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Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam

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What if your favourite apps turned into little machines? What makes physical objects more emotionally engaging than apps? How do we connect to them through our natural senses and cognitive abilities?

Together with 13 student we broke down some of our favourite apps to their elementals and re-imagined them as physical machines. We examined aspects of experience which can bring us closer to the services we use everyday.

How? With a few short hands-on exercises, we explored the jobs-to-be-done behind popular apps. Quick prototypes and scenarios of how these might exist as machines helped us to uncover what a new design field of the future looks like.

Taught by Hannes Jentsch and Martin Jordan at University of Applied Sciences Potsdam, Germany in October 2014.

Published in: Devices & Hardware
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Apps as Machines — at FH Potsdam

  1. 1. Apps as Machines @AppsAsMachines @FHPotsdam Hannes Jentsch Martin Jordan
  2. 2. Hannes Jentsch @kaffeetrinken Martin Jordan @Martin_Jordan Hello
  3. 3. What is the ‘internet of things’? Question
  4. 4. Definition The Internet of Things (IoT) is the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the existing Internet infrastructure. “ ” — Wikipedia, Internet of Things http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things
  5. 5. Definition It seems to mean everything and nothing. Like, is it RFIDs in airports to track luggage, combine harvesters driven by town-wide WiMAX, or web-connected receipt printers for the home? Too much. “ ” — Matt Webb / @Genmon, BergCloud http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
  6. 6. Which devices come to your mind? Question
  7. 7. Examples Fuelband Pebble Apple Watch Wearables Sonos Apple TV Chromecast Media Smartthings Belkin Wemo Philips Hue Home Automation Withings Nest Cloudwash Smart Appliances Source: Bergcloud / ‘Four Types of IoT’ http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
  8. 8. e.g. SmartThings
  9. 9. What do they do for us? Question
  10. 10. Collaborative brain writing
  11. 11. ControlOrganisation Business Automatisation Health Connectivity Unsorted Entertainment Collaborative brain writing
  12. 12. Why a ‘machine’? Question
  13. 13. Expanding the definition of ‘machine’
  14. 14. • expanding the definition of ‘machine’: a physical thing that does a job, that fulfills a need (apps generally do the job of something we had before) • something tangible, which affords us more opportunities for engagement
  15. 15. • engagement with a broader spectrum of our senses • which in turn engage a broader spectrum of our cognition • which build deeper, richer memories
  16. 16. • breaking down popular apps, finding the jobs they do • imagining those jobs being done by a ‘machine’ • capturing the experiences these ‘machines’ produce and dwell on how we can bring more of those experience to the Things future
  17. 17. As we start to make Apps as Machines, what are the building blocks of rich physical experiences we can draw from? Hypothesis A physical experience offers us so many opportunities for cognitive, and thus, emotional engagement.
  18. 18. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  19. 19. Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
  20. 20. • in order to translate the apps into useful machines we need to understand what apps & services are doing: - car2go gets you from A to B - a drill hammer helps you to hang a painting on the wall - Pinterest supports you in collecting and remembering things Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
  21. 21. Dropbox’s jobs-to-be-done* — Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job. For example: Car2Go gets you from A to B. The drill hammer helps you to hang a painting on the wall. Pinterest supports you in collecting and remembering things. — @ClayChristensen, http://www.christenseninstitute.org have my documents always with me retrieve my documents wherever I need them secure copies of important documents show photos to my friends & family collaborate with my colleagues store my memories of important moments
  22. 22. Definition — @ClayChristensen, Professor for management http://www.christenseninstitute.org/ Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job. “ ”
  23. 23. What is the task of wine? Question
  24. 24. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be How most wines are organised in wine shops
  25. 25. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be Organising the retail space around a specific job: to make dinner a little better
  26. 26. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be Organising the retail space for a second job: to look neither cheap nor foolish
  27. 27. Your task Set up your group
  28. 28. Your task 6 jobs each3 apps 1 day1 user
  29. 29. Interview for Empathy Ask why. Never say “usually” when asking a question. Encourage stories. Look for inconsistencies. Pay attention to nonverbal cues. Don’t be afraid of silence. Don’t suggest answers to your questions. Ask questions neutrally. Don’t ask binary questions. Only ten words to a question. Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time. Make sure you’re prepared to capture. A.school (2010): bootcamp bootleg http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BootcampBootleg2010v2SLIM.pdf
  30. 30. APPS AS MACHINES — Your first task Investigation JOB YOUR USER: Satis Satis Satis Situa Situa Situa over age of 55 and using a smartphone daily grew up outside of Europe young mother or father under the age of 18, still going to school flying more than 3 times per month small business owner with a physical store handicapped (with impact on everyday life)
  31. 31. NAME OF THE APP: JOBS OF THE APP: Satisfaction: Satisfaction: Satisfaction: Situation: Situation: Situation: Great Great Great Just right/ok Just right/ok Just right/ok Not really satisfying Not really satisfying Not really satisfying
  32. 32. — Theodore Levitt, American economist http://hbr.org/web/special-collections/insight/marketing-that-works/ marketing-malpractice-the-cause-and-cure People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole! “ ”
  33. 33. Who is your user? Which apps is s/he using? What are their ‘jobs’? Tell
  34. 34. Outcome
  35. 35. Outcome
  36. 36. Focus The product analysis, design and sale should focus on: developing the product asking what users want matching market trends understanding the jobs that users try to get done Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
  37. 37. Focus The product analysis, design and sale should focus on: developing the product asking what users want matching market trends understanding the jobs that users try to get done Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
  38. 38. Rethink Video shop A Video shop B Video shop C Who’s the competitor of a video shop?
  39. 39. Rethink Try to see beyond the obvious, direct competition Concert FriendsTelevision
  40. 40. Rethink What do you people like or dislike about them? Why are they preferring other solutions over yours? Concert Friends Live Social Television Free
  41. 41. Rethink Jobs remain valid over time. What changes is the solution people use to get it done. Entertaining in the evening
  42. 42. Disrupt Video shop Streaming service
  43. 43. • use new ways of thinking to get to fresh solutions • trick yourself, surpass your habits • start with user needs, not product solutions
  44. 44. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  45. 45. View We frame every design problem in a Job, focusing on the triggering event or situation, the motivation and goal, and the intended outcome. “ ” — Paul Adams, @Padday http://blog.intercom.io/the-dribbblisation-of-design/
  46. 46. Rethink The context defines what is needed to perform a job Getting from home to the office
  47. 47. Goal-directed task analysis to investigate needs depending on situation and goals Situation Raining outside Goal Getting to the office Need Getting there in time Need Staying dry Situation Hellish hot outside Goal Getting to the office Need Not getting sweaty
  48. 48. + + + + + Situation M onday M orning Rain Alarm didn’t ring Usuallygone atthattim e Carin repair Contextualise The better you can define the situation, the better you can design the solution against
  49. 49. When Where Who How What season month weekd ay daytime occasionlocation type category attrib.prole/mode social device motion useract.routine trac facebook c ollec. weather Routinely used route Routinely visited place First time visit Unknown area Known area … Historical tra c around location Congestion/incidents on route Congestion/incidents around loc. … Visited by friends Visited by me Popular on facebook Liked by friends Liked by me … In popular collection In m yfriendscollection In m ycollection… FreezingCoolMild Warm Hot Night Day Stormy Snowy Rainy Foggy Cloudy Clear Wetseason Dryseason Winter Autumn Summer Spring January February March April May June July AugustSeptemberOctoberNovember December MondayTuesday Wednesday ThursdayFriday Saturday Sunday Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Night Sunrise Sunset … At a planned appointment Appointment scheduled in x hours Leaving In transit Arriving Early in month Late in month (f.ex salary) Commute Travel … Outdoor Indoor Near POI of cat. XNear POI cluster of cat. XMoving towards X Distance to destinationDistance to POI … On streetIn building In/at venueIn park On mountain On water … Airport Departm ent store Hotel Cafe Restaurant ATM Leisure PTstation Sight Mall Parkingspace Junction Highway … Pricerange Openinghours Availableparking … … Commuter CityDweller Traveler Age30-39 Age18-29 Age<18 Male Female … Withanonymouscrowd Withknownpeople Alone … Roamingactive Via3G etc ViaBluetooth ViaWiFi Desktop Tablet Phone … Ascending/descending Trajectory/bearing/direction DrivingWalkingStill … Using app since 1d/1w/1m Calculated a route to/from Reviewed Shared to/byCollected Searched for … Routine follow up action when x Situation Retool Source: HERE 2013
  50. 50. Reconsider think contexts replace personas
  51. 51. Amazon Dash
  52. 52. View Often, because people are so focused on the who and how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why, your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the problem. “ ” — @AlanKlement https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27
  53. 53. Rephrase Formulate each job into a statement (or job story) When I want to So I can Situation Need Goal
  54. 54. Benefit from Job Stories Describe a real user’s need in context Validate design solutions Communicate the design task
  55. 55. The right machine for … Adam 31, European traveller on a trip through South Korea
  56. 56. Your task 7 Minutes1 Story1 App
  57. 57. APPS AS MACHINES — The right machine for … 31, European traveller on a trip through South Korea JOB-TO-BE-DONE STORY* Adam show photos to my friends & family
  58. 58. STORY* When (situation) I want to (need) So that (goal) — “Job Stories are great because it makes you think about motivation and context and de-emphasizes adding any particular implementation. Often, because people are so focused on the who and how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why, your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the problem.” — @AlanKlement, https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27 I am on my island round trip where I travel with a lot of stuff in a small backpack and only unreliable connection to the Internet I can share my photos with friends and family. easily pick photos I took that day and sync them whenever connected to a WiFi
  59. 59. What is your main job? What is the situation? What are the needs? Write
  60. 60. Outcome
  61. 61. Outcome
  62. 62. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  63. 63. View Those digital updates have little sympathy for any divisions of time or space we might to impose upon our days. We may find that we are ranking the ‘needs’ of our machines above our own. “ ” — @TomChatfield http://tomchatfield.net/2012/05/09/how-to-thrive-in-the-digital-age/
  64. 64. Cloudwash
  65. 65. Input for your creation
  66. 66. Consider • Think touch, scent, vision, sound, taste – and beyond • How can your machine be superior to an app that does the same job? • How can they make use of our natural senses and cognitive abilities?
  67. 67. Amazon Dash
  68. 68. Amazon App
  69. 69. Amazon Dash
  70. 70. • fulfills same job, yet as focused single-purpose device • lives in the kitchen where it’s being used • is less private than a smartphone, can be used by various people • performs well in low-light situations due to barcode laser scanner
  71. 71. APPS AS MACHINES — Input for your creation Cheat Sheet SENSES CHARACTERISTICS STATES Vision / Sight Material / Texture Motion Fast Slow Position Size / Amount Full / Empty Smell / Olfactation Colour Touch Weight Range Hearing / Audition Taste / Gustation Temperature / Thermoception Balance / Equilibrioception Time / Chronoception Constant Rising Rhythmic
  72. 72. Your task 4 Minutes1 Job Story 1 Question
  73. 73. How might we + user + ? need + insight Turn your Job Story into a brief
  74. 74. user needinsight Ask How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends and family can take part in his adventures?
  75. 75. Ask user needinsight How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends and family can take part in his adventures?
  76. 76. Write user + insight + need How might we assist Adam who has rarely reliable internet access to easily pick photos and share them so that his friends and family can take part in his adventures? APPS AS MACHINES — Input for your creation How might we … ?
  77. 77. How might we … ? Tell
  78. 78. Constraints Avoid screens Avoid keyboards
  79. 79. 100 × Go for quantity Keep it short Encourage wild ideas Defer judgment Build on the ideas of others One conversation at a time Stay on topic Be visual Ideate
  80. 80. Your task 3+ 7 Minutes2 Ideas1 Brief
  81. 81. Outcome
  82. 82. Outcome
  83. 83. Outcome
  84. 84. What are your two concept ideas? Report
  85. 85. Note What’s good? What to improve?
  86. 86. Outcome
  87. 87. Outcome
  88. 88. Inspiration for your prototype
  89. 89. • video-prototype to make ideas and concepts graspable • allows you to discuss concepts with stakeholders • time constraints help to compress and summarise a concept • food for thought: - build an experience dummy with low-fi paper prototype - or focus on interaction (less than on situation) - or prototype with volume, while keeping shape simple - or follow a storytelling approach Your task
  90. 90. Low-fi paper prototype
  91. 91. Animated storyboards
  92. 92. Acting out
  93. 93. Video app recommendations Vine (6 sec) Instagram Video (15 sec) Spark (45 sec)
  94. 94. Example of 6-second service documentation https://vine.co/v/br9z3x22gbw
  95. 95. Your task 1.5 Day1 Prototype1 Concept
  96. 96. Your presentation 1 Job Story 1 Advantage1 Concept
  97. 97. a user with a rather complex life the need to do grocery shopping online together with other family members. Amazon Dash note-taking device is directly connected to the shop the Amazon smartphone app Dash is easy to use with a single hand and even while multi-tasking Communicate For TARGET CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NEED CONCEPT NAME MARKET CATEGORY who has that Unlike the is a ONE KEY BENEFIT COMPE- TITION . . UNIQUE DIFFEREN- TIATOR APPS AS MACHINES — Acceleration tool Elevator Pitch
  98. 98. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  99. 99. View As technology moves into more and more things and ultimately into humans, we must ensure that it is enhancing the human experience not challenging it. “ ” — @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  100. 100. What is your machine? Your show-timeShow
  101. 101. Outcome
  102. 102. Outcome
  103. 103. Outcome
  104. 104. — Brian Eno, artist http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/7.01/eno_pr.html Tools that endure have limited options. These limitations become sources of emotional meaning. “ ”
  105. 105. Flock
  106. 106. Flock
  107. 107. How does our perception of IoT change? Source: @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  108. 108. Wrap-up
  109. 109. In 2020 7.6 billion people 50 billion devices 6.58 devices per person Source: Cisco, ‘Connections Counter: The Internet of Everything in Motion’ http://newsroom.cisco.com/feature-content?type=webcontent&articleId=1208342
  110. 110. Not more information, but better information Less smartphone dependency, but objects as messengers Focus on people, support, protect, empower them Consider
  111. 111. How the computer sees us Source: Physical Computing, O'Sullivan & Igoe http://www.amazon.com/Physical-Computing-Sensing-Controlling-Computers/dp/159200346X
  112. 112. 1995– Internet via stationary computer 2005– Internet in the palm 2015– Internet in all aspects of life Level of intimacy to user Realise Low High
  113. 113. Realise App layer Connected objects layer Service layer
  114. 114. View [The internet of things] will require businesses to fundamentally transform their approaches to be successful in this new era. “ ” — @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  115. 115. No market need Ran out of cash Not the right team Get outcompeted Pricing / cost issues Poor marketing Ignore customers Products mis-timed Lose focus Disharmony on team 13% 14% 14% 17% 17% 18% 19% 23% 29% 42% Top 10 reasons young businesses fail Source: Top 10 Reasons Startups Fail, based on an analysis of 101 post-mortems http://www.cbinsights.com
  116. 116. + + + + + Situation M onday M orning Rain Alarm didn’t ring Usuallygone atthattim e Carin repair Contextualise
  117. 117. Rethink Competition for entertainment in the evening Concert FriendsTelevisionVideo shop
  118. 118. Rephrase Formulate each job into a statement (or job story) When I want to So I can Situation Need Goal
  119. 119. Consider Leverage all human capabilities Design for specific context There are no new base needs
  120. 120. Icons: Max Hancock David Padrosa Jakob Vogel Ola Möller Jeremy J Bristol Siddharth Dasari Martin Smith Deadtype Thanks! Nicolas Morand Luis Prado Simple Icons Luiza Peixe Scott Lewis Phil Goodwin Michael Senkow Jakob Schneider Sherrinford Edward Boatman Cengiz SARI Mister Pixel Photos: Nokia Amazon and special thanks to: Boris Anthony (@Bopuc) for coining the title and co-creating the original format

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