Open Data for Transportation Agencies

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A complete introduction to open data in the context of local transportation, including definitions, examples, rationales, implementation challenges and guidelines.

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Open Data for Transportation Agencies

  1. 1. Open Data for Transportation Agencies Embracing Innovation in Information SharingNote to copyright owners: all third-party materials contained in this presentation were obtained from publicly available sources. However, they are reproduced here without explicit permission from their owners. Novavia Solutions will gladly remove any such material at the owner’s request.
  2. 2. About Novavia SolutionsFounded in 2010 as a management consulting firm thataims to create social value by promoting the use anddevelopment of intelligent transportation solutions. www.novaviasolutions.com @NovaviaSols Primary expertise is in the application of information technology to traffic and transit operations, urban linkedin/jdmargulici mobility, and infrastructure management.Novavia Solutions works with public agencies, operators, solutionproviders and start-up entrepreneurs with the overarching objective to Email me:instill technological innovation and design thinking intotransportation networks and the institutions that steward them. jdm@novavia.us Our services include information technology consulting, program design and management, systems engineering, organizational development, product development and marketing, and business www.slideshare.net/jdmargulici development into new markets. Open Transportation Data - April 2012 2
  3. 3. Open Data for  What is Open Data?Transportation Agencies  The Case for Open Embracing Innovation in Transportation Data Information Sharing  Implementation & Challenges  Questions & Answers 3
  4. 4. A Definition of Open DataOpen data is the idea that certaindata should be freely available toeveryone to use and republish asthey wish, without restrictions fromcopyright, patents or othermechanisms of control.(Wikipedia, April 2012) Open Transportation Data - April 2012 4
  5. 5. Open Data: New Term, Old Idea Open Transportation Data - April 2012 5
  6. 6. Open Data: Old Idea, New Tools Development Hosting Delivery Open Transportation Data - April 2012 6
  7. 7. Key Concepts: APIs, Mashups Application Programming Interface Mashup Data Data Data Data API 1 API 2 API 3 Application Server A mashup creates information byThe API is a fusing multiplespecification for data sourcesobtaining datadynamically Visualization Publication Data Consumer Services Open Transportation Data - April 2012 7
  8. 8. Prime Example: Google Maps Open Transportation Data - April 2012 8
  9. 9. Popular Web APIs and Simple Mashup Open Transportation Data - April 2012 9
  10. 10. Open Data in Government: “Government 2.0”Term reportedly coined by Tim O’Reilly, founder of O’Reilly Media:“…. think of it as the adoption of cloud computing, wikis,crowdsourcing, mobile applications, mashups, developercontests, or all of the other epiphenomena of Web 2.0 asapplied to the job of government.”“The rise of Gov 2.0 signals the emergence of IT innovation andthe Web as a platform for fostering efficiencies withingovernment and citizen participation.”“… start thinking about designing programs (APIs) that areenablers”Notion of “Government as a Platform” Open Transportation Data - April 2012 10
  11. 11. Open Government Data Principles 1. Data Must Be Complete 5. Data Must Be Machine-processable •All public data are made available. Data are electronically stored •Data are reasonably structured to allow automated processing information or recordings, including but not limited to of it. documents, databases, transcripts, and audio/visual recordings. Public data are data that are not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations, as governed by other statutes. 6. Access Must Be Non-Discriminatory 2. Data Must Be Primary •Data are available to anyone, with no requirement of registration. •Data are published as collected at the source, with the finest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms. 7. Data Formats Must Be Non-Proprietary 3. Data Must Be Timely •Data are available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control. •Data are made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data. 8. Data Must Be License-free 4. Data Must Be Accessible •Data are not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and •Data are available to the widest range of users for the widest privilege restrictions may be allowed as governed by other range of purposes. statutes.Finally,compliance must be reviewable . A contact person must be designated to respond to people trying to use the data. Acontact person must be designated to respond to complaints about violations of the principles. An administrative or judicial court must have thejurisdiction to review whether the agency has applied these principles appropriately.Tim OReilly of OReilly Media and Carl Malamud of Public.Resource.Org—with sponsorship from the Sunlight Foundation, Google, and Yahoo—hosted a meeting of 30people interested in open government in Sebastopol, CA on December 7-8, 2007. https://public.resource.org/open_government_meeting.html Open Transportation Data - April 2012 11
  12. 12. Open Data: Federal LeadershipPresidency’s opening remarks Three guiding principles Transparency Participation Collaboration Open Transportation Data - April 2012 12
  13. 13. DATA.GOV and Other Initiatives First U.S. CIO First U.S. CTO Open Transportation Data - April 2012 13
  14. 14. Diffusion of Open Data Policies & Initiatives April 2012 Open Transportation Data - April 2012 14
  15. 15. Open Data for  What is Open Data?Transportation Agencies  The Case for Open Embracing Innovation in Transportation Data Information Sharing  Implementation & Challenges  Questions & Answers 15
  16. 16. Opening Case: Google Transit 2012 2006 Open Transportation Data - April 2012 16
  17. 17. Planning your Cross-Country Transit Trip… Open Transportation Data - April 2012 17
  18. 18. GTFS: Third-Party Applications Open Transportation Data - April 2012 18
  19. 19. Agencies Leveraging Third-Party Development Open Transportation Data - April 2012 19
  20. 20. Developers Challenges, Prizes, Hackathons… Open Transportation Data - April 2012 20
  21. 21. More Examples… Open Transportation Data - April 2012 21
  22. 22. Open Transportation Data Sample: Traffic Description Data State / Predictive Data Road Closures & Air Quality Road Geometries Air Quality Rules Detours RestrictionsNavigation Roadway Evacuation Traffic Volumes & Evacuation Signage Routes Speeds Routes Signals & Timing HOV Lanes & Signal Timing & Dynamic Traffic Plans Rules Phases Messages Control Ramp Meters Toll Schedules Ramp Metering HOT / Cordon Rates Toll Rates Sweeping Parking Sweeping Park & Ride LotsParking & Schedules Availability Operations Streets Parking Rules & School Zone Parking Pricing Incidents & Schedules Schedules Special Events Maintenance Pavement Road Surface Roadway Schedule Weather Stations Conditions Conditions Assets & ITS Asset SafetyConditions ITS Assets Safety Statistics Conditions Conditions Open Transportation Data - April 2012 22
  23. 23. Open Transportation Data Sample: Modal Description Data State / Predictive Data Station Elevator / Stop Locations ADA Access Maintenance Escalator Status Transit On-time Schedules Arrival Times Service Alerts Performance Closures & Bike Lanes Bike Sharing Bike Availability Detours Biking Parking Incidents & Bike Parking Bike Safety Availability Special Events Reservation Call- Taxi Stations Taxi Locations Fleet Availability in Numbers Taxi Typical Wait Fares Special Deals  Wait Times Times Ridesharing Rates and Ridesharing Guaranteed RideRideshare / Pickup Locations Incentives Supply Availability Carshare Carsharing User Ratings Carshare Ridesharing Stations Availability Demand Open Transportation Data - April 2012 23
  24. 24. Beyond Traffic Detectors: Complete Scope • Transparency • Participation • Participation • Collaboration System Planning Description Performance System State Measures • Transparency • Participation • Collaboration Open Transportation Data - April 2012 25
  25. 25. Direct Benefits of Open Data: More with Less More Channels Less Front-End Development Less Infrastructure Many apps, many platforms, Third-party pick up delivery so 50% of the U.S. adult population many user experiences agencies focus on data curation has a smartphone as of 2012 Open Transportation Data - April 2012 26
  26. 26. Forced Benefits of Open Data: Few Alternatives Public’s Expectations Freedom of Information Disaster Backup PlanTransit information on Google Open data only gets cheaper Open data as a self-help tool: Maps is a must. What next? than responding to requests can you afford to pass on it? Open Transportation Data - April 2012 27
  27. 27. Collateral Benefits of Open Data: Ride the Wave Improved Toolkit Interoperability Premium on DataApps and mashups can be used What gets published gets Data availability and quality by the agencies themselves integrated become political considerations Open Transportation Data - April 2012 28
  28. 28. Political Benefits of Open Data: Power to the People Transparency Participation CollaborationBoth parties use Open Data to Open Data gets Gen Y involved Open Data stimulates new demonstrate accountability with civic engagement business creation Open Transportation Data - April 2012 29
  29. 29. Open Data for  What is Open Data?Transportation Agencies  The Case for Open Embracing Innovation in Transportation Data Information Sharing  Implementation & Challenges  Questions & Answers 30
  30. 30. Open is Good, But…It’s not exactly FREE! Misuse & Liability SecurityContractual obligations Open what? Who cares anyway?
  31. 31. Common Barriers to Open Data Legacy systems Fees for data Exclusivity Cultural barriers • IT Systems may not • Open data may run • Open data means • Open data is poised have the capabilities counter to breaking exclusive to redefine how to publish machine- established revenue relationships, either government relates readable files streams (fees or contractual or de and operates: that’s advertising) facto pretty scary!Exogenous Factors Endogenous Factors Open Transportation Data - April 2012 32
  32. 32. Where Will Open Data Create Lasting Value? Three years later, reportedly ONE application out of several dozens is still runningEcosystem slowly building for municipal issues reporting with open API Illustration credits: Brown Bird Design and FastCompany Open Transportation Data - April 2012 33
  33. 33. Implementing Open Data Scoping and Licensing • How to promote universal access and unrestricted use yet… • Abide by local laws and statuses • Conserve a sense of control and security • Preserve valuable commercial interests Publishing • What technical functionalities and requirements? • What data formats? Available standards? Promoting • How to engage the developer community? • How to get sustainable results from an open data initiative? Open Transportation Data - April 2012 34
  34. 34. Open Data Scope Semantic Descriptions METADATA Structural Descriptions Documents & Core Dynamic Enterprise Bulk Data Data Data • Policies & Reports • Description Data • Events & • Archived Data & • State Data Notifications Statistics • Organization • Public Notices Directory DATA Content Quality Descriptions Availability and Service Quality Open Transportation Data - April 2012 35
  35. 35. Licensing Practices Public Domain No Commercial Attribution Warranties Use Unrestricted Usage Universal Access Revocable Share- Hold License Alike Harmless Redistribute Reuse Use Copyright Open Transportation Data - April 2012 36
  36. 36. Publishing Open Data to make it discoverable Open Transportation Data - April 2012 37
  37. 37. A Note on Data ProtocolsData Formats Data Exchange Markup Languages: Stateless Server: Service Description Semantic: XML, JSON, KML REST Resource Description Framework (RDF) Structured data: Message-Oriented: CSV SOAP, JMS Protocol: Unstructured data: Repository: Web Services HTML, JPG… FTP Description Language (WSDL) Open Transportation Data - April 2012 38
  38. 38. Open Leads to Interoperability: Smart Procurement Closed systems: no Open systems, different Translator providescommunication possible languages interoperability Low-hanging fruit: impose web publishing capabilities for every data of every new software system, irrespective of content / format / current need to publish Open Transportation Data - April 2012 39
  39. 39. Open Data Promotion and Resources Find Developers How To Resources Public InitiativesEvents Open Transportation Data - April 2012 40
  40. 40. Open Data for  What is Open Data?Transportation Agencies  The Case for Open Embracing Innovation in Transportation Data Information Sharing  Implementation & Challenges  Questions & Answers 41

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