschaffung und Bereitstellung von Information Planung, Beschaffung und Bereitstellung der dafür erforderlichen Informations- und IT- Infrastruktur und notwendiger, personeller Ressourcen ● Informationsmanagement wird in der deutschsprachigen Literatur überwiegend als Informationshineinfluss behandelt
  21. 21. Why Open Data? More information might lead to more informed and better decisions Higher degree of effectiveness & efficiency ● P. Weiss, "Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts," ed: U.S. Department of Commerce, 2004. Strengthen trust in establishment ● R. Marcella and G. Baxter, "Information need, information seeking behaviour and participation, with special reference to needs related to citizenship: results of a national survey," Journal of Documentation, vol. 56, pp. 136-160, 2002. Leverage benefits of peer production New business models “Peoples right to know”
  22. 22. Drawbacks Loss of control & power Loss of money and established business models Discrimination by stigmatisation “The unknown” considered harmful Background image attribution to
  23. 23. Literature Review[1] J. White, Managing information in the public sector, Armonk N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007.[2] C.M. Shea and G.D. Garson, Handbook of public information systems, Taylor & Francis Group, 2010.[3] B. Rocheleau, Public management information systems, Hershey PA: Idea Group Pub., 2006.
  24. 24. Public Sector Information Management  Functional discrepancies ● Private: Maximising shareholder value ● Public: Loss-making public transport  Conflicting targets, perceptions and interests in public & private sector information management ● Risk, Accountability, Representativeness, Stakeholders, Openess;  Information management performance measure models complex due to conflicting targets  BUT: Literature recognizes information as a critical resource  Information out-flow shall be treated as a core element of public sector information managementB. Bozeman and S. Bretschneider, “Public management information systems: Theory and prescription,” PublicAdministration Review, vol. 46, 1986, pp. 475–487.
  25. 25.  Information is a critical resource Information flow is not considered to be bi-directional Current literature does not describe an open data architecture model
  26. 26. Architecture Model  Following five level saturation model by Tim Berners-Lee ★ Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open licence ★★ Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel)★★★★ All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff★★★★★ All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
  27. 27. Architecture Model Everything gets an URI Data is encoded in RDF URIs are kept persistent by policies and PURLs Ontologies describe NON-Information Resources ● Data entities are self-described by these government ontologies RESTFul APIs for data access Data gets federated to meta data register Data searchable à la swoogle
  28. 28. URIs for everything Respects federal principle of subsidiarity and autonomy http://{sector}.{federallevel} {concept}/IDENTIFIKATION {.rdf|html} ● NON-Information resources require two additional URIs (“HttpRange-14”) ● Associated information resource, eg. HTML-Page ● Associated information resource as “303” resource, eg. RDF-data
  29. 29. RDF Data Representation One format fits all Target representation by XSLT transformation or (X)HTML render Plethora of public sector data will require a transitional phase TXT, CSV, HTML, XML are royalty free formats with strong open source backing
  30. 30. Trust by Reliability Internet Addresses come and go URIs shall be reliable by organisational consensus Fancy URIs might remain invariant by PURLs PURLs interpretation of HTTP-Header response values harmonize with Semantic Web Interpretation
  31. 31. PURL vs. SemWeb InterpretationHTTP- HTTP- PURL Semantic WebHeader Interpretation Interpretation InterpretationStatusCode301 Moved Moved permanently permanently to a target URL302 Found Simple redirection to a target URL303 Found See other URL A URI; likely an RDF-Document
  32. 32. Ontologies for NIR Enable computer systems to reason about reality Automated service discovery Optimal resource allocation for processes Ontologies about NIRs classify Open Linked Data about IRs SKOS as an alternative to create thesauri for the more expressive, yet complicated OWL
  33. 33. Open Data API Reduce server resources by optimal query strategy Querying data originator rather than local storage prevents data inconsistencies Extern-facing API by means of RESTful serives ● Integrates seamlessly with web browsers ● Well understood and supported standard technology ● JSON serialization less verbose and web friendly than XML ● “Simple” compared to wsdl:SOAP Eliminates asymmetry of Open Data by enabling information in-flow
  34. 34. Open Government Data Register  Topic of research  Do not repeat dead end of UDDI!C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Globalintegration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.
  35. 35. Architecture overview 3 0 1 2 Web Interface URI Service RDF-Browser Javascript Libraries Discovery Service 4 Externe Sicht 5 Interne Sicht 4 DB1 RDF RDF RDF DB DB Datenbank DB2 Org 2 Org 3Organisation
  36. 36. Next steps Identify already released data or uncritical data sets; grab for the low hanging fruits Release as XML, CSV Create an online-catalogue of Open Data Go semantic: Enrich with meta data, create URI infrastructure, identify open source components Extend government enterprise model with Linked Data architecture
  37. 37. Thank you – Contact Johann HöchtlDepartment for Governance & Public Administration Danube University Krems, Austria
  38. 38. Links and further readingPapers & Literature:C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.F. Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.C. Pelaez, and F.J. Pascual, “Semantic model approach for eGovernment to improve sharing, retrieving andexchanging documentation across back-office,” Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Conference on Digital GovernmentResearch: Social Networks: Making Connections between Citizens, Data and Government, Digital Government Society of NorthAmerica, 2009, pp. 319–320.S.K. Goudos, V. Peristeras, and K. Tarabanis, “Reengineering Public Administration through Semantic Technologies and a ReferenceDomain Ontology,” Semantic Web for eGovernment 2006, p. 25.C. Koumenides, M. Salvadores, H. Alani, and N. Shadbol, “Global integration of public sector information,” Raleigh, NC, USA: 2010.P. Salhofer, “Ontology Driven E-Government,” eGovernment Review, Jan. 2009, pp. 22-23.J. Sheridan and J. Tennison, “Linking UK government data,” Proc. of the WWW Workshop on Linked Data on the Web, 2010.D. Wood, Linking Enterprise Data, Springer, 2010.F. Servant, “Linking Enterprise Data,” CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Bejing: 2008.F. Maali, R. Cyganiak, and V. Peristeras, “Enabling Interoperability of Government Data Catalogues,” Lecture Notes in ComputerScience, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 339-350.P.N. Weiss, “Borders in Cyberspace: Conflicting Public Sector Information Policies and their Economic Impacts,” Public sectorinformation in the digital age: between markets, public management and citizens rights, 2004, p. 137.E. Hornes, A. Jansen, and Ø. Langeland, “How to Develop an Open and Flexible Information Infrastructure for the Public Sector,”Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Lausanne, Switzerland: Springer, 2010, pp. 301-314.. von Lucke and C.P. Geiger, “Open Government Data - Frei verfügbare Daten des öffentlichen Sektors,” Dec. 2010.Web Links:Cool URIs for the semantic web: HTTP-Header Response Codes for the Semantic Web: Semantic Web Software: Library to render RDF as (X)HTML:, recommendation to create thesauri: and Software recommended by the W3C to deal with RDF and the Semantic Web:
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