Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

MJBiz Con: Leading Issues in Hemp Science

109 views

Published on

As a previously banned crop, there is now a race to relearn hemp farming. Attendees will learn about the plant itself along with research on different processing steps and the effects that those steps have on product makeup, particularly THC concentration.

Published in: Science
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

MJBiz Con: Leading Issues in Hemp Science

  1. 1. Leading Issues in Hemp Science Dr. Markus Roggen Founder & CEO Complex Biotech Discovery Ventures, Ltd.
  2. 2. Abstract • Hemp vs. Cannabis: Genetics vs. Regulations vs. Economics • Hemp Processing: • The hemp plant • Extraction • Decarboxylation • Distillation • Chromatography • Crystallization
  3. 3. Hemp vs. Cannabis: Genetics • Genetic difference between hemp and drug type cannabis • Hemp and cannabis are not different species, as they can interbreed • No indication about 0.3% THCA level, yet! • No genetic base for legal limit of 0.3% THCA • (No genetic difference between Sativa and Indica) Dr. Kevin McKernan
  4. 4. Hemp vs. Cannabis: Regulations • FDA enforces: • Medical claims • THC levels • Levels are arbitrary: • USA: 0.3% • South Carolina: 0.5% • Switzerland: 1% • Sale of >0.3% is illegal, but B2B still happens Allison Justice, PhD & Chris Cortina
  5. 5. Hemp vs. Cannabis: Economics • Consumer price, CBD: ~$100/g • B2B price, CBD: as low as $3/g • Massive overproduction of CBD hemp • Bottleneck in remediation Allison Justice, PhD & Chris Cortina
  6. 6. Hemp Plant • 24 compound categories • >700 known compounds • >100 cannabinoids • > 400 terpenes Hemp Flower CBDA THCA Other Cannabinoids Terpenes Others
  7. 7. Extraction: Solubility polarnon-polar Hydrocarbon SFE EtOH H2O
  8. 8. Extraction: Solubility Hydrocarbon SFE EtOH H2O Terpenes Neutral Canna- binoids Acid Canna- binoids polarnon-polar
  9. 9. Extraction: Solvents • Supercritical CO2 Hemp Flower Hemp Extract >0.3% THC
  10. 10. Extraction: Solvents • Supercritical CO2 • Alcohols: EtOH, iPrOH Hemp Flower Hemp Extract >0.3% THC
  11. 11. Extraction: Solvents • Supercritical CO2 • Alcohols: EtOH, iPrOH • Hydrocarbons: butane, propane Hemp Flower Hemp Extract >0.3% THC
  12. 12. Extraction: CO2 Precision • Neutral cannabinoids are more soluble than acid form • THC > THCA • CBD more soluble than THC
  13. 13. Post-Processing: Decarboxylation • Converting acid cannabinoid into neutral form • CBDA reacts slower than THCA
  14. 14. dc Extract Post-Processing: Decarboxylation • Converting acid cannabinoid into neutral form • CBDA reacts slower than THCA Crude Extract CBDA THCA CBDA CBDTHC
  15. 15. Post-Processing: Decarboxylation 1T-S1 1C-S1 BotView THCA CDBA TopView Work with UBC
  16. 16. Post-Processing: Decarboxylation kJ/mol 0 50 100 150 200 0 2 4 61T 1C 1C-S1(MeOH) 1C-TS2(MeOH) 1T-TS2(MeOH) Work with UBC
  17. 17. Post-Processing: Decarboxylation • Rate determining step is the intermolecular protonation • Rate difference is due to steric rather than electronic effects 1C-TS2(MeOH) Work with UBC
  18. 18. Post-Processing: Decarboxylation • In-process analytics • Infrared spectroscopy is a useful tool for reaction monitoring. BG62-64 T0 Name Sample 023 By Administrator Date Thursday, July 12 2018 Description 1750 8001600 1400 1200 1000 0.23 -0.01 -0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 cm-1 A _ Start THCA 20.87 % End THCA 1.56 % Work with PerkinElmer
  19. 19. Post-Processing: Decarboxylation • Monitoring THCA in-process 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 THCA(%) Elapsed Time (Minutes) Work with PerkinElmer
  20. 20. Post-Processing: Distillation • Boiling Points: • THC: approx. 425°C @ 1 atm • CBD: approx. 380°C @ 1 atm • Terpenes: ~ 105 – 250°C @ 1 atm • Ethanol: 78°C @ 1 atm • Preventing Degradation & Improving Separation: • Stable vacuum • Short heating time
  21. 21. Post-Processing: Distillation • Short Path Extract Distillate >0.3% THC Degradation
  22. 22. Post-Processing: Distillation • Short Path • Wiped Film Extract Distillate >0.3% THC
  23. 23. Post-Processing: Distillation • Short Path • Wiped Film • Industrial
  24. 24. Post-Processing: Chromatography Industry Standpoint: • For enriched or pure CBD • Remediates high THC levels • Remediates impurities • For ‘full spectrum – THC-free’ oil
  25. 25. Post-Processing: Chromatography • Separation of mixtures • Mobile and stationary phase • Compounds are separated due to different partition coefficients
  26. 26. Post-Processing: Chromatography • Semi-Prep Distillate Chromato. <0.3% THC
  27. 27. Post-Processing: Chromatography • Semi-Prep • Preparatory Distillate Chromato. <0.3% THC
  28. 28. Post-Processing: Chromatography • Semi-Prep • Preparatory • CPC Extract Chromato. <0.3% THC
  29. 29. Post-Processing: Chromatography • Semi-Prep >3kg/month • Preparatory ~3,000kg/month • CPC 500kg/month
  30. 30. Post-Processing: Crystallization Industry Standpoint: • For pure CBD (isolate) • Remediates high THC levels • Remediates impurities • Recrystallized from petroleum ether or pentane (commonly) • But… Crystal
  31. 31. Post-Processing: Crystallization • The process of solidifying atoms or molecules into highly organized structures
  32. 32. Post-Processing: Crystallization
  33. 33. Post-Processing: Crystallization 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Concentration(g/mL) Temperature (C) Meta stable zone width for CBD in petroleum ether Sol. T (pure) MSZT (pure)
  34. 34. 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Concentration(g/mL) Temperature (C) Meta stable zone width for CBD in petroleum ether Sol. T (pure) MSZT (pure) Sol. T (curde) MSZT (crude) Post-Processing: Crystallization
  35. 35. Post-Processing: Crystallization
  36. 36. Thank You! Dr. Markus Roggen Founder & CEO Complex Biotech Discovery Ventures, Ltd. markus@cbdvl.com cbdvl.com

×