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Apps as Machines — at Hochschule Darmstadt

Martin Jordan
Martin Jordan
Martin JordanHead of Service Design at Government Digital Service

What if your favourite apps turned into little machines? What makes physical objects more emotionally engaging than apps? How do we connect to them through our natural senses and cognitive abilities? Together with 20 students we broke down some of our favourite apps to their elementals and re-imagined them as physical machines. We examined aspects of experience which can bring us closer to the services we use every day. How? With a few short hands-on exercises, we explored the jobs-to-be-done behind popular apps. Quick prototypes and scenarios of how these might exist as machines helped us to uncover what a new design field of the future looks like. Taught by Hannes Jentsch and Martin Jordan at Hochschule Darmstadt, Germany in May 2016.

Apps as Machines — at Hochschule Darmstadt

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— Scott A. Nelson & Paul Metaxatos / HBR
https://hbr.org/2016/04/the-internet-of-things-needs-design-not-just-technology
IoT connectivity can enhance a product’s
value, but it can never serve as the
rationale for the customer purchase.
“
”
Apps as Machines
@AppsAsMachines
@H_DA
Hannes Jentsch
Martin Jordan
Hello
Who are you?
Why are you here?
Background: Product, Innovation, Design
Hannes Jentsch
Design & Innovation Consultant,
Freelance
@Kaffeetrinken
Background: Service, Innovation, Design
Martin Jordan

Lead Service Designer,
Government Digital Service
@Martin_Jordan
Cabinet Office
Government Digital Service
What happened so far
Ad

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Apps as Machines — at Hochschule Darmstadt

  • 1. — Scott A. Nelson & Paul Metaxatos / HBR https://hbr.org/2016/04/the-internet-of-things-needs-design-not-just-technology IoT connectivity can enhance a product’s value, but it can never serve as the rationale for the customer purchase. “ ”
  • 3. Hello Who are you? Why are you here?
  • 4. Background: Product, Innovation, Design Hannes Jentsch Design & Innovation Consultant, Freelance @Kaffeetrinken
  • 5. Background: Service, Innovation, Design Martin Jordan
 Lead Service Designer, Government Digital Service @Martin_Jordan Cabinet Office Government Digital Service
  • 10. Terms & conditions 2 days, 12 hours ½ home work 100% attendance & contribution
  • 11. Approach connected device projects from a user-need angle Learning goals Leverage human capabilities when designing for IoT Crafting meaningful and relevant new offerings
  • 12. What is the ‘internet of things’? Question
  • 13. Definition The Internet of Things (IoT) is the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the existing Internet infrastructure. “ ” — Wikipedia, Internet of Things http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things
  • 14. Definition It seems to mean everything and nothing. Like, is it RFIDs in airports to track luggage, combine harvesters driven by town-wide WiMAX, or web-connected receipt printers for the home? Too much. “ ” — Matt Webb / @Genmon, BergCloud http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
  • 15. Which devices come to your mind? Question
  • 16. Examples FitBit Pebble Apple Watch Wearables Sonos Apple TV Chromecast Media Smartthings Belkin Wemo Philips Hue Home Automation Withings Nest Cloudwash Smart Appliances Source: Bergcloud / ‘Four Types of IoT’ http://blog.bergcloud.com/2014/04/02/four-types-of-iot/
  • 19. What do they do for us? Question
  • 20. Expanding the definition of ‘machine’
  • 24. As we start to make Apps as Machines, what are the building blocks of rich physical experiences we can draw from? Hypothesis A physical experience offers us
 so many opportunities for cognitive, and thus, emotional engagement.
  • 26. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 27. Uncovering what Dropbox does for us …
  • 29. Dropbox’s jobs-to-be-done* — Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job. For example: Car2Go gets you from A to B. The drill hammer helps you to hang a painting on the wall. Pinterest supports you in collecting and remembering things. — @ClayChristensen, http://www.christenseninstitute.org have my documents always with me retrieve my documents wherever I need them secure copies of important documents show photos to my friends & family collaborate with my colleagues store my memories of important moments
  • 30. Definition — @ClayChristensen, Professor for management http://www.christenseninstitute.org/ Jobs-to-be-done describe the tasks that a product or service is carrying out. People don’t just buy products or just want to use a certain service. They ‘hire’ them to do a job. “ ”
  • 31. What is the task of wine? Question
  • 32. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be How most wines are organised in wine shops
  • 33. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be Organising the retail space around a specific job: to make dinner a little better
  • 34. Source: Laurence Veale / ‘The jobs wine is hired for’ https://medium.com/@laurenceveale/the-jobs-wine-is-hired-for-272a929ea8be Organising the retail space for a second job: to look neither cheap nor foolish
  • 35. Your task Set up your group
  • 36. Your task 6 jobs each3 apps1 user 2 hours
  • 37. Interview for Empathy Ask why. Never say “usually” when asking a question. Encourage stories. Look for inconsistencies. Pay attention to nonverbal cues. Don’t be afraid of silence. Don’t suggest answers to your questions. Ask questions neutrally. Don’t ask binary questions. Only ten words to a question. Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time. Make sure you’re prepared to capture. A.school (2010): bootcamp bootleg http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BootcampBootleg2010v2SLIM.pdf
  • 38. APPS AS MACHINES — Your first task Investigation YOUR USER: over age of 60 and using a smartphone daily grew up outside of Europe young mother or father under the age of 18, still going to school flying more than 3 times per month small business owner with a physical store handicapped (with impact on everyday life)
  • 39. NAME OF THE APP: JOBS OF THE APP: Satisfaction: Satisfaction: Satisfaction: Situation: Situation: Situation: Great Great Great Just right/ok Just right/ok Just right/ok Not really satisfying Not really satisfying Not really satisfying
  • 40. All clear? Ready to go? Check-in
  • 41. — Theodore Levitt, American economist http://hbr.org/web/special-collections/insight/marketing-that-works/
 marketing-malpractice-the-cause-and-cure People don’t want to buy a quarter-inch drill. They want a quarter-inch hole! “ ”
  • 42. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 43. Who is your user? Which apps is s/he using? What are their ‘jobs’? Tell
  • 44. Focus The product analysis, design and sale should focus on: developing the product asking what users want matching market trends understanding the jobs that users try to get done Source: Clement Génin, Jobs-to-be-done – A goal-driven solution framework http://www.slideshare.net/ClementGenin/jobstobedone
  • 47. Getting to appointment in time Taking a taxi Source: Pexels Point of View
  • 48. Rewarding for a tough day at work Getting dinner delivered Source: Pexels Point of View
  • 49. Emotional / personal jobs Functional jobs Social jobs Resource: Silverstein, D., Samuel, P. (2012): The Innovator's Toolkit. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Kinds of jobs
  • 50. Compact Disc Jobs are solution-agnostic and remain valid over long time Spotify Streaming Vinyl record Private concert iTunes MP3 THEN NOW Job of listening to music
  • 51. Jobs of the milkshake by Clayton Christensen Jobs of Snickers vs. Milkyway by Bob Moesta Source: http://hbr.org/web/special-collections/insight/marketing-that-works/marketing-malpractice-the-cause-and-cure Origin story
  • 52. Milkshake
 Job: consume something now that will stave off hunger until noon VS Snickers Banana Bagel Consideration Set
  • 53. Framework for developing & communicating products and services Set of tools and methods for almost every part
 of the service development process Mindset for understanding human behaviour, and why people switch from one offering to another Perspective Jobs-to-be-Done is …
  • 54. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 55. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 56. View We frame every design problem in a Job, focusing on the triggering event or situation, the motivation and goal, and the intended outcome. “ ” — @AlanKlement http://alanklement.blogspot.de/2013/09/replacing-user-story-with-job-story.html
  • 57. Rethink The context defines what is needed to perform a job Getting from A to B in the city
  • 58. Jobs vs solution Local public transport “Get me to my destination during rush hour with a predictable time of arrival.”
  • 59. Jobs vs solution Taxi & uber “Get me to the airport in the very early morning, but allow me to sleep as long as possible and save me time.”
  • 60. Jobs vs solution car2go & Drive Now “Get me to my destination during an off-peak time of the day when I have something to carry that’s too uncomfortable for public transport. Or when I want to upgrade myself.”
  • 61. Jobs vs solution Flinkster & CiteeCar “Get me out of the city with my family over the weekend.”
  • 62. Jobs vs solution Call a Bike & Next Bike “Get me to work on a beautiful day when there is little time pressure.”
  • 63. Jobs vs solution eMio “Get me and my partner to the brunch date with friends quickly.”
  • 64. + + + + + Situation M onday M orning Rain Alarm didn’t ring Usuallygone atthattim e Carin repair Contextualise
  • 65. When Where Who How What season month weekd ay daytime occasionlocation type category attrib.profile/mode social device motion useract.routine traffic facebook c ollec. weather Routinely used route Routinely visited place First time visit Unknown area Known area … Historical traffic around location Congestion/incidents on route Congestion/incidents around loc. … Visited by friends Visited by me Popular on facebook Liked by friends Liked by me … In popular collection In m yfriendscollection In m ycollection… FreezingCoolMild Warm Hot Night Day Stormy Snowy Rainy Foggy Cloudy Clear Wetseason Dryseason Winter Autumn Summer Spring January February March April May June July AugustSeptemberOctoberNovember December MondayTuesday Wednesday ThursdayFriday Saturday Sunday Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Night Sunrise Sunset … At a planned appointment Appointment scheduled in x hours Leaving In transit Arriving Early in month Late in month (f.ex salary) Commute Travel … Outdoor Indoor Near POI of cat. XNear POI cluster of cat. XMoving towards X Distance to destinationDistance to POI … On streetIn building In/at venueIn park On mountain On water … Airport Departm ent store Hotel Cafe Restaurant ATM Leisure PTstation Sight Mall Parkingspace Junction Highway … Pricerange Openinghours Availableparking … … Commuter CityDweller Traveler Age30-39 Age18-29 Age<18 Male Female … Withanonymouscrowd Withknownpeople Alone … Roamingactive Via3G etc ViaBluetooth ViaWiFi Desktop Tablet Phone … Ascending/descending Trajectory/bearing/direction DrivingWalkingStill … Using app since 1d/1w/1m Calculated a route to/from Reviewed Shared to/byCollected Searched for … Routine follow up action when x Situation Consider
  • 68. Rephrase Formulate each job into a statement (or job story) When I want to So I can Situation Need Goal
  • 69. Benefit Describe a real user’s need in context Validate design solutions Communicate the design task
  • 70. View Often, because people are so focused on the who and how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why, your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the problem. “ ” — @AlanKlement https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27
  • 71. The right machine for … Adam 31, German moving to South Korea
  • 73. APPS AS MACHINES — The right machine for … JOB-TO-BE-DONE STORY* Adam When (situation) 31, German moving to South Korea have personal documents always at hand
  • 74. STORY* When (situation) I want to (need) So that (goal) — “Job Stories are great because it makes you think about motivation and context and de-emphasizes adding any particular implementation. Often, because people are so focused on the who and how, they totally miss the why. When you start to understand the why, your mind is then open to think of creative and original ways to solve the problem.” — @AlanKlement, https://medium.com/the-job-to-be-done/af7cdee10c27 I move to another country and need to register there with banks and authorities I can identify myself without having to carry unique originals with me. have easy access to my most important documents
  • 75. What is your main job?
 What is the situation?
 What are the needs? Write
  • 76. Your task 30 Minutes2 Stories1 App
  • 77. How went your job story writing? Tell
  • 78. Pitfalls & tips Don’t include solutions
 into stories. Don’t formulate stories
 too general. Don’t include more than
 one context and goal. Write it like in the 70s –
 avoid mentioning tech. If you struggle in writing,
 do further research! Think in struggles
 rather than outcomes. Don’t Do
  • 79. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 80. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 81. View Those digital updates have little sympathy for any divisions of time or space we might to impose upon our days. We may find that we are ranking the ‘needs’ of our machines above our own. “ ” — @TomChatfield http://tomchatfield.net/2012/05/09/how-to-thrive-in-the-digital-age/
  • 83. Input for your creation
  • 86. Your task 4 Minutes1 Job Story 1 Question
  • 87. How might we + user + ? need + insight Ask
  • 88. user needinsight Ask How might we assist Adam who is moving to South Korea to have his most important personal documents with him so that he can identify himself without needing his unique originals?
  • 89. Ask user needinsight How might we assist Adam who is moving to South Korea to have his most important personal documents with him so that he can identify himself without needing his unique originals?
  • 90. Write user + insight + need APPS AS MACHINES How might we assist Adam who is moving to South Korea to have his most important personal documents with him so that he can identify himself without needing his unique originals? — Input for your creation How might we … ?
  • 91. How might we … ? Tell
  • 94. Example: Amazon Source: Amazon Amazon App Amazon Dash Amazon Dash Button Amazon Watch App Amazon Echo
  • 95. 100 × Go for quantity Keep it short Encourage wild ideas Defer judgment Build on the ideas of others One conversation at a time Stay on topic Be visual Ideate
  • 96. Your task 3+7 Minutes99 Ideas1 Brief
  • 97. 10 Minutes1 Idea 2 Concept Your task
  • 98. What are your two fav concept ideas? Report
  • 103. View As technology moves into more and more things and ultimately into humans, we must ensure that it is enhancing the human experience not challenging it. “ ” — @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  • 105. Why prototype Collaborate by doing, not talking Show the thing, communicate with evidence Learn with your hands
  • 106. Inspiration for your prototype
  • 111. Video app recommendations Snapchat (10 sec) Instagram Video (15 sec) Spark (45 sec)
  • 113. Your task 90 Minutes1 Prototype1 Concept
  • 114. Your presentation 1 HMW 1 Advantage1 Concept
  • 115. What is your machine? Your show-timeShow
  • 116. Note What’s good? What to improve?
  • 117. a user with a rather complex life the need to do grocery shopping online together with other family members. Amazon Dash note-taking device is directly connected to the shop the Amazon smartphone app Dash is easy to use with a single hand and even while multi-tasking Communicate For TARGET CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NEED CONCEPT NAME MARKET CATEGORY who has that Unlike the is a ONE KEY BENEFIT COMPE- TITION . . UNIQUE DIFFEREN- TIATOR APPS AS MACHINES — Acceleration tool Elevator Pitch
  • 118. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 119. Setting their jobs to be done into context Agenda Solving the job by leveraging more human capabilities Pitching your machine Discovering what apps and their services do for us
  • 120. What is your machine? Your show-timeShow
  • 123. In 2020 7.6 billion people 50 billion devices 6.58 devices per person Source: Cisco, ‘Connections Counter: The Internet of Everything in Motion’ http://newsroom.cisco.com/feature-content?type=webcontent&articleId=1208342
  • 124. Not more information, but better information Less smartphone dependency, but objects as messengers Focus on people, support, protect, empower them Consider
  • 125. How the computer sees us Source: Physical Computing, O'Sullivan & Igoe http://www.amazon.com/Physical-Computing-Sensing-Controlling-Computers/dp/159200346X
  • 126. — Brian Eno, artist http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/7.01/eno_pr.html Tools that endure have limited options. These limitations become sources of emotional meaning. “ ”
  • 127. 1995– Internet via stationary computer 2005– Internet in the palm 2015– Internet in all aspects of life Level of intimacy to user Realise Low High
  • 128. Realise App layer Connected objects layer Service layer
  • 129. View [The internet of things] will require businesses to fundamentally transform their approaches to be successful in this new era. “ ” — @Punchcut http://punchcut.com/perspectives/connecting-the-internet-of-things/
  • 130. No market need Ran out of cash Not the right team Get outcompeted Pricing / cost issues Poor marketing Ignore customers Products mis-timed Lose focus Disharmony on team 13% 14% 14% 17% 17% 18% 19% 23% 29% 42% Top 10 reasons young businesses fail Source: Top 10 Reasons Startups Fail, based on an analysis of 101 post-mortems http://www.cbinsights.com
  • 133. Question What if your connected thing is being hacked? How can you make sure you harm its users the least?
  • 134. Consider Credit card hacks (e.g. Target) Services & servers hacked (e.g. Sony, Playstation) Unprotected cameras (e.g. insecam.org)
  • 135. View Minimal Viable Data – What is the least amount of data you can collect to create a good product and experience? “ ” — @GoldenKrishna https://twitter.com/Martin_Jordan/status/667336477349650432
  • 143. Two last things Documentation Publish your video project with sheets until Sunday, 15 May Feedback Tell us what you liked, you wished, you learnt
  • 144. Credits Icons: Max Hancock David Padrosa Jakob Vogel Ola Möller
 Jeremy J Bristol Siddharth Dasari Martin Smith Deadtype Photos: Nokia Amazon Thanks! Nicolas Morand Luis Prado Simple Icons
 Luiza Peixe
 Scott Lewis Phil Goodwin Michael Senkow Jakob Schneider Sherrinford Edward Boatman Cengiz SARI Mister Pixel