Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam

Martin Jordan
Martin JordanHead of Service Design at Government Digital Service
Apps as Machines
@AppsAsMachines
@FHPotsdam
Hannes Jentsch
Martin Jordan
Hannes Jentsch
@kaffeetrinken
Martin Jordan
@Martin_Jordan
Hello
What is the
‘internet of things’?
Question
Definition
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the
interconnection of uniquely identifiable
embedded computing devices within the
existing Internet infrastructure.
“
”
— Wikipedia, Internet of Things
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things
Definition
It seems to mean everything and nothing.
Like, is it RFIDs in airports to track
luggage, combine harvesters driven by
town-wide WiMAX, or web-connected
receipt printers for the home? Too much.
“
”
— Matt Webb / @Genmon, BergCloud
http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
Which devices come
to your mind?
Question
Examples
Fuelband
Pebble
Apple Watch
Wearables
Sonos
Apple TV
Chromecast
Media
Smartthings
Belkin Wemo
Philips Hue
Home
Automation
Withings
Nest
Cloudwash
Smart
Appliances
Source: Bergcloud / ‘Four Types of IoT’
http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
e.g. SmartThings
What do they
do for us?
Question
Collaborative brain writing
ControlOrganisation
Business
Automatisation
Health
Connectivity
Unsorted
Entertainment
Collaborative brain writing
Why a
‘machine’?
Question
Expanding the definition of ‘machine’
• expanding the definition of ‘machine’:
a physical thing that does a job, that fulfills a need
(apps generally do the job of something we had before)
• something tangible, which affords us more opportunities
for engagement
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
• engagement with a broader spectrum of our senses
• which in turn engage a broader spectrum of our cognition
• which build deeper, richer memories
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
• breaking down popular apps, finding the jobs they do
• imagining those jobs being done by a ‘machine’
• capturing the experiences these ‘machines’ produce
and dwell on how we can bring more of those experience
to the Things future
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
As we start to make Apps as
Machines, what are the building
blocks of rich physical experiences
we can draw from?
Hypothesis
A physical experience offers us
so many opportunities for cognitive,
and thus, emotional engagement.
Setting
their jobs to
be done into
context
Agenda
Solving
the job by
leveraging
more human
capabilities
Pitching
your
machine
Discovering
what apps and
their services
do for us
Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
• in order to translate the apps into useful machines
we need to understand what apps & services are doing:
- car2go gets you from A to B
- a drill hammer helps you to hang a painting on the wall
- Pinterest supports you in collecting and remembering things
Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
Dropbox’s jobs-to-be-done*
— Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is
carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain
service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job.
For example: Car2Go gets you from A to B. The drill hammer helps you
to hang a painting on the wall. Pinterest supports you in collecting and
remembering things. — @ClayChristensen, http://www.christenseninstitute.org
have my documents always with me
retrieve my documents wherever I need them
secure copies of important documents
show photos to my friends & family
collaborate with my colleagues
store my memories of important moments
Definition
— @ClayChristensen, Professor for management
http://www.christenseninstitute.org/
Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that
a product or service is carrying out.
People don’t just buy products or just
want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’
them to do a job.
“
”
What is the
task of wine?
Question
Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’
https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be
How most wines are organised in wine shops
Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’
https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be
Organising the retail space around a specific job: to make dinner a little better
Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’
https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be
Organising the retail space for a second job: to look neither cheap nor foolish
Your task
Set up your group
Your task
6 jobs each3 apps 1 day1 user
Interview for Empathy
Ask why.
Never say “usually” when asking a question.
Encourage stories.
Look for inconsistencies.
Pay attention to nonverbal cues.
Don’t be afraid of silence.
Don’t suggest answers to your questions.
Ask questions neutrally.
Don’t ask binary questions.
Only ten words to a question.
Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time.
Make sure you’re prepared to capture.
A.school (2010): bootcamp bootleg
http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BootcampBootleg2010v2SLIM.pdf
APPS AS MACHINES — Your first task
Investigation JOB
YOUR USER:
Satis
Satis
Satis
Situa
Situa
Situa
over age of 55 and using a smartphone daily
grew up outside of Europe
young mother or father
under the age of 18, still going to school
flying more than 3 times per month
small business owner with a physical store
handicapped (with impact on everyday life)
NAME OF THE APP:
JOBS OF THE APP:
Satisfaction:
Satisfaction:
Satisfaction:
Situation:
Situation:
Situation:
Great
Great
Great
Just right/ok
Just right/ok
Just right/ok
Not really satisfying
Not really satisfying
Not really satisfying
— Theodore Levitt, American economist
http://hbr.org/web/special-collections/insight/marketing-that-works/
marketing-malpractice-the-cause-and-cure
People don’t want to buy
a quarter-inch drill.
They want a quarter-inch hole!
“
”
Who is your user?
Which apps is s/he using?
What are their ‘jobs’?
Tell
Outcome
Outcome
Focus
The product analysis, design and sale should focus on:
developing the product
asking what users want
matching market trends
understanding the jobs that users try to get done
Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework
http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
Focus
The product analysis, design and sale should focus on:
developing the product
asking what users want
matching market trends
understanding the jobs that users try to get done
Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework
http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
Rethink
Video shop A Video shop B Video shop C
Who’s the competitor of a video shop?
Rethink
Try to see beyond the obvious, direct competition
Concert FriendsTelevision
Rethink
What do you people like or dislike about them?
Why are they preferring other solutions over yours?
Concert Friends
Live Social
Television
Free
Rethink
Jobs remain valid over time.
What changes is the solution people use to get it done.
Entertaining
in the evening
Disrupt
Video shop Streaming
service
• use new ways of thinking to get to fresh solutions
• trick yourself, surpass your habits
• start with user needs, not product solutions
Setting
their jobs to
be done into
context
Agenda
Solving
the job by
leveraging
more human
capabilities
Pitching
your
machine
Discovering
what apps and
their services
do for us
View
We frame every design problem in a Job,
focusing on the triggering event or
situation, the motivation and goal, and
the intended outcome.
“
”
— Paul Adams, @Padday
http://blog.intercom.io/the-dribbblisation-of-design/
Rethink
The context defines what is needed to perform a job
Getting from
home to the office
Goal-directed task analysis
to investigate needs depending on situation and goals
Situation
Raining outside
Goal
Getting to
the office
Need
Getting there
in time
Need
Staying
dry
Situation
Hellish hot outside
Goal
Getting to
the office
Need
Not getting
sweaty
+ + + + +
Situation
M
onday
M
orning
Rain
Alarm
didn’t
ring
Usuallygone
atthattim
e
Carin
repair
Contextualise
The better you can define the situation,
the better you can design the solution against
When
Where
Who
How
What
season
month
weekd
ay
daytime
occasionlocation
type
category
attrib.prole/mode
social
device
motion
useract.routine
trac
facebook
c
ollec.
weather
Routinely used route
Routinely visited place
First time visit
Unknown area
Known area
…
Historical tra c around location
Congestion/incidents on route
Congestion/incidents around loc.
…
Visited by friends
Visited by me
Popular on facebook
Liked by friends
Liked by me
…
In
popular collection
In
m
yfriendscollection
In
m
ycollection…
FreezingCoolMild
Warm
Hot
Night
Day
Stormy
Snowy
Rainy
Foggy
Cloudy
Clear
Wetseason
Dryseason
Winter
Autumn
Summer
Spring
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
AugustSeptemberOctoberNovember
December
MondayTuesday
Wednesday
ThursdayFriday
Saturday
Sunday
Morning
Noon
Afternoon
Evening
Night
Sunrise
Sunset
…
At a planned appointment
Appointment scheduled in x hours
Leaving
In transit
Arriving
Early in month
Late in month (f.ex salary)
Commute
Travel
…
Outdoor
Indoor
Near POI of cat. XNear POI cluster of cat. XMoving towards X
Distance to destinationDistance to POI
…
On streetIn building
In/at venueIn park
On mountain
On water
…
Airport
Departm
ent store
Hotel
Cafe
Restaurant
ATM
Leisure
PTstation
Sight
Mall
Parkingspace
Junction
Highway
…
Pricerange
Openinghours
Availableparking
…
…
Commuter
CityDweller
Traveler
Age30-39
Age18-29
Age<18
Male
Female
…
Withanonymouscrowd
Withknownpeople
Alone
…
Roamingactive
Via3G
etc
ViaBluetooth
ViaWiFi
Desktop
Tablet
Phone
…
Ascending/descending
Trajectory/bearing/direction
DrivingWalkingStill
…
Using app since 1d/1w/1m
Calculated a route to/from
Reviewed
Shared to/byCollected
Searched for
…
Routine follow up action when x Situation
Retool
Source: HERE 2013
Reconsider
think
contexts
replace
personas
Amazon Dash
View
Often, because people are so focused on
the who and how, they totally miss the why.
When you start to understand the why,
your mind is then open to think of creative
and original ways to solve the problem.
“
”
— @AlanKlement
https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27
Rephrase
Formulate each job into a statement (or job story)
When I want to So I can
Situation Need Goal
Benefit from Job Stories
Describe a
real user’s need
in context
Validate
design
solutions
Communicate
the design task
The right machine for …
Adam
31, European traveller on
a trip through South Korea
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
Your task
7 Minutes1 Story1 App
APPS AS MACHINES — The right machine for …
31, European traveller on a trip through South Korea
JOB-TO-BE-DONE
STORY*
Adam
show photos to my friends & family
STORY*
When (situation)
I want to (need)
So that (goal)
— “Job Stories are great because it makes you think about
motivation and context and de-emphasizes adding any particular
implementation. Often, because people are so focused on the who and
how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why,
your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the
problem.” — @AlanKlement, https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27
I am on my island round trip
where I travel with a lot of stuff in a small backpack
and only unreliable connection to the Internet
I can share my photos with friends
and family.
easily pick photos I took that day and
sync them whenever connected to a WiFi
What is your main job?
What is the situation?
What are the needs?
Write
Outcome
Outcome
Setting
their jobs to
be done into
context
Agenda
Solving
the job by
leveraging
more human
capabilities
Pitching
your
machine
Discovering
what apps and
their services
do for us
View
Those digital updates have little sympathy
for any divisions of time or space we might
to impose upon our days. We may find
that we are ranking the ‘needs’ of our
machines above our own.
“
”
— @TomChatfield
http://tomchatfield.net/2012/05/09/how-to-thrive-in-the-digital-age/
Cloudwash
Input for your creation
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
Consider
• Think touch, scent, vision, sound, taste – and beyond
• How can your machine be superior to an app that does
the same job?
• How can they make use of our natural senses and
cognitive abilities?
Amazon Dash
Amazon App
Amazon Dash
• fulfills same job, yet as focused single-purpose device
• lives in the kitchen where it’s being used
• is less private than a smartphone, can be used by various people
• performs well in low-light situations due to barcode laser scanner
APPS AS MACHINES — Input for your creation
Cheat Sheet
SENSES
CHARACTERISTICS
STATES
Vision /
Sight
Material /
Texture
Motion Fast Slow Position
Size /
Amount
Full /
Empty
Smell /
Olfactation
Colour
Touch
Weight Range
Hearing /
Audition
Taste /
Gustation
Temperature /
Thermoception
Balance /
Equilibrioception
Time /
Chronoception
Constant Rising Rhythmic
Your task
4 Minutes1 Job Story 1 Question
How might we +
user
+ ?
need
+
insight
Turn your Job Story into a brief
user needinsight
Ask
How might we assist Adam who has rarely
reliable internet access to easily pick photos
and share them so that his friends and family
can take part in his adventures?
Ask
user needinsight
How might we assist Adam who has rarely
reliable internet access to easily pick photos
and share them so that his friends and family
can take part in his adventures?
Write
user + insight + need
How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet
access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends
and family can take part in his adventures?
APPS AS MACHINES — Input for your creation
How might we … ?
How might we … ?
Tell
Constraints
Avoid screens Avoid keyboards
100 × Go for quantity
Keep it short
Encourage wild ideas
Defer judgment
Build on the ideas of others
One conversation at a time
Stay on topic
Be visual
Ideate
Your task
3+ 7 Minutes2 Ideas1 Brief
Outcome
Outcome
Outcome
What are your two
concept ideas?
Report
Note
What’s good? What to improve?
Outcome
Outcome
Inspiration for your prototype
Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam
• video-prototype to make ideas and concepts graspable
• allows you to discuss concepts with stakeholders
• time constraints help to compress and summarise a concept
• food for thought:
- build an experience dummy with low-fi paper prototype
- or focus on interaction (less than on situation)
- or prototype with volume, while keeping shape simple
- or follow a storytelling approach
Your task
Low-fi paper prototype
Animated storyboards
Acting out
Video app recommendations
Vine
(6 sec)
Instagram Video
(15 sec)
Spark
(45 sec)
Example of 6-second service documentation
https://vine.co/v/br9z3x22gbw
Your task
1.5 Day1 Prototype1 Concept
Your presentation
1 Job Story 1 Advantage1 Concept
a user with a rather complex life
the need to do grocery shopping online
together with other family members.
Amazon Dash note-taking device
is directly connected to the shop
the Amazon smartphone app
Dash is easy to use with a single hand
and even while multi-tasking
Communicate
For
TARGET
CUSTOMER
CUSTOMER
NEED
CONCEPT
NAME
MARKET
CATEGORY
who has
that
Unlike
the
is a
ONE KEY
BENEFIT
COMPE-
TITION
.
.
UNIQUE
DIFFEREN-
TIATOR
APPS AS MACHINES — Acceleration tool
Elevator Pitch
Setting
their jobs to
be done into
context
Agenda
Solving
the job by
leveraging
more human
capabilities
Pitching
your
machine
Discovering
what apps and
their services
do for us
View
As technology moves into more and
more things and ultimately into humans,
we must ensure that it is enhancing the
human experience not challenging it.
“
”
— @Punchcut
http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
What is your machine?
Your show-timeShow
Outcome
Outcome
Outcome
— Brian Eno, artist
http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/7.01/eno_pr.html
Tools that endure have limited options.
These limitations become sources of
emotional meaning.
“
”
Flock
Flock
How does our perception of IoT change?
Source: @Punchcut
http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
Wrap-up
In 2020
7.6 billion
people
50 billion
devices
6.58 devices
per person
Source: Cisco, ‘Connections Counter: The Internet of Everything in Motion’
http://newsroom.cisco.com/feature-content?type=webcontent&articleId=1208342
Not more
information,
but better
information
Less smartphone
dependency,
but objects as
messengers
Focus on people,
support, protect,
empower them
Consider
How the computer sees us
Source: Physical Computing, O'Sullivan & Igoe
http://www.amazon.com/Physical-Computing-Sensing-Controlling-Computers/dp/159200346X
1995–
Internet via
stationary
computer
2005–
Internet in
the palm
2015–
Internet in all
aspects of life
Level of intimacy to user
Realise
Low High
Realise
App layer
Connected objects layer
Service layer
View
[The internet of things] will require
businesses to fundamentally
transform their approaches to be
successful in this new era.
“
”
— @Punchcut
http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
No market need
Ran out of cash
Not the right team
Get outcompeted
Pricing / cost issues
Poor marketing
Ignore customers
Products mis-timed
Lose focus
Disharmony on team 13%
14%
14%
17%
17%
18%
19%
23%
29%
42%
Top 10 reasons young businesses fail
Source: Top 10 Reasons Startups Fail, based on an analysis of 101 post-mortems
http://www.cbinsights.com
+ + + + +
Situation
M
onday
M
orning
Rain
Alarm
didn’t
ring
Usuallygone
atthattim
e
Carin
repair
Contextualise
Rethink
Competition for entertainment in the evening
Concert FriendsTelevisionVideo shop
Rephrase
Formulate each job into a statement (or job story)
When I want to So I can
Situation Need Goal
Consider
Leverage
all human
capabilities
Design for
specific
context
There are
no new
base needs
Icons:
Max Hancock
David Padrosa
Jakob Vogel
Ola Möller
Jeremy J Bristol
Siddharth Dasari
Martin Smith
Deadtype
Thanks!
Nicolas Morand
Luis Prado
Simple Icons
Luiza Peixe
Scott Lewis
Phil Goodwin
Michael Senkow
Jakob Schneider
Sherrinford
Edward Boatman
Cengiz SARI
Mister Pixel
Photos:
Nokia
Amazon
and special thanks to:
Boris Anthony (@Bopuc) for coining the title
and co-creating the original format
1 of 127

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Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam

  • 3. What is the ‘internet of things’? Question
  • 4. Definition The Internet of Things (IoT) is the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the existing Internet infrastructure. “ ” — Wikipedia, Internet of Things http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things
  • 5. Definition It seems to mean everything and nothing. Like, is it RFIDs in airports to track luggage, combine harvesters driven by town-wide WiMAX, or web-connected receipt printers for the home? Too much. “ ” — Matt Webb / @Genmon, BergCloud http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
  • 6. Which devices come to your mind? Question
  • 7. Examples Fuelband Pebble Apple Watch Wearables Sonos Apple TV Chromecast Media Smartthings Belkin Wemo Philips Hue Home Automation Withings Nest Cloudwash Smart Appliances Source: Bergcloud / ‘Four Types of IoT’ http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
  • 9. What do they do for us? Question
  • 13. Expanding the definition of ‘machine’
  • 14. • expanding the definition of ‘machine’: a physical thing that does a job, that fulfills a need (apps generally do the job of something we had before) • something tangible, which affords us more opportunities for engagement
  • 16. • engagement with a broader spectrum of our senses • which in turn engage a broader spectrum of our cognition • which build deeper, richer memories
  • 18. • breaking down popular apps, finding the jobs they do • imagining those jobs being done by a ‘machine’ • capturing the experiences these ‘machines’ produce and dwell on how we can bring more of those experience to the Things future
  • 20. As we start to make Apps as Machines, what are the building blocks of rich physical experiences we can draw from? Hypothesis A physical experience offers us so many opportunities for cognitive, and thus, emotional engagement.
  • 21. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 22. Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
  • 23. • in order to translate the apps into useful machines we need to understand what apps & services are doing: - car2go gets you from A to B - a drill hammer helps you to hang a painting on the wall - Pinterest supports you in collecting and remembering things Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
  • 25. Dropbox’s jobs-to-be-done* — Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job. For example: Car2Go gets you from A to B. The drill hammer helps you to hang a painting on the wall. Pinterest supports you in collecting and remembering things. — @ClayChristensen, http://www.christenseninstitute.org have my documents always with me retrieve my documents wherever I need them secure copies of important documents show photos to my friends & family collaborate with my colleagues store my memories of important moments
  • 26. Definition — @ClayChristensen, Professor for management http://www.christenseninstitute.org/ Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job. “ ”
  • 27. What is the task of wine? Question
  • 28. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be How most wines are organised in wine shops
  • 29. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be Organising the retail space around a specific job: to make dinner a little better
  • 30. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be Organising the retail space for a second job: to look neither cheap nor foolish
  • 31. Your task Set up your group
  • 32. Your task 6 jobs each3 apps 1 day1 user
  • 33. Interview for Empathy Ask why. Never say “usually” when asking a question. Encourage stories. Look for inconsistencies. Pay attention to nonverbal cues. Don’t be afraid of silence. Don’t suggest answers to your questions. Ask questions neutrally. Don’t ask binary questions. Only ten words to a question. Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time. Make sure you’re prepared to capture. A.school (2010): bootcamp bootleg http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BootcampBootleg2010v2SLIM.pdf
  • 34. APPS AS MACHINES — Your first task Investigation JOB YOUR USER: Satis Satis Satis Situa Situa Situa over age of 55 and using a smartphone daily grew up outside of Europe young mother or father under the age of 18, still going to school flying more than 3 times per month small business owner with a physical store handicapped (with impact on everyday life)
  • 35. NAME OF THE APP: JOBS OF THE APP: Satisfaction: Satisfaction: Satisfaction: Situation: Situation: Situation: Great Great Great Just right/ok Just right/ok Just right/ok Not really satisfying Not really satisfying Not really satisfying
  • 36. — Theodore Levitt, American economist http://hbr.org/web/special-collections/insight/marketing-that-works/ marketing-malpractice-the-cause-and-cure People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole! “ ”
  • 37. Who is your user? Which apps is s/he using? What are their ‘jobs’? Tell
  • 40. Focus The product analysis, design and sale should focus on: developing the product asking what users want matching market trends understanding the jobs that users try to get done Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
  • 41. Focus The product analysis, design and sale should focus on: developing the product asking what users want matching market trends understanding the jobs that users try to get done Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
  • 42. Rethink Video shop A Video shop B Video shop C Who’s the competitor of a video shop?
  • 43. Rethink Try to see beyond the obvious, direct competition Concert FriendsTelevision
  • 44. Rethink What do you people like or dislike about them? Why are they preferring other solutions over yours? Concert Friends Live Social Television Free
  • 45. Rethink Jobs remain valid over time. What changes is the solution people use to get it done. Entertaining in the evening
  • 47. • use new ways of thinking to get to fresh solutions • trick yourself, surpass your habits • start with user needs, not product solutions
  • 48. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 49. View We frame every design problem in a Job, focusing on the triggering event or situation, the motivation and goal, and the intended outcome. “ ” — Paul Adams, @Padday http://blog.intercom.io/the-dribbblisation-of-design/
  • 50. Rethink The context defines what is needed to perform a job Getting from home to the office
  • 51. Goal-directed task analysis to investigate needs depending on situation and goals Situation Raining outside Goal Getting to the office Need Getting there in time Need Staying dry Situation Hellish hot outside Goal Getting to the office Need Not getting sweaty
  • 52. + + + + + Situation M onday M orning Rain Alarm didn’t ring Usuallygone atthattim e Carin repair Contextualise The better you can define the situation, the better you can design the solution against
  • 53. When Where Who How What season month weekd ay daytime occasionlocation type category attrib.prole/mode social device motion useract.routine trac facebook c ollec. weather Routinely used route Routinely visited place First time visit Unknown area Known area … Historical tra c around location Congestion/incidents on route Congestion/incidents around loc. … Visited by friends Visited by me Popular on facebook Liked by friends Liked by me … In popular collection In m yfriendscollection In m ycollection… FreezingCoolMild Warm Hot Night Day Stormy Snowy Rainy Foggy Cloudy Clear Wetseason Dryseason Winter Autumn Summer Spring January February March April May June July AugustSeptemberOctoberNovember December MondayTuesday Wednesday ThursdayFriday Saturday Sunday Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Night Sunrise Sunset … At a planned appointment Appointment scheduled in x hours Leaving In transit Arriving Early in month Late in month (f.ex salary) Commute Travel … Outdoor Indoor Near POI of cat. XNear POI cluster of cat. XMoving towards X Distance to destinationDistance to POI … On streetIn building In/at venueIn park On mountain On water … Airport Departm ent store Hotel Cafe Restaurant ATM Leisure PTstation Sight Mall Parkingspace Junction Highway … Pricerange Openinghours Availableparking … … Commuter CityDweller Traveler Age30-39 Age18-29 Age<18 Male Female … Withanonymouscrowd Withknownpeople Alone … Roamingactive Via3G etc ViaBluetooth ViaWiFi Desktop Tablet Phone … Ascending/descending Trajectory/bearing/direction DrivingWalkingStill … Using app since 1d/1w/1m Calculated a route to/from Reviewed Shared to/byCollected Searched for … Routine follow up action when x Situation Retool Source: HERE 2013
  • 56. View Often, because people are so focused on the who and how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why, your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the problem. “ ” — @AlanKlement https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27
  • 57. Rephrase Formulate each job into a statement (or job story) When I want to So I can Situation Need Goal
  • 58. Benefit from Job Stories Describe a real user’s need in context Validate design solutions Communicate the design task
  • 59. The right machine for … Adam 31, European traveller on a trip through South Korea
  • 61. Your task 7 Minutes1 Story1 App
  • 62. APPS AS MACHINES — The right machine for … 31, European traveller on a trip through South Korea JOB-TO-BE-DONE STORY* Adam show photos to my friends & family
  • 63. STORY* When (situation) I want to (need) So that (goal) — “Job Stories are great because it makes you think about motivation and context and de-emphasizes adding any particular implementation. Often, because people are so focused on the who and how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why, your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the problem.” — @AlanKlement, https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27 I am on my island round trip where I travel with a lot of stuff in a small backpack and only unreliable connection to the Internet I can share my photos with friends and family. easily pick photos I took that day and sync them whenever connected to a WiFi
  • 64. What is your main job? What is the situation? What are the needs? Write
  • 67. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 68. View Those digital updates have little sympathy for any divisions of time or space we might to impose upon our days. We may find that we are ranking the ‘needs’ of our machines above our own. “ ” — @TomChatfield http://tomchatfield.net/2012/05/09/how-to-thrive-in-the-digital-age/
  • 70. Input for your creation
  • 72. Consider • Think touch, scent, vision, sound, taste – and beyond • How can your machine be superior to an app that does the same job? • How can they make use of our natural senses and cognitive abilities?
  • 76. • fulfills same job, yet as focused single-purpose device • lives in the kitchen where it’s being used • is less private than a smartphone, can be used by various people • performs well in low-light situations due to barcode laser scanner
  • 77. APPS AS MACHINES — Input for your creation Cheat Sheet SENSES CHARACTERISTICS STATES Vision / Sight Material / Texture Motion Fast Slow Position Size / Amount Full / Empty Smell / Olfactation Colour Touch Weight Range Hearing / Audition Taste / Gustation Temperature / Thermoception Balance / Equilibrioception Time / Chronoception Constant Rising Rhythmic
  • 78. Your task 4 Minutes1 Job Story 1 Question
  • 79. How might we + user + ? need + insight Turn your Job Story into a brief
  • 80. user needinsight Ask How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends and family can take part in his adventures?
  • 81. Ask user needinsight How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends and family can take part in his adventures?
  • 82. Write user + insight + need How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends and family can take part in his adventures? APPS AS MACHINES — Input for your creation How might we … ?
  • 83. How might we … ? Tell
  • 85. 100 × Go for quantity Keep it short Encourage wild ideas Defer judgment Build on the ideas of others One conversation at a time Stay on topic Be visual Ideate
  • 86. Your task 3+ 7 Minutes2 Ideas1 Brief
  • 90. What are your two concept ideas? Report
  • 94. Inspiration for your prototype
  • 96. • video-prototype to make ideas and concepts graspable • allows you to discuss concepts with stakeholders • time constraints help to compress and summarise a concept • food for thought: - build an experience dummy with low-fi paper prototype - or focus on interaction (less than on situation) - or prototype with volume, while keeping shape simple - or follow a storytelling approach Your task
  • 100. Video app recommendations Vine (6 sec) Instagram Video (15 sec) Spark (45 sec)
  • 101. Example of 6-second service documentation https://vine.co/v/br9z3x22gbw
  • 102. Your task 1.5 Day1 Prototype1 Concept
  • 103. Your presentation 1 Job Story 1 Advantage1 Concept
  • 104. a user with a rather complex life the need to do grocery shopping online together with other family members. Amazon Dash note-taking device is directly connected to the shop the Amazon smartphone app Dash is easy to use with a single hand and even while multi-tasking Communicate For TARGET CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NEED CONCEPT NAME MARKET CATEGORY who has that Unlike the is a ONE KEY BENEFIT COMPE- TITION . . UNIQUE DIFFEREN- TIATOR APPS AS MACHINES — Acceleration tool Elevator Pitch
  • 105. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 106. View As technology moves into more and more things and ultimately into humans, we must ensure that it is enhancing the human experience not challenging it. “ ” — @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  • 107. What is your machine? Your show-timeShow
  • 111. — Brian Eno, artist http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/7.01/eno_pr.html Tools that endure have limited options. These limitations become sources of emotional meaning. “ ”
  • 112. Flock
  • 113. Flock
  • 114. How does our perception of IoT change? Source: @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  • 116. In 2020 7.6 billion people 50 billion devices 6.58 devices per person Source: Cisco, ‘Connections Counter: The Internet of Everything in Motion’ http://newsroom.cisco.com/feature-content?type=webcontent&articleId=1208342
  • 117. Not more information, but better information Less smartphone dependency, but objects as messengers Focus on people, support, protect, empower them Consider
  • 118. How the computer sees us Source: Physical Computing, O'Sullivan & Igoe http://www.amazon.com/Physical-Computing-Sensing-Controlling-Computers/dp/159200346X
  • 119. 1995– Internet via stationary computer 2005– Internet in the palm 2015– Internet in all aspects of life Level of intimacy to user Realise Low High
  • 120. Realise App layer Connected objects layer Service layer
  • 121. View [The internet of things] will require businesses to fundamentally transform their approaches to be successful in this new era. “ ” — @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  • 122. No market need Ran out of cash Not the right team Get outcompeted Pricing / cost issues Poor marketing Ignore customers Products mis-timed Lose focus Disharmony on team 13% 14% 14% 17% 17% 18% 19% 23% 29% 42% Top 10 reasons young businesses fail Source: Top 10 Reasons Startups Fail, based on an analysis of 101 post-mortems http://www.cbinsights.com
  • 123. + + + + + Situation M onday M orning Rain Alarm didn’t ring Usuallygone atthattim e Carin repair Contextualise
  • 124. Rethink Competition for entertainment in the evening Concert FriendsTelevisionVideo shop
  • 125. Rephrase Formulate each job into a statement (or job story) When I want to So I can Situation Need Goal
  • 127. Icons: Max Hancock David Padrosa Jakob Vogel Ola Möller Jeremy J Bristol Siddharth Dasari Martin Smith Deadtype Thanks! Nicolas Morand Luis Prado Simple Icons Luiza Peixe Scott Lewis Phil Goodwin Michael Senkow Jakob Schneider Sherrinford Edward Boatman Cengiz SARI Mister Pixel Photos: Nokia Amazon and special thanks to: Boris Anthony (@Bopuc) for coining the title and co-creating the original format