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What is in your vape?! CannMed 2019 Presentation

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The current research on cannabis smoking and vaping. How much THC is inhaled, which compounds are formed through heating and combustion, and how is this research done.

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What is in your vape?! CannMed 2019 Presentation

  1. 1. Collaborative Research into Cannabis Delivery Techniques and Fundamental Product Makeup Dr. Markus Roggen
  2. 2. Fundamental Collaboration • Current Vaping • GRAS • THC Inhalation Methods • Puff by Puff Inhalation • Thermal Degradants • Risk Factors
  3. 3. Current Vaping • 380 confirmed and probable cases • 36 US states, one territory effected • 6 deaths • Symptoms: cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and vomiting • This is a new indication, not a previously misdiagnosed one
  4. 4. Current Vaping • 380 confirmed and probable cases • 36 US states, one territory effected • 6 deaths • Symptoms: cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and vomiting • This is a new indication, not a previously misdiagnosed one Pulmonary Illness Related to E-Cigarette Use in Illinois and Wisconsin — Preliminary Report; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1911614
  5. 5. Current Vaping • No single cause identified yet • Mostly from the illicit market, one death from Oregon dispensary • Some reoccurring compounds: Vitamin E acetate, MCT oil, propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin (all GRAS) Vit. E Acetate PGVGDiacetyl MCT
  6. 6. GRAS GRAS: Generally Recognized As Safe FDA: “the use of a food substance may be GRAS either through scientific procedures or, for a substance used in food before 1958, through experience based on common use in food Under 21 CFR 170.30(b), general recognition of safety through scientific procedures requires the same quantity and quality of scientific evidence as is required to obtain approval of the substance as a food additive.”
  7. 7. GRAS Current number of GRAS compounds: 859 Used to be GRAS: trans fat GRAS but not good to inhale: sea water Not GRAS: butane https://www.fda.gov/food/generally-recognized-safe-gras/gras-notice-inventory
  8. 8. THC Inhalation Methods • Maximum available THC/CBD tested • Cannabis Joints and Dabs studied M. Hädener et. al., Forensic Science International 295 (2019) 207–212
  9. 9. THC Inhalation Methods • THCA/CBDA are fully decarboxylated • Smoke temperature: 44˚C (111˚F) M. Hädener et. al., Forensic Science International 295 (2019) 207–212
  10. 10. THC Inhalation Methods • Smoking: ≤27% THC recovery • Dabbing: 75.5% THC recovery M. Hädener et. al., Forensic Science International 295 (2019) 207–212
  11. 11. Puff by Puff Inhalation R. Zimmermann, S. Ehlert, J. Heide, A. Walte; Universität Rostock, photonion • Puff by puff concentrations are dependent on consumption method
  12. 12. Puff by Puff Inhalation R. Zimmermann, S. Ehlert, J. Heide, A. Walte; Universität Rostock, photonion • Puff by puff concentrations are dependent on consumption method • Puff by puff analysis of spliffs shows THC, CBN and nicotine in smoke
  13. 13. Thermal Degradation R. Paul Jensen et. al., Scientific Reports 7, # 42549 (2017)
  14. 14. Thermal Degradation • ATD-GCMS • identified and quantified gaseous degradants • target analytes and a non-target analysis J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega in press
  15. 15. Thermal Degradation C4 – C5 C6 – C7 C8 – C10 O O O O + J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega in press
  16. 16. Puff by Puff Inhalation R. Zimmermann, S. Ehlert, J. Heide, A. Walte; Universität Rostock, photonion
  17. 17. Thermal Degradation • Cannabinoids and terpenes have similar degradation mechanisms • More terpenes = more VOCs J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega in press Group 1 Carcinogen Group 3 Carcinogen Group 2B Carcinogen Group 2A Carcinogen Group 2B Carcinogen
  18. 18. Thermal Degradation • Dabbing produces higher levels of degradants • Increased voltage on vape cartridges = more degradants Component THC dab SND dab Vape 3.2 V Vape 4.0 V Vape 4.8 V Methacrolein, g 2.7  0.8 12  0.82 5.6 E-3 3.2 E-2 1.9 E-1 Benzene, ng 33  14 360  120 9.9 E-1 2.7 E+0 3.6 E+1 Isoprene, g 9.6  1.7 44  3.5 3.0 E-2 8.3 E-1 6.0 E+0 Other Alkenes, g 5.3  0.7 21  11 4.2 E-2 7.2 E-1 7.9 E+0 Total VOCs, g 2.0 E+01 7.7 E+01 9.4 E-2 1.5 E+0 1.2 E+1 J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega in press
  19. 19. Risk Factors Quantitative risk assessment to interpret data • QRA treatment may be applied to literature values for smoking • Caution when interpreting data: 1) Machine smoking does not represent realistic use 2) Despite the presence of carcinogens in cannabis smoke, long-term data does not support carcinogenicity J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega in press
  20. 20. Risk Factors • HI: Quantitative risk assessment for non-cancer effects • ELCR: Quantitative risk assessment for cancer effects J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega in press Consumption type HI ELCR Smoking flower 2 E+2 4 E-4 Dabbing distillate 2 E-1 2 E-7 Vaping distillate @ 4.8 V 4 E-2 2 E-7 Vaping distillate @ 4.0 V 6 E-3 2 E-8 Vaping distillate @ 3.2 V 8 E-4 2 E-9
  21. 21. Other Potential Compounds • Synthetic Cannabinoids
  22. 22. Limitation • Most research done on reference standards • Limited access to real-world products • Little understanding of real-life usage • No collaboration between actors
  23. 23. Fundamental Collaboration CBDV collaborates with academic, industry and private groups around the globe. Some highlights of those collaborations are: • University of British Columbia, Vancouver • Loyalist College, Belleville • Vialpando, LLC by Dr. Monica Vialpando • Veridient Science by Dr. Linda Klumpers • Fritsch Milling • PerkinElmer
  24. 24. Complex Biotech Discovery Ventures CBDV is a young research venture that seeks to add fundamental scientific insight to the field of cannabis production. We seek to support the cannabis industry by establishing a centralized hub in Vancouver, BC for collaborative research focused on: • Process Design • Process Optimization • Process Analytics • Formulation Research
  25. 25. Unknown unknowns CBDV’s Metabolite Database
  26. 26. Unknown unknowns CBDV’s Metabolite Database • 24 compound categories • 762 compounds
  27. 27. Unknown unknowns CBDV’s Metabolite Database • 24 compound categories • 762 compounds • 75 cannabinoids • 416 terpenes
  28. 28. Thank You Thanks go to our collaborators: • Prof. Dr. Robert M. Strongin, Portland State University • Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Portland State University (jiries2@pdx.edu) • Prof. Dr. Ralf Zimmerman, Universität Rostock • Dr. Monica Vialpando, Vialpando LLC • Dr. Linda Klumpers, Veridient Science
  29. 29. FOUNDERS Dr. Markus Roggen Dr. Roggen received his Masters in Science degree from Imperial College, London, UK in 2008, and his PhD in Organic Chemistry at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ), which he received in 2012. He was awarded a DAAD postdoctoral fellowship to pursue further training in physical organic chemistry at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla from 2013-2014. He then entered the cannabis industry, at first as laboratory director for Davinci Laboratories of California, an analytical laboratory from 2014 to 2016. In 2016 he moved into an executive position overseeing production, R&D and process optimization for OutCo, a cannabis manufacturer. Dr. Markus Roggen is also a trusted advisor and mentor for multiple startups, startup accelerators and organizations. Positions include advisory positions at Bloom Automation, a cannabis robotics company, Redfield Proctor, a waste management company, and former co-chair of the NCIA Scientific Advisory Committee. Prof Dr. Glenn Sammis Prof Sammis is an Associate Professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of British Columbia. He has built an internationally recognized research group working on the development of novel synthetic methods for the preparation of natural products and pharmaceuticals. Prof. Sammis received a B.Sc. in Chemistry with Honors and Distinction from Stanford University in 1999. He then went to work with Prof. Eric Jacobsen at Harvard University as an NSF Predoctoral fellow, obtaining a PhD in Chemistry in 2004, followed by a two-year NIH postdoctoral fellowship with Prof. Erik Sorensen at Princeton University.
  30. 30. CBDV TEAM Luiz Geraldo – VP Finance Currently pursuing his MBA, Luiz is an Industrial Engineer and has 5 years of experience in strategy and operations consulting and strategic planning. Gursaanj Singh Bajaj – Data Science Associate Gursaanj is an Astrophysics major in the department of Physics and Astronomy at UBC, with a background in data analysis. He will be going into his 4th year of his undergraduate degree. Kendra Payne – VP Business Operations Experienced Program Manager/Coordinator and Senior Administrator with a demonstrated history of working in the education management and biotechnology industries. Skilled in Biotechnology, Project Coordination and Life Sciences. Callum MacPhee – Business Associate Callum is a going into his fourth year at the University of British Columbia and is pursuing a Bachelor of Commerce. Sajni Shah – Research Associate Currently studying Chemical Biology in the Department of Chemistry at UBC. She is going into her final year of her undergraduate studies. Klara Wyse – Marketing Associate Klara is a Media Studies and Urban Studies student at UBC, going into their fourth year.
  31. 31. Dr. Markus Roggen markus@cbdvl.com

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