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Don’t hold your breath: Smoke and vaping studies on cannabis products to quantify “quality”

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Dr. Markus Roggen
Don’t hold your breath:
Smoke and vaping studies on cannabis
products to quantify “quality”
Dr. Markus R...

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Introduction
Delic Labs
Delic Labs was CBDV, a research venture that seeks to add fundamental
scientific insight to the fi...

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Collaborative Research
Delic Labs collaborates with academic, industry and private groups around
the globe. Some highlight...

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Don’t hold your breath: Smoke and vaping studies on cannabis products to quantify “quality”

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Delic Labs' research into cannabis smoking and vaping. We investigated the question of how much and at what point are THC and terpenes inhaled from Joints and Vape Cartridges.

Delic Labs' research into cannabis smoking and vaping. We investigated the question of how much and at what point are THC and terpenes inhaled from Joints and Vape Cartridges.

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Don’t hold your breath: Smoke and vaping studies on cannabis products to quantify “quality”

  1. 1. Dr. Markus Roggen Don’t hold your breath: Smoke and vaping studies on cannabis products to quantify “quality” Dr. Markus Roggen President & CSO
  2. 2. Introduction Delic Labs Delic Labs was CBDV, a research venture that seeks to add fundamental scientific insight to the field of cannabis and mushroom production. We seek to support the cannabis and mushroom industries by establishing a centralized hub in Vancouver, BC, for collaborative research focused on: • Process Design • Process Optimization • Process Analytics • Formulation Research
  3. 3. Collaborative Research Delic Labs collaborates with academic, industry and private groups around the globe. Some highlights of those collaborations are: • University of British Columbia, Vancouver • Loyalist College, Belleville • Via Innovations by Dr. Monica Vialpando • Veridient Science by Dr. Linda Klumpers Fundamental Collaboration
  4. 4. Research Topics • Chemometrics and data analytics for process control and optimization • Kinetic studies to understand mechanisms • In-process analytics for process control • Computational studies to understand mechanisms • Process development, like crystallization Fundamental Cannabis and Mushroom Chemistry
  5. 5. Fundamental Collaboration Collaborative Research Delic Labs collaborates with academic, industry and private groups around the globe. Some highlights of those collaborations are: • YOU!!!!! • THC isomer binding • reach out: markus@deliclabs.com
  6. 6. Abstract • Current Vaping • GRAS • THC Inhalation Methods • Thermal Degradants • Risk Factors • Puff by Puff Inhalation • Quality of Start vs. Roach
  7. 7. Current Vaping
  8. 8. Current Vaping: EVALI crisis of 2019 • 2602 confirmed cases • All 50 US states, • 59 deaths • Symptoms: cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and vomiting • This is a new indication, not a previously misdiagnosed one • e-cigarette, or vaping product use-associated lung injury Pulmonary Illness Related to E-Cigarette Use in Illinois and Wisconsin — Preliminary Report; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1911614
  9. 9. Current Vaping • No single cause identified yet • Mostly from the illicit market, one death from Oregon dispensary • Some reoccurring compounds: Vitamin E acetate, MCT oil, propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin (all GRAS) O O O OH OH OH OH HO Vit. E Acetate PG VG O O O O O O O O Diacetyl MCT
  10. 10. Inhalation Methods • Studied Cannabis Vapes and Joints • Collected toxicants via pad and impinger • Collected cannabinoids on pad • Collected terpenes on impinger • Collection of puffs at the start, middle and end of life cycle
  11. 11. Inhalation Methods • Cambustion Smoke Cycle Simulator • Health Canada 2014 method • 55 cc for 3 seconds
  12. 12. Inhalation Methods • Filter pads for aerosols, e.g. cannabinoids • Whatman glass fiber filter
  13. 13. Inhalation Methods • Impinger for volatiles, e.g. terpenes • MeOH in ice bath
  14. 14. Inhalation Methods • Smoke temperature: 44˚C (111˚F) (literature) • THC b.p.: 157˚C at 0.05mmHg • Myrcene b.p.: 167˚C at 1 atm • Humulene b.p.: b.p.: 106˚C at 5 mmHg
  15. 15. Inhalation Methods • Smoke temperature: 44˚C (111˚F) (literature) • Decarboxylation in Joints: FULL! • Toxicants: We found a few!
  16. 16. Thermal Degradation • GC-qMS • LC-qTOF • identified and quantified gaseous degradants by GC • Non-target analysis by high-res LC J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega 2019, 4, 14, 16111–16120
  17. 17. Thermal Degradation • Cannabinoids and terpenes have similar degradation mechanisms • More terpenes = more VOCs Group 1 Carcinogen Group 3 Carcinogen Group 2B Carcinogen Group 2A Carcinogen Group 2B Carcinogen J. Meehan-Atrash et. al., ACS Omega 2019, 4, 14, 16111–16120
  18. 18. Puff by Puff Inhalation: Cigarettes R. Zimmermann, S. Ehlert, J. Heide, A. Walte; Universität Rostock, photonion • Puff by puff concentrations are dependent on consumption method
  19. 19. Real World Smoking and Vaping Insights • We on average could only vape 66% of advertised oil weight Category HCA001 HCA002 HCA003 HCA004 HCA005 HCA006 HCA007 Claimed Oil Weight 1.0g 0.5g 0.5g 0.5g 0.4g 0.5g 0.5g Max. Weight Loss 738mg 352mg 298mg 368mg 250mg 319mg 300mg Avg. Pad Weight 16mg 12mg 7mg 13mg 8mg 9mg 12mg Max. #Puffs 305 267 447 504 297 363 207
  20. 20. Real World Smoking and Vaping Insights • We on average could only vape 66% of advertised oil weight Category HCA001 HCA002 HCA003 HCA004 HCA005 HCA006 HCA007 Claimed Oil Weight 1000mg 500mg 500mg 500mg 400mg 500mg 500mg Max. Weight Loss 738mg 352mg 298mg 368mg 250mg 319mg 300mg Avg. Pad Weight 16mg 12mg 7mg 13mg 8mg 9mg 12mg Max. #Puffs 305 267 447 504 297 363 207
  21. 21. Real World: Vaping THC Inhalation • Avg. of 1 mg THC per puff • THC levels tend downwards through life cycle • There are differences between vape products 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1 2 3 Δ9-THC (MG) VAPE THC LEVELS Start Middle End
  22. 22. Real World: Smoking THC Inhalation 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1 2 3 Δ9-THC (MG) JOINT THC LEVELS Start Middle End • Avg. of 1 mg THC per puff • THC levels tend upwards through life cycle • There are differences between cultivars
  23. 23. Real World: Smoking Terpene Inhalation • Avg. of 0.07 mg THC per puff • Terpene levels tend downwards through life cycle • Mono & Sesquiterpenes behave different
  24. 24. Limitation • Most research in the literature is done on reference standards • Limited access to real-world products • Little understanding of real-life usage • No collaboration between actors • Delic Labs is at the beginning of this research • We are looking for academic and industry partners to better understand smoke and vape behavior
  25. 25. Thank You Thanks go to our collaborators: • Prof. Dr. Robert M. Strongin, Portland State University • Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Portland State University • Prof. Dr. Ralf Zimmerman, Universität Rostock • Dr. Monica Vialpando, Vialpando LLC • Dr. Linda Klumpers, Veridient Science
  26. 26. Expertise CSO: Dr. Markus Roggen Dr. Roggen has been actively involved in the cannabis industry for over 5 years in executive positions overseeing production, R&D and process optimization for multiple producers. Dr. Roggen is also a trusted advisor and mentor for multiple startups, startup accelerators and organizations. DELIC Labs Team Our team covers a wide range of expertise, including analytical chemistry, process chemistry, engineering physics, data science and statistics. Scientific Advisor: Prof. Glenn Sammis Prof. Sammis is a Full Professor in the Chemistry Department at the University of British Columbia. He has built an internationally recognized research group working on the development of novel synthetic methods for the preparation of natural products and pharmaceuticals.
  27. 27. Dr. Markus Roggen markus@cbdvl.com Delic Labs Inc. Vancouver, Canada Deliclabs.com markus@deliclabs.com +1 (858) 281 8696

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